I see two pages of posts. I cannot imagine that they prevent you from choosing audio Outputs as a system wide thing it could vary from hardware model to hardware model. In order for a Windows Computer to do Surround sound it would seem you would need to have the ability to select more than just a single stereo bus output. The option reads like you can under proper circumstances or with certain hardware Select other Output options.
Bad Mister, It would be really helpful if you could post some screenshots of what it looks like to set this up on a Mac. That could help me figure out the equivalent thing on a PC. The "Finder" is the Mac icon the face icon denotes "Play alerts and sound effects through this device". The "Speaker" icon is the symbol for outgoing audio signal.
Windows is similar. The outputs are not labeled like on Mac. See: The problem is how, without a DAW or more advanced audio routing, it's difficult to tell Windows's applications to output sound to channels There's a quick way to rectify this -- which you may not "like" -- but it's quick and requires no software downloading or too fancy fiddling.
This shoved audio into the Digital Inputs on Montage so I could record using the audio performance recorder. Here's a picture: Obviously, using this "mono" feature kills stereo separation. Ease of use doesn't come without some "minor" costs. Although you could stand on one foot and hold your nose to "fix" this -- a more "friendly" approach would be to allow these digital channels to have a routing matrix on Montage, analogous to the type of routing matrix many would enjoy for the MIDI channel assignments to PARTs on MIDI input.
First, if you set windows to Mono mode, undo that first. For the outputs far right there are two sliders. The right-most is for virtual output. The next one over to the left is the Montage control which controls the level of the PC send to the Montage. Just to the left of this slider is the "Stereo Repeat" button you should click. Note that this audio mixer is much deeper than what I've outlined. There is also support for routing MIDI over the net. Also note that this mixer defaults audio to bit Here's a picture of what you get: Note you should be able to do something similar with a DAW.
I installed this on a PC that I did not have a DAW installed -- so I didn't run through the equivalent steps of setting up Cubase, as an example, to accomplish the same thing. Cubase without this mixer will allow for you to do something similar - and with more control over the individual channels Montage inputs I installed Voicemeeter and set it up the way you suggested.
So I set it up a different way and got it to work. I was a little queasy about putting Voicemeeter between the Yamaha driver and my Montage, but everything seemed to work OK. I have no idea why it works one way for you and another way for me.
But at least it works. Thanks so much for pointing me in the direction of Voicemeeter. Glad something worked. VoiceMeeter was the only thing, thus far, I found to do this in stereo. Windows alone can do this in Mono mode - but you lose spatial separation. And again, Cubase should be able to handle this with proper settings. My DAW machine is in transition, so I can't run through that. EDIT: I see what the difference is. In this configuration, Montage will attach to Windows using standard drivers.
The sound properties look different too. In both cases, VoiceMeeter needs to be the default Audio Output device. When VoiceMeeter is installed - this is set by default which is why I didn't call it out. I've installed the Yamaha Steinberg USB driver and can confirm that selecting the ASIO driver as you've outlined is required to get the 6-channel output from PC to Montage to "engage" - and the rest of the instructions apply.
When I saw this initial post, it seemed that recording the track seemed so close yet so far. Keeping for rainy day when I want to Jam with and record with the Tubes. How fun. I looked around a lot in Cubase Pro 9. I was surprised. I also had thought it would be possible in the DAW without Voicemeeter.
Apparently that thought was incorrect. Going the other way publishing a stream to the web , I stumbled on some mixer app streaming on the xbox where some players and DAW artists where noodling and working with DAWs live. So I tried that using both Cubase and a standalong visualizer as a "game" to broadcast a stream. It works pretty much out of the box, but I did notice that one guy was streaming with super high fidelity, vs the ok lower fidelity my stream was generating.
We set out to systematically and directly examine the behavioral implications of moving the return electrode by examining the effect of tACS on physiological tremor. This builds on earlier work that has shown that pathological  and physiological tremor  ,  provide a robust behavioral correlate of how tACS can modify oscillatory synchrony within the motor system.
We adopted a sham-controlled experimental protocol where the stimulating electrode remained fixed overlying primary motor cortex, whilst the position of the return electrode varied between four positions, two cephalic and two extracephalic. Our experimental design also took into account the known differential effects of these electrode montages to generate phosphenes the visual perception of flickering light that might have otherwise confounded any observed entrainment effect.
The study was performed on 12 healthy volunteers 9 males; mean age 26 years, range 19—36 years , all of whom provided informed written consent. All participants were right-handed. They were asked to refrain from ingesting any products with caffeine both during, and in the hour prior to, the study. The effect of rhythmic transcranial stimulation of the motor system on physiological postural tremor was studied using sham-controlled transcranial alternating current stimulation tACS.
Since the stimulation frequency was not forced to align with the ongoing tremor frequency, slow drifts in phase-alignment resulted between stimulation and tremor waveforms. Accordingly, this technique permits the online evaluation of phase stability entrainment and amplitude modulation as a function of the phase-alignment between the rhythmic tremor and stimulation signals  ,  ,  ,  , .
To address the principal question of whether the position of the return electrode significantly influences the effect of stimulation, we kept the primary stimulation site constant left primary motor cortex, M1 , whilst the return electrode was rotated between four possibilities: two cephalic positions — fronto-orbital FO and contralateral right primary motor cortex cM1 — and two extracephalic positions — right and left shoulder RSh and LSh, respectively; Fig.
These locations reflect the most common arrangements used by the tES motor community, and have been chosen to offer a broad range of expected current flow patterns. In particular, the cephalic positions have traditionally dominated motor tES studies, offering distinct current density distributions e.
Experimental design depicting schematic illustrations of the tACS electrode montages and exemplar hand position adopted for recording of physiological postural tremor via accelerometry. The primary stimulating electrode was placed over left primary motor cortex, M1, along with four return electrode positions: fronto-orbital, FO; contralateral M1, cM1; left shoulder, LSh; and right shoulder, RSh.
To distinguish the effects of stimulation from the widely reported retino-cortical phenomenon of stimulation-induced phosphenes, and demonstrate that this visual perception may not be uniform across different electrode montages  ,  ,  , external photic stimulation was recruited into the experimental design. This was used both as a reference against which participants would rate the intensity of their perceived tACS-induced phosphenes, and in the assessment of the direct effects of flicker-induced modulation on the entrainment and amplitude of tremor.
Participants were seated in a comfortable chair with arm rests in a well-lit room and wore earplugs throughout the experiment to abate any auditory clicks associated with photic stimulation. They were instructed to rest their right forearm on the arm-rest and extend their unsupported wrist with their fingers splayed Fig.
Such a posture provoked an often visible postural physiological tremor. Once a comfortable position was attained, circular guides, consisting of coiled copper wires, were aligned to the tips of the participant's index, middle, little finger and thumb, so as to constrain the position of the hand and improve reproducibility of the posture between experimental blocks. Participants practised moving their fingers in and out of this posture until they were satisfied that they could easily resume a consistent position.
They were asked to maintain vigilance with their eyes open and directed at their splayed fingers to maintain their position. There were two cycles of six randomly interleaved experimental blocks. Each cycle consisted of four transcranial stimulation conditions primary motor cortex stimulation with varying return electrode positions: FO, cM1, LSh, RSh , one sham condition and one photic stimulation condition.
Accordingly, participants were presented with each condition twice, and the sham condition was therefore embedded twice at different points in the experimental paradigm. These two sham blocks did not differ see Results section and were averaged to provide a baseline. Participants were asked to report if they were experiencing fatigue, at which point longer rest periods were introduced, as necessary.
The orientation of the accelerometer was fixed across participants, with the z -axis traversing the plane of maximal tremor amplitude perpendicular to the ground. Stimulation was carried out in accordance with current safety guidelines  , . Single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered via a Magstim stimulator Magstim, Dyfed, UK using a figure-of-eight coil applied to the scalp overlying left M1 to locate the motor hotspot that consistently evoked contralateral middle finger movement .
This spot approximately corresponds with position C3 of the international 10—20 system of electrode placement  , . The stimulation electrode was centered over the left motor hotspot to overlie M1. FO — over the right supraorbital region to overlie Fp2 of the international 10—20 system of electrode placement  ;. LSh — over the left shoulder  ,  , specifically the superior fibers of the trapezius muscle, and.
RSh — over the right shoulder  , mirroring the left shoulder position. The cephalic i-ii and extracephalic iii-iv electrodes were secured in place using Velcro straps and hypoallergenic dressing tape, respectively, at the beginning of the study, such that all electrodes remained in situ throughout the experiment. The frequency of the sinusoidal stimulation waveform was matched to each participant's peak tremor frequency to the nearest 0.
By recording the potential difference across this resistor, a direct measure of current flow was attained. The flash input energy was set to 0. Since the participants were instructed to remain vigilant of their hand position throughout the experiment, the flashes were perceived as being in the peripheral field of their vision. This signal was recorded using a custom-built photodiode passed through the Dual Channel Isolation Amplifier before being recorded on the channel Porti7 amplifier.
Maximal tremor frequency was determined from the first principal component of the tri-axial accelerometer signal. Principal component analysis ensures that the plane of maximal tremor power is considered, accounting for any minor variations in the placement of the accelerometer or orientation of the hand between participants. Instantaneous phase and amplitude information were extracted from the filtered accelerometer first principal component and tACS waveforms via the Hilbert transformation .
Analytical approach. A Exemplar filtered data of the first principal component of the tri-axial accelerometer tremor recording, tACS waveform, and computed phase-difference between the two signals. B Normalized amplitude and entrainment likelihood phase-difference histograms normalized as probability distributions, and corresponding angle histogram polar plots showing predominant phase preference PSI vector colored in red.
Phase stability entrainment is shown by the presence of a peak in the likelihood distribution. C Exemplar phase stability profile for a single participant for the RSh montage. Comparing the peak entrainment in the stimulation condition blue line with sham green line; see Material and Methods section as a percentage change in phase stability allows for robust quantification of the direct effect of stimulation on tremor oscillations.
Phase stability profiles for all participants for the RSh montage can be found in the Appendix A. For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article. Any entrainment effect of stimulation on tremor would imply adjustment of the physiological tremor rhythm towards stimulation over time, increasing the phase stability of the system.
Any preference in phase-difference above that of chance can be considered evidence of entrainment. This can be visualized by constructing likelihood histograms, where we stratify phase-difference into 20 discrete bins Fig.
By substituting multiple artificial stimulation signals at different frequencies for the tACS waveform, this approach can be extended to quantify the phase stability of tremor over a range of tremor frequencies Fig. This approach accounts for any slight discrepancies that might exist between stimulation and tremor frequencies, whilst simultaneously assessing the frequency tuning characteristics of stimulation on the human motor system, as well as potential harmonic entrainment.
This provided the typical entrainment values expected by chance in the absence of stimulation. Since the tremor frequency can occasionally deviate from the chosen frequency of tACS in a manner that is not consistent with a stimulation-induced effect see Results section , the maximum of the phase stability profile per block was averaged per condition Fig. Note that assessment of the phase stability profile at only the applied stimulation frequency is analogous to our previous methodology  ,  , .
The degree of amplitude modulation was similarly assessed by extracting the amplitude envelope from the Hilbert transform of the accelerometer signal after Box—Cox transformation. PSIs were derived from the normalized i. Normality of data was examined using the Shapiro—Wilk test. Mauchly's test was performed to identify violations of the assumption of sphericity.
Orthogonal planned comparisons to assess for the effects of the four tACS montages and photic stimulation on percentage change in phase stability compared with sham were performed by two-tailed one sample Student's t -tests. Note, that the use of planned comparisons may have inflated the chances of a Type I error, and so we also include the effect-size, stated as Cohen's d statistic.
The Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used to examine the self-reported propensity of each of the four tACS montages plus sham to provoke the perception of phosphenes ranking 0— Correction for multiple comparisons was performed by adjusting P values for the false discovery rate FDR. To assess whether the likely current density distribution induced by transcranial electrical stimulation might account for our observed behavioral differences, we additionally modeled the expected current density using a representative realistic head model derived from a single-subject MRI scan.
Surface renderings of the major tissue types skin, bone, gray matter, and white matter are displayed in Appendix B Fig. Electrode positions are depicted in Appendix B Fig. All remaining tissues, largely composing of muscle and fat, were set to their average conductivities 0. The actual alternation in potential difference induced by our alternating current stimulation would cause the current density to undulate in a system-wide manner.
Our simulations may, therefore, be interpreted as revealing the expected distribution of current density throughout the brain. All participants completed the experiments and there were no adverse effects following tACS or photic stimulation. The mean peak frequency in the power spectra of physiological postural tremor was 8. Entrainment phase stability was quantified by calculating the percentage change of maximum PSI for stimulation either via tACS or photic stimulation compared with sham see Materials and Methods section and Fig.
Thus, there was no significant modulation of physiological tremor amplitude by either tACS or photic stimulation. To assess whether the randomization of the order of the four montages and photic stimulation between participants had been successful, one-way repeated measures ANOVAs were performed to assess the influence of time over the twelve experimental blocks.
This suggests that there were no significant after-effects provoked by a particular type of stimulation that might have interfered with the results. Indeed, tACS over M1 with the return electrode over the right shoulder increased the phase stability of physiological tremor by Phase stability profiles for all the participants for the RSh montage can be found in Appendix A. Group behavioral results and current density modeling.
A Bar chart of percentage change in phase stability with respect to type of stimulation tACS primary electrode fixed over left primary motor cortex, M1, with four different positions for the return electrodes: fronto-orbital, FO; contralateral M1, cM1; left shoulder, LSh; and right shoulder, RSh, versus photic stimulation. The ordinate reflects the pairwise percentage change in maximal PSI in the stimulation condition relative to sham see Material and Methods section and Fig.
C Simulated current density gray and white matter surface plots for each montage. L: Left, R: Right. The differential effect of the four electrode montages on each participant's perception of phosphenes was determined by comparing the reported phosphene rating scores, where 0 represented an absence of any phosphenes, and 10 represented a perception of phosphenes as intense as the external photic stimulation Fig.
Since the FO montage did not significantly influence tremor entrainment, we rule out the possibility that the observed stimulation-induced entrainment emerged as a secondary effect of phosphene perception. Current density modeling shows that the greatest stimulation-induced current densities lie between the primary stimulating and return electrodes, with a tendency to focus around the cerebellar hemispheres in the case of extracephalic return locations Fig.
Contrasting the induced current density over the surface of the skin reveals a broad increase in current when employing a RSh return electrode when compared with a LSh return electrode Fig. This is associated with a marked increase in current penetration into the gray matter in the right cerebellar hemisphere ipsilateral to the peripheral tremor, Fig. Notably, the increase in simulated cerebellar current density was 7.
This difference is comparable with that empirically observed during stimulation, where a 9. Modeling the influence of the position of the extracephalic return electrode on induced current density. Left panel: Caudal view of the simulated current density square-root transformed over the skin surface showing a broad increase in surface current density in the RSh versus the LSh configuration. Middle and right panels: Gray and white matter surface plots of the difference in simulated current density induced by RSh versus LSh return electrode montages.
This effect was weaker Our results suggest that rhythmic non-invasive electrical brain stimulation can influence activity in the human motor system, and that its ability to do so may be critically dependent on the chosen electrode montage. Furthermore, the effects of electrical stimulation are distinct from those produced from direct phosphene induction, in that the latter were only seen with a montage that did not directly affect tremor.
Our findings lend important physiological support to the emerging view from current density modeling studies that suggest that the position of the return electrode is an important determiner of the current flow path through the brain from the primary stimulating electrode . This implies that standard tES may concurrently modulate multiple cortical, as well as subcortical, neural networks. The present findings are consistent with this: the extracephalic return electrode right shoulder contralateral to the primary stimulating electrode overlying left primary motor cortex produced the largest spread of current of the various montages tested and was therefore likely to recruit regions distant from the primary target site, including subcortical regions such as the basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem.
Taken together, these studies demonstrate that subcortical networks may play an important role in the emergence of oscillatory physiological tremor. Of course, the cytoarchitecture of the underlying cortical and subcortical circuitry, along with current flow gradients, are also expected to play a profound role in stimulation-induced recruitment .
We can speculate about the reasons why the other electrode montages did not provoke significant entrainment of physiological tremor, whereas using a right shoulder return did. Further work combining brain stimulation, imaging and modeling techniques is needed to elucidate the influence of transcranial electrical stimulation on the human motor system. With the forehead return electrode, it is possible that a smaller portion of the current may enter the brain and a relatively larger current be bypassed along the skin between the electrodes .
Alongside current penetration, flow gradients can dramatically alter neuronal response to stimulation . Meanwhile, the precise neural substrates responsible for our observed behavioral effect remain uncertain. Indeed, it seems equally likely that simultaneous activation or inhibition of multiple neural areas may be key. Previous research that examined different cephalic montages showed that the M1-fronto-orbital montage was optimal .
However, this study used tDCS and examined its after-effects on corticospinal excitability by comparing the amplitudes of motor-evoked potentials, and so offered an approach distinct from our own, which examines the online effects of rhythmic stimulation on entrainment of tremor . The optimal site of stimulation is likely to be highly dependent on task demands.
For instance, the M1-fronto-orbital montage has been successfully applied in tACS studies of motor behavior to facilitate or inhibit motor responses in a frequency-dependent fashion . The present study also highlights a differential response between using a right versus left shoulder return electrode montage.
A feasible explanation for the discrepancy is that in the ipsilateral case left shoulder return electrode , greater current traverses the outside of the body compared with the contralateral case right shoulder return electrode  , such that the current gradient is altered. Whilst the current densities induced by extracephalic return locations at first glance appear comparable Fig.
It is interesting to note that in an earlier study using a different paradigm, we found significant entrainment using an ipsilateral left shoulder return electrode, suggesting that at least some of the current under that arrangement can penetrate task-specific motor circuitry  , .
Why this effect was not observed in the present study can most likely be attributed to two key differences. First, the posture assumed in the present study is different, being more strictly controlled than that previously employed see Fig. As such, the postural exertions and state of tonic muscle activity are likely to be different.
Second, we now employ a more conservative analytic method that can account for modest shifts in tremor frequency between conditions over time. Our experimental design also allowed us to parse the effects of brain stimulation on the motor network versus phosphene generation.
There has been debate whether tACS-induced phosphenes originate cortically or are retinal phenomena e. Either way, phosphenes are an undesirable side-effect that can confound the interpretation of experiments adopting tACS  , . Our finding of significant entrainment in the right shoulder return montage that generated negligible phosphenes, compared with a lack of entrainment in the fronto-orbital return montage that generated the most phosphenes, provides strong support that the observed stimulation effects were not secondary to this visual perception; rather, that the mechanisms of physiological tremor entrainment and phosphene induction are distinct.
We also demonstrated that external photic stimulation can significantly, albeit weakly, entrain physiological tremor. Photic stimulation at the frequencies adopted in the present study are well-known to induce phase-locked sinusoidal oscillations in the occipital EEG  , which we suggest may spill-out through association areas into oscillations driving the motor system.
Indeed, our finding dovetails with an earlier study that demonstrated that the sharpness of tuning of physiological finger tremor was increased by photic stimulation, suggesting entrainment . In contrast, another study failed to show that the waveform of physiological hand tremor was phasically related to a repetitive photic stimulus .
Our analytical method to assess entrainment is likely more sensitive than that adopted in the latter study and thus was able to detect the partial entrainment effects reported here. Note also that photic stimulation can entrain frank motor responses in the condition of photic myoclonus  , perhaps representing a pathological exaggeration of the effects uncovered here.
Notwithstanding the clear morphological differences between electrically induced phosphenes and those arising from direct photic stimulation, we believe the failure of the former to entrain motor behavior was due to their weak relative perceived intensity. Photic stimulation, by design, elicited a visual perception rating of 10, whereas the most prominent phosphenes observed under a fronto-orbital return electrode elicited a mean rating of just 2.
Several possible limitations of the study should be discussed. Our sample size was relatively small, and sensory percepts were different between conditions. However, the tACS manipulation used here differs from more prevalent tDCS paradigms, insofar as it relies upon the paired relationship between the alternating current stimulation waveform and the incumbent tremor rhythm. This makes the approach an ideal paradigm to examine the question of electrode placement, since the analysis is sensitive only to within-block fluctuations.
On the other hand, the possibility that tACS may impose secondary effects, such as altered cortical excitability or plasticity, remains, and might reveal itself as data drift and order effects. To mitigate these effects as much as possible, we performed two sham blocks embedded within the experiment. These were averaged to create a baseline and did not differ in their characteristics. The behavioral effects of transcranial electrical stimulation appear to be critically dependent on the position of the return electrode.
This merits careful consideration of electrode montage and resultant current flow in designing experimental and therapeutic protocols. Arpan R. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the Department of Health or any funding bodies.
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|Betting with odds||Ann Neurol. Nov ; — Please click on the reason for your vote: This is not a good example for the translation above. Stimulation was carried out in accordance with current safety guidelines . I've installed the Yamaha Steinberg USB driver and can confirm that selecting the ASIO driver as you've outlined is required to get the 6-channel output from PC to Montage to "engage" - and the rest of the instructions apply.|
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|Sports betting afric||That is usually wrong. Since my Montage works as a debettinges card for my PC, It occurred to me that I might be able to record those songs using some feature of the Montage or Cubase. F or stationary mounting o f t he AM Sa [ Moliadze V. We additionally controlled for the role of phosphenes in influencing motor output by assessing the response of tremor to photic stimulation, through self-reported phosphene ratings.|
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