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Tailings Disposal Methods.

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Decant tower mining bitcoins The modern industrial oil shale minin. The work accounts for numerous model unknowns and parameter uncertainties decant tower mining bitcoins applying prudent assumptions concerning sporting betting lines parameter values. Uranium mining is associated with lung cancer and other health problems among miners. Development of large capacity, vacuum and pressure belt filter technology has presented the opportunity for disposing tailings in a dewatered state, rather than as a conventional slurry. Drawing on extant research on the social activism and social change, empowerment and SE modelswe explore, classify and validate the strategies used by 2, social entrepreneurs affiliated with the world's largest SE support organization, Ashoka. We study the potentially unnecessary costs imposed by strict performance standards for forest restoration of surface coal mines in the Appalachian region under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of SMCRA that can vary widely across states.
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Helen martins e mauro bettingin Data models were compared simultaneously from the view of applied juventus vs napoli betting preview nfl and suitable scopes. Create an account. The methodology used in assembling the transportation, demand, and coal reserve components of the model are decant tower mining bitcoins described. For instance, if the user wishes to examine the cost ramifications of selecting larger trucks, the program not only considers truck purchase and operation costsit also automatically and immediately adjusts excavator requirements, operator and mechanic needs, repair facility size, haul road construction and maintenance costsand ancillary equipment specifications. One of the more difficult aspects of using simulation models for such studies is the creation of a manageable set of patient types to include in the model. Underground coal mining system production, failures, and repair cycles were mathematically modeled as a closed network of two queues in series.
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Sports betting in south africa Coal resource is the main primary energy in our country, while Shanxi Province is crowdsale bitcoins most important province in resource. In this paper, an innovative graph topic model GTM is proposed to address this issue, which uses Bernoulli distributions to model the edges between nodes in a graph. Video distribution system cost model. Fusing the comparability metric and furthermore the locality-sensitive hashing procedure, Hadoop puts to a great degree comparative exchanges into an information segment to lift neighborhood while not making AN exorbitant assortment of excess exchanges. If the NPV is acceptable, the design is accepted.

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We have already recommended Genesis-Mining to thousands of our existing customers who are happy and satisfied with their excellent services and products. Because of my mathematics background, I was fascinated by the algorithms that made Bitcoin possible. We recently conducted a study of 1, US consumers and when asked the question, do you know what the Federal Reserve does?

When was the last time you heard mention of any central bank? During the lesson on Alexander Hamilton in your eighth grade American History class? We use cookies and other tracking technologies to improve your browsing experience on our site, show personalized content and targeted ads, analyze site traffic, and understand where our audience is coming from. To find out more, please read our Cookie Policy.

One of our Mining Datacenters Reykjavik, Iceland. Mine alternative cryptocurrencies You can mine any cryptocurrency available in our catalogue! Get your first mining output today You will get periodic mining outputs to your designated wallet.

Alex , VP of business development from Innosilicon. Our videos. Credit card payments available. MasterCard Visa Try it now! Twitter feed. More serious cryptocurrency hobbyists use dedicated mining motherboards that have pre-tweaked BIOS settings and the ability to connect over a dozen GPUs. But supply and demand issues are a recurring theme with mining rigs, and the boards that support more than six GPUs are often out of stock or seriously overpriced.

This is how you get half a dozen or more double-slot sized GPUs to fit on one motherboard. Celerons, single-stick memory configurations, and other money saving shortcuts are all fine here. This is a perfect place to use items off the spare parts shelf.

Dust off that dual-core Celeron, puny Pentium, or Ivy Bridge antique. They all work just fine in a mining rig. There's a small corollary here, and it's that CPU mining of certain algorithms is still potentially profitable. You're probably better off buying another graphics card rather than worrying about CPU mining potential.

Right now they're expensive though. But check this listing to make sure. Be wary of second-hand cards formerly used in mining rigs however, as the stress shortens the lifespan of the hardware considerably. One area requiring investment is the power supply. Typical multi-GPU cryptocurrency setups require plenty of juice, more than even a high-end gaming system, and these PSUs will cost you. A gold rated power supply is minimum, since mining rigs run at constant high loads, and depending on what GPUs you're running and how many of them , you'll want at least a W output, if not more.

This Corsair HXi has the capacity for several high-end graphics cards. You'll need all the efficiency you can get. Something else to keep in mind with power use is your power circuit. Most US homes come with 15A circuit breakers, which means a single circuit will top out at around W. If you're thinking about setting up multiple mining rigs, you'll need to keep them on separate breakers. Good news: you may be paying a premium for a graphics card and a high capacity power supply, but you can cheap out a bit when it comes to your system memory and storage.

Likewise, the speed of your OS drive isn't important for mining. If you have an old hard drive or spare SSD around, that'll do the job just fine. If you're picking up a fresh part, grab a small SSD on the cheap. It'll make the system easier to use, and you don't need much storage space to keep your mining operation running.

You only really need 4GB as there's not much going on in the memory-use front. Building your own cryptocurrency mining rig is no harder than building any other custom PC. It's a great way to learn the inner workings of the hardware, and save some money over a prebuilt system outrageous graphics card prices notwithstanding. But if you really don't have the time to build your own mining rig, buying prebuilt is always an option. But should you buy a prebuilt desktop PC, or a dedicated mining rig with multiple graphics cards?

Thanks to the cryptocurrency boom, the latter cost thousands of dollars on Ebay, both used and new. Buying used could net you heavily worn graphics cards with diminished lifespans. Either way, it's a huge investment if you're just getting started with mining. And if the mining thing doesn't work out, you've still got a bodacious gaming PC.

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Genesis Mining is one of our biggest clients and proven to be a reliable and trustworthy business partner. Their transparent mining sites and high quality software infrastructure together with our high end mining hardware result in a great and unique product and experience for everybody interested in mining! As the world first 28nm BTC and LTC chip maker, Innosilicon selects Genesis Ming as partner in cloud mining industry business for its integrity, excellent customer oriented service and great user interface design.

Genesis Mining is the best in class mining service that is supported by our technologically superior mining hardware. This unique synergy produces the best experience for those interested in mining and we look forward to having a long and prosperous relationship. MinerEU is very happy to have Genesis Mining as our trustworthy partner. We have already recommended Genesis-Mining to thousands of our existing customers who are happy and satisfied with their excellent services and products.

Because of my mathematics background, I was fascinated by the algorithms that made Bitcoin possible. We recently conducted a study of 1, US consumers and when asked the question, do you know what the Federal Reserve does? When was the last time you heard mention of any central bank? During the lesson on Alexander Hamilton in your eighth grade American History class? We use cookies and other tracking technologies to improve your browsing experience on our site, show personalized content and targeted ads, analyze site traffic, and understand where our audience is coming from.

To find out more, please read our Cookie Policy. One of our Mining Datacenters Reykjavik, Iceland. Mine alternative cryptocurrencies You can mine any cryptocurrency available in our catalogue! Halong Mining — Halong Mining is the newest mining hardware company.

They have the best miner available. Unfortunately, they already sold out of their first batch but a new batch should be available for sale soon. Bitmain — Bitmain makes the Antminer line of Bitcoin miners. Bitmain is based in China and also operates a mining pool.

BitFury — BitFury is one of the largest producers of Bitcoin mining hardware and chips. Its hardware is not available for purchase. Power Supply — Bitcoin rigs need special power supplies to funnel and use electricity efficiently. Cooling Fans — Bitcoin hardware can easily overheat and stop working. Buy a sufficient amount of cooling fans to keep your hardware working. Backup generators — You may want generators as a backup in case your main source of electricity goes down.

You can find Bitcoin mining equipment for sale on eBay. Bitcoin is based on blockchain technology, a decentralized platform which takes power away from a central authority and gives it to the average person. Sensitive information is stored on the blockchain rather than large data centers, and is cryptographically secured.

A vast amount of people, known as miners, all work together to validate the network, instead of just one person or government. In the beginning, CPU s were used to solve cryptographic hash functions , until miners discovered that GPU s were far better equipped for mining.

As block difficulty increased, miners turned primarily to GPUs. Their hashrates are significantly higher than anything GPUs are capable of. With stellar performance comes a high price tag — the best ASIC chips will run you a few thousand dollars each. Upon creation, Bitcoin blocks were confirmed by the average person using their desktop — once ASICs hit the market, things changed. ASIC developers, including Bitmain, granted early access to large mining cartels rather than the average person.

Nowadays, a large majority of Bitcoin mining takes place in China where electricity is cheap. Thousands of ASICs all mine simultaneously in a mining farm large warehouse. Unfortunately, Bitcoin is no longer as decentralized as it was once intended to be. Buy Antminer S7 on eBay. The S7 is also a popular choice among hobbyist miners for its reasonable price and strong performance. The strong metal casing features a tongue and groove system which allows for the neat arrangement of multiple miners.

The APW3 requires a minimum Volts to function and does not ship with the necessary 16A power cord. While an integral PSU makes for a compact and convenient miner, there are few other reasons to recommend such a setup. The S7-LN also excludes a cord. Note: Before you buy an Antminer S7 make sure you already have Bitcoin mining software and a Bitcoin mining pool. These prices can be expected to fall further as the S9 and other superior mining hardware becomes the new standard.

With careful tweaking, it may be possible to profit from an S7 even at 15c power. The same calculations adjusted for the Hash Rate and Power consumption of the S7-LN produces slightly more encouraging results:. Naturally, the hotter the environment, the more energy the fan s will consume to cool the unit.

The S7 is twice as efficient as the S5 at converting all this energy into bitcoins; it requires a modest 0. Setting them up via the MinerLink GUI is a simple process, requiring only your mining pool credentials to begin mining. The units will automatically begin hashing upon powering up, which can be helpful in the event of power failure. S7 connectivity is via Ethernet only.

They are both cooled by dual fans. A dry basement is an ideal location. This peak was reached on May 24 th Such tremendous growth has been spurred by major investment into Bitcoin mining technology and operations. Profits have accumulated where mining is most profitable China , with the result that several competing operations eg.

KNC have been forced out of the industry. We have tried to calculate the amount of money that the Chinese have invested in mining, we estimate it to be in the hundreds of millions of dollars. Even with free electricity we cannot see how they will ever get this money back.

The same Chinese competitive advantage has been doubly effective at squeezing the profit-dependent hobbyist miner from the market. With the block reward halving looming, the profitability of all but the most efficient operations will likely be challenged. Given that profits derived from the current generation of mining hardware are dwindling and will likely reach negative returns post-halving:. Can the new S9 change the game for smaller and hobby miners and restore their lost profitability?

Note: Before you buy an Antminer S9 make sure you already have Bitcoin mining software and a Bitcoin mining pool. The first batch of S9s will be available for order directly from Bitmain from the 12 th of June. However, the lower your electricity costs, the better your odds of the miner paying for itself within a reasonable timeframe. Judging value in this space is a complicated exercise, although it would appear that nothing vastly technologically-superior to the S9 is likely to be released in the near future.

The release cycle of a new generation of mining hardware every few months is likely to decelerate from this point on, as manufacturers have transitioned to cutting-edge 16 and 14nm designs. The on-going miniaturisation of semiconductors allows ever greater computing power and electrical efficiency, but the process cannot continue forever with the current technology. The 16 nm fabrication process used in the manufacture of the S9 is a major improvement upon the 28 nm design common to other modern mining devices.

Although a 10nm process is on the horizon for , further increases beyond that remain theoretical. Further, the design and manufacture of any 10nm Bitcoin mining hardware is likely to take at least a year. Our guide on the best bitcoin wallets will help you get one fast and for free. Read it here!

The good news is that existing power supplies, at least those of sufficient wattage, are fully compatible with the S9. A total of chips, spread over 3 circuit boards, are combined to achieve this phenomenal hashrate. Note that Power Cost will be specific to your location and that Difficulty changes every 2 weeks, usually to the upside….

Your Pool Fees will be determined by your mining pool; although the S9 is plenty powerful, a single unit is highly unlikely to find any blocks when solo-mining. Of course, such impressive results assume all factors stay constant which is hugely improbable in the ever-changing world of Bitcoin! The cutting-edge manufacturing process is what makes the S9 the most electrically-efficient mining device to date. It uses a mere 0. The S9 consumes about W more than the S7.

Apart from the power supply, the S9 is a self-contained unit. It requires no connection to another computer to interface with other Bitcoin nodes. The S9 performs reliably in any well-ventilated space, whether a single or several unit s kept in a spare room or hundreds to thousands of units in a large mining center.

On the other hand, the halving could bring about a higher Bitcoin price and reduced competition, increasing profitability. It is likely to remain profitable for far longer than previous generations of ASIC miner, although ROI cannot be guaranteed given the inherent unpredictability of Bitcoin mining.

Bitmain is regarded as one of the most influential companies in the ASIC mining industry. Halong Mining is no longer around. It seems they could not compete with the already established ASIC manufacturers, most likely because they could never fill their orders and get the partsd they needed to produce enough miners to make money.

The DragonMint W power supply is strongly recommended, though not mandatory. Each miner requires its own individual power supply. Professional mining hardware runs optimally at V, hence why mining farms step down their own electricity supply to V. In any case, it would be a good idea to buy the DragonMint power supply. These PSUs will get the job done, but they are not ideal for optimum mining performance.

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This is a solution, which is being increasingly encouraged and accepted by regulators. However, the authors are concerned that flooded impoundments may create a risky legacy. The more traditional closure configuration for tailings impoundments has been to draw down water ponds as completely as possible, to reduce the potential for dam failure by overtopping or erosion.

To raise water levels in impoundments formed by high dams could present considerable long-term risk. Treatment of tailings to create non-acid generating covers. To avoid the necessity of flooding impoundments, non-reactive covers of tailings can be placed on the top of the impoundment on the last few years of operation. It has been shown in several mining operations, for example at the Inco Ontario Division central milling operation in Copper Cliff, Ontario, that by the relatively inexpensive installation of some additional flotation capacity, pyrite can be removed to the level that the tailings can be made non-acid generating.

The upper non-acid generating tailings placed on top can be left as a wide beach for dam safety, while the underlying mass of potentially acid generating tailings remains saturated below the long-term water table in the impoundment. Normally, the small amount of pyrite removed by flotation can be disposed as a separate tailings stream, placed in the deepest part of the impoundment where it can be left flooded.

Lake or ocean subaqueous disposal. The surest, safest and most cost-effective solution to prevent ARD is sub-aqueous disposal in a lake or the ocean. Tailings will remain permanently submerged and have shown to be non-reactive under water and to have few permanent environmental impacts. The challenge for this solution is that regulators have become reluctant to permit lake or ocean disposal, and there are not always appropriate sites available. In addition, the public often reacts emotionally and negatively to the concept of such disposal, despite the considerable benefits of these approaches.

The authors are aware of at least two examples where public pressure incited regulators to demand that existing operations switch from ocean and lake disposal to on-land impoundments, with the result that environmental problems actually increased. The authors do note a slight trend to re-acceptance of subaqueous disposal, particularly in the marine environment, as the true environmental impact of the technique can be demonstrated to be almost negligible in certain instances.

Moreover, the corporate risks and environmental liabilities associated with surface tailings storage on many projects grows to the point where project viability is threatened without looking to environmentally acceptable alternatives including subaqueous disposal. And after all, who really gives a shit if it happens to be in a lake that we get our drinking water from? Or the marine life that is so vital to the ecology of our planet? The mining companies sure don't. Considerable attention has been given to improving traditional upstream dam construction to make the technique not only economical but also stable under both static and dynamic conditions.

Numerous failures of upstream constructed dams have occurred. The failures have been the results of earthquakes, high saturation levels, steep slopes, poor water control in the pond, poor construction techniques incorporating fines in the dam shell, static liquefaction, and failures of embedded decant structures. Most failures have involved some combination of the above weaknesses.

Based on the above experiences, and through the use of improved analytical tools computer programs for stability, seepage, and deformation under both static and seismic conditions , safe, optimised designs have been developed.

Some of the key design features that have been added include:. Slopes are generally set at 3 horizontal to 1 vertical or flatter, depending on the other measures incorporated into the designs. With the advent of larger gold mining operations, and the almost universal use of sodium cyanide as an essential part of gold extraction, the need came about to develop impervious impoundments to contain cyanide solutions. Although cyanide is in most forms an unstable compound that naturally breaks down on exposure to air, it can be very persistent and migrate long distances in groundwater.

As well as cyanided gold tailings, other types of tailings may also be considered potentially contaminating. For protection of aquifers, where tailings impoundments are not sited over impervious soils or bedrock and embankment cut-offs are not sufficient to reduce seepage, it is often necessary to design and construct a liner over the base of a tailings impoundment.

Great progress has been made in liner design and construction practise. Liners may be as simple as selective placement of impervious soil to cover outcrops of pervious bedrock or granular soils, or may need to be a composite liner system constructed over the entire impoundment.

Where geomembrane liners are used, it is normal practise to incorporate a drainage layer above the geomembrane, to reduce the pressure head on the liner and minimise leakage through imperfections in the liner. Another benefit of such under-drainage is that a low pore pressure condition is achieved in the tailings, giving them a higher strength than would exist without such under-drainage.

The drainage layer typically consists of at least mm of granular material, with perforated pipes at intervals within the drainage layer. The pipes are laid to drain water extracted from the base of the tailings deposit and to discharge to a seepage recovery pond. When a liner extends beneath an impoundment, care must be taken to design for lower foundation shear strength for the downstream slope of the embankment, as the liner may form a plane of weakness.

As shown on the figure below, the basic segregating slurry is part of a continuum of water contents available to the tailings designer in the 21st century. There are several candidate scenarios where dewatered tailings systems would be of advantage to the mining operation.

However, dewatered tailings systems have less application for larger operations for which tailings ponds must serve dual roles as water storage reservoirs, particularly where water balances must be managed to store annual snowmelt runoff to provide water for year round operation. Development of large capacity, vacuum and pressure belt filter technology has presented the opportunity for disposing tailings in a dewatered state, rather than as a conventional slurry.

At these moisture contents, the material can be transported by conveyor or truck, and placed, spread and compacted to form an unsaturated, dense and stable tailings stack often termed a "dry stack" requiring no dam for retention. While the technology is currently considerably more expensive per tonne of tailings stored than conventional slurry systems, and would be prohibitively expensive for very large tonnage applications, it has particular advantages in the following applications:.

A daily tailings production of 18, t is dewatered by belt filters, conveyed to the tailings site and stacked with a radial, mobile conveyor system. The vacuum filter system was selected for this site because of the need to recover dissolved gold from solution, but is also advantageous for water conservation and also for stability of the tailings deposit in this high seismicity location.

The system is also intended to provide a solution for potential acid generation, as the tailings stack will become permanently frozen. A dry stack tailings system is also being planned for a new gold project in central Alaska. The tailings area can be developed and managed more like a waste dump and therefore avoids many of the operation and closure challenges of a conventional impoundment. Moreover, filtered tailings stacks have regulatory attraction, require a smaller footprint for tailings storage much lower bulking factor , are easier to reclaim and close, and have much lower long-term liability in terms of structural integrity and potential environmental impact.

Labels Tailing. Labels: Tailing. Post a Comment. Popular posts from this blog Oil shale industry. Several other countries are currently researching their reserves and production methods to improve efficiency and recovery. Although topic models have proved to be very successful in discovering latent topics, the standard topic models cannot be directly applied to graph-structured data due to the "bag-of-word" assumption. In this paper, an innovative graph topic model GTM is proposed to address this issue, which uses Bernoulli distributions to model the edges between nodes in a graph.

It can, therefore, make the edges in a graph contribute to latent topic discovery and further improve the accuracy of the supervised and unsupervised learning of graphs. The experimental results on two different types of graph datasets show that the proposed GTM outperforms the latent Dirichlet allocation on classification by using the unveiled topics of these two models to represent graphs. Stocks of virgin- mined materials utilized in linear economic flows continue to present enormous challenges.

E-waste is one of the fastest growing waste streams, and threatens to grow into a global problem of unmanageable proportions. An effective form of management of resource recycling and environmental improvement is available, in the form of extraction and purification of precious metals taken from waste streams, in a process known as urban mining.

In this work, we demonstrate utilizing real cost data from e-waste processors in China that ingots of pure copper and gold could be recovered from e-waste streams at costs that are comparable to those encountered in virgin mining of ores. Our results are confined to the cases of copper and gold extracted and processed from e-waste streams made up of recycled TV sets, but these results indicate a trend and potential if applied across a broader range of e-waste sources and metals extracted.

If these results can be extended to other metals and countries, they promise to have positive impact on waste disposal and mining activities globally, as the circular economy comes to displace linear economic pathways. The Sherpa Automated Mine Cost Engineering System is a menu-driven software package designed to estimate capital and operating costs for proposed surface mining operations.

The program is engineering as opposed to statistically based, meaning that all equipment, manpower, and supply requirements are determined from deposit geology, project design and mine production information using standard engineering techniques. These requirements are used in conjunction with equipment, supply, and labor cost databases internal to the program to estimate all associated costs. If any aspect of the operation is changed, Sherpa immediately adjusts all related aspects as necessary.

For instance, if the user wishes to examine the cost ramifications of selecting larger trucks, the program not only considers truck purchase and operation costs , it also automatically and immediately adjusts excavator requirements, operator and mechanic needs, repair facility size, haul road construction and maintenance costs , and ancillary equipment specifications.

This paper will present collective results of 25 years of research by the authors into the use of municipal biosolids sewage sludge and other residuals to reclaim sites disturbed by a range of mining and construction activities. Loading rate experiments and demonstrations have been conducted on areas drastically disturbed by coal mining , sand mining , heavy mineral mining , urbanization, airport construction and heavy metal processing.

At all sites, the post- mining soils were devoid of organic matter, very low in nutrients and frequently quite acidic. Application of higher rates is not compatible with establishment of certain native tree species e. Pinus sp. An underlying goal of this program has been to develop approaches that use higher than agronomic rates of biosolids while simultaneously minimizing losses of N and P to local ground- and surface-waters.

Cost model for biobanks. Current economic conditions and budget constraints in publicly funded biomedical research have brought about a renewed interest in analyzing the cost and economic viability of research infrastructures. However, there are no proposals for specific cost accounting models for these types of organizations in the international scientific literature. The aim of this paper is to present the basis of a cost analysis model useful for any biobank regardless of the human biological samples that it stores for biomedical research.

The development of a unique cost model for biobanks can be a complicated task due to the diversity of the biological samples they store. Different types of samples DNA, tumor tissues, blood, serum, etc. Nonetheless, the common basic steps of the production process can be identified. Thus, the costs incurred in each step can be analyzed in detail to provide cost information.

Six stages and four cost objects were obtained by taking the production processes of biobanks belonging to the Spanish National Biobank Network as a starting point. Templates and examples are provided to help managers to identify and classify the costs involved in their own biobanks to implement the model. The application of this methodology will provide accurate information on cost objects, along with useful information to give an economic value to the stored samples, to analyze the efficiency of the production process and to evaluate the viability of some sample collections.

This paper describes the development and use of NICM, including the data normalization processes, data mining methods cluster analysis, principal components analysis, regression analysis and bootstrap cross validation , the estimating equations themselves and a demonstration of the NICM tool suite. Designers' unified cost model. The model will provide a technically sound method for evaluating the relative cost of different composite structural designs, fabrication processes, and assembly methods that can be compared to equivalent metallic parts or assemblies.

The feasibility of developing cost prediction software in a modular form for interfacing with state-of-the-art preliminary design tools and computer aided design programs is being evaluated. The goal of this task is to establish theoretical cost functions that relate geometric design features to summed material cost and labor content in terms of process mechanics and physics.

The output of the designers' present analytical tools will be input for the designers' cost prediction model to provide the designer with a database and deterministic cost methodology that allows one to trade and synthesize designs with both cost and weight as objective functions for optimization. Designer's unified cost model. A conceptual and preliminary designers' cost prediction model has been initiated.

The feasibility of developing cost prediction software in a modular form for interfacing with state of the art preliminary design tools and computer aided design programs is being evaluated. The output of the designers' present analytical tools will be input for the designers' cost prediction model to provide the designer with a data base and deterministic cost methodology that allows one to trade and synthesize designs with both cost and weight as objective functions for optimization.

Black hole mining in the RST model. It is shown that the lifetime of a perturbed black hole is independent of the addition of any extra apparatus when realized by an arbitrary positive energy matter source. We conclude that mining does not occur in the RST model and comment on the implications of this for the black hole information paradox. Modeling of information on the impact of mining exploitation on bridge objects in BIM.

The article discusses the advantages of BIM Building Information Modeling technology in the management of bridge infrastructure on mining areas. The article shows the problems with information flow in the case of bridge objects located on mining areas and the advantages of proper information management, e. Traditional model of managing bridge objects on mining areas has many disadvantages, which are discussed in this article.

These disadvantages include among others: duplication of information about the object, lack of correlation in investments due to lack of information flow between bridge manager and mine , limited assessment possibilities of damage propagation on technical condition and construction resistance to mining influences.

Proposed reliability cost model. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories or subelements that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram.

The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. Web-video- mining -supported workflow modeling for laparoscopic surgeries. As quality assurance is of strong concern in advanced surgeries, intelligent surgical systems are expected to have knowledge such as the knowledge of the surgical workflow model SWM to support their intuitive cooperation with surgeons.

For generating a robust and reliable SWM, a large amount of training data is required. However, training data collected by physically recording surgery operations is often limited and data collection is time-consuming and labor-intensive, severely influencing knowledge scalability of the surgical systems. The objective of this research is to solve the knowledge scalability problem in surgical workflow modeling with a low cost and labor efficient way.

A novel web-video- mining -supported surgical workflow modeling webSWM method is developed. A novel video quality analysis method based on topic analysis and sentiment analysis techniques is developed to select high-quality videos from abundant and noisy web videos. A statistical learning method is then used to build the workflow model based on the selected videos. To test the effectiveness of the webSWM method, web videos were mined to generate a surgical workflow for the robotic cholecystectomy surgery.

The generated workflow was evaluated by 4 web-retrieved videos and 4 operation-room-recorded videos, respectively. With the webSWM method, abundant web videos were selected and a reliable SWM was modeled in a short time with low labor cost. Satisfied performances in mining web videos and learning surgery-related knowledge show that the webSWM method is promising in scaling knowledge for intelligent surgical systems.

The duel between the anti-tank weapon and offensive tanks crossing the field is The duel between the anti-tank weapon and offensive tanks crossing the field is modeled with a con- tinuous time Markov chain. Attrition Cost Model Instruction Manual. This instruction manual explains in detail how to use the Attrition Cost Model program, which estimates the cost of student attrition for a state's higher education system. Programmed with SAS, this model allows users to instantly calculate the cost of attrition and the cumulative attrition rate that is based on the most recent retention and….

The use of low- cost adsorbents for wastewater purification in mining industries. Recently, great attention has been paid to the environmental problems in mining industry. At present there are different ways of mineral processing, as well as various methods of wastewater treatment, most of them are expensive. Work is ongoing to find low- cost treatments. In this article, low- cost adsorbents, potentially useful for wastewater treatment on mining and metallurgical plants, are reviewed; their characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of their application are compared.

Also adsorption of different metals and radioactive compounds from acidic environment similar to composition of mining and metallurgical wastewaters is considered. Cost Modeling for Space Telescope. Parametric cost models are an important tool for planning missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments.

This paper presents on-going efforts to develop single variable and multi-variable cost models for space telescope optical telescope assembly OTA. These models are based on data collected from historical space telescope missions. The results are compared with previously published models. The article presents the development and evaluation of a predictive classification model of daily seismic energy emissions induced by longwall mining in sector XVI of the Piast coal mine in Poland.

The model uses data on tremor energy, basic characteristics of the longwall face and mined output in this sector over the period from July to March The predicted binary variable is the occurrence of a daily sum of tremor seismic energies in a longwall that is greater than or equal to the threshold value of J.

Three data mining analytical methods were applied: logistic regression,neural networks, and stochastic gradient boosted trees. The boosted trees model was chosen as the best for the purposes of the prediction. The validation sample results showed its good predictive capability, taking the complex nature of the phenomenon into account. This may indicate the applied model 's suitability for a sequential, short-term prediction of mining induced seismic activity.

Design mining is the use of computational intelligence techniques to iteratively search and model the attribute space of physical objects evaluated directly through rapid prototyping to meet given objectives. It enables the exploitation of novel materials and processes without formal models or complex simulation. In this article, we focus upon the coevolutionary nature of the design process when it is decomposed into concurrent sub-design-threads due to the overall complexity of the task.

Using an abstract, tunable model of coevolution, we consider strategies to sample subthread designs for whole-system testing and how best to construct and use surrogate models within the coevolutionary scenario. Drawing on our findings, we then describe the effective design of an array of six heterogeneous vertical-axis wind turbines.

Software Cost -Estimation Model. Combines several cost models found in open literature into one comprehensive set of algorithms. Compensates for nearly fifty implementation factors relative to size of task, inherited baseline, organizational and system environment and difficulty of task. New technique estimates cost of improvement in reliability for complex system. Proposed methodology should have application in broad range of engineering management decisions.

Selected Tether Applications Cost Model. Diverse cost -estimating techniques and data combined into single program. Program based on Lotus , version 2. Developed to provide clear, concise traceability and visibility into methodology and rationale for estimating costs and benefits of operations of Space Station tether deployer system. Quad-phased data mining modeling for dementia diagnosis.

The number of people with dementia is increasing along with people's ageing trend worldwide. Therefore, there are various researches to improve a dementia diagnosis process in the field of computer-aided diagnosis CAD technology. The most significant issue is that the evaluation processes by physician which is based on medical information for patients and questionnaire from their guardians are time consuming, subjective and prone to error.

This problem can be solved by an overall data mining modeling , which subsidizes an intuitive decision of clinicians. Therefore, in this paper we propose a quad-phased data mining modeling consisting of 4 modules. In Proposer Module, significant diagnostic criteria are selected that are effective for diagnostics. Then in Predictor Module, a model is constructed to predict and diagnose dementia based on a machine learning algorism.

To help clinical physicians understand results of the predictive model better, in Descriptor Module, we interpret causes of diagnostics by profiling patient groups. Lastly, in Visualization Module, we provide visualization to effectively explore characteristics of patient groups. The proposed model is applied for CREDOS study which contains clinical data collected from 37 university-affiliated hospitals in republic of Korea from year to This research is an intelligent system enabling intuitive collaboration between CAD system and physicians.

And also, improved evaluation process is able to effectively reduce time and cost consuming for clinicians and patients. Video distribution system cost model. A cost model that can be used to systematically identify the costs of procuring and operating satellite linked communications systems is described. The user defines a network configuration by specifying the location of each participating site, the interconnection requirements, and the transmission paths available for the uplink studio to satellite , downlink satellite to audience , and voice talkback between audience and studio segments of the network.

The model uses this information to calculate the least expensive signal distribution path for each participating site. Cost estimates are broken downy by capital, installation, lease, operations and maintenance. The design of the model permits flexibility in specifying network and cost structure. The cost estimation of software development activities is increasingly critical for large scale integrated projects such as those at DOD and NASA especially as the software systems become larger and more complex.

As an example MSL Mars Scientific Laboratory developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory launched with over 2 million lines of code making it the largest robotic spacecraft ever flown Based on the size of the software. All across the agency, estimators and analysts are increasingly being tasked to develop reliable cost estimates in support of program planning and execution.

While there has been extensive work on improving parametric methods there is very little focus on the use of models based on analogy and clustering algorithms. PubMed Central. Coal resource is the main primary energy in our country, while Shanxi Province is the most important province in resource. Therefore Shanxi is an energy base for our country and has a great significance in energy strategy.

However because of the heavy development of the coal resource, the ecological environment is worsening and the farmland is reducing continuously in Shanxi Province. How to resolve the contradiction between coal resource exploitation and environmental protection has become the imperative. In this assay, we will talk about the basic mode of land reclamation in mine area, the engineering study of mine land reclamation, the comprehensive model study of mine land reclamation, and the design and model of ecological agricultural reclamation in mining subsidence.

Modelling remediation scenarios in historical mining catchments. Local remediation measures, particularly those undertaken in historical mining areas, can often be ineffective or even deleterious because erosion and sedimentation processes operate at spatial scales beyond those typically used in point-source remediation. Based on realistic simulations of a hybrid landscape evolution model combined with stochastic rainfall generation, we demonstrate that similar remediation strategies may result in differing effects across three contrasting European catchments depending on their topographic and hydrologic regimes.

Based on these results, we propose a conceptual model of catchment-scale remediation effectiveness based on three basic catchment characteristics: the degree of contaminant source coupling, the ratio of contaminated to non-contaminated sediment delivery, and the frequency of sediment transport events. Cost Modeling for low- cost planetary missions. This presentation will provide an overview of the JPL parametric cost models used to estimate flight science spacecrafts and instruments.

This material will emphasize the cost model approaches to estimate low- cost flight hardware, sensors, and instrumentation, and to perform cost -risk assessments. This presentation will also discuss JPL approaches to perform cost modeling and the methodologies and analyses used to capture low- cost vs. Social cost of land mines in four countries: Afghanistan, Bosnia, Cambodia, and Mozambique.

DESIGN--A cross design of cluster survey and rapid appraisal methods including a household questionnaire and qualitative data from key informants, institutional reviews, and focus groups of survivors of land mines from the same communities. One in 10 of the victims was a child.

The most frequent activities associated with land mine incidents were agricultural or pastoral, except in Bosnia where more than half resulted from military activities, usually during patrols. Incidences have more than doubled between and , excluding the incidents in Bosnia. Lethality of the mines varied; in Bosnia each blast killed an average of 0. To document the effects of land mines on the health and social conditions of communities in four affected countries.

A cross design of cluster survey and rapid appraisal methods including a household questionnaire and qualitative data from key informants, institutional reviews, and focus groups of survivors of land mines from the same communities. Effects of land mines on food security, residence, livestock, and land use; risk factors: extent of individual land mine injuries; physical, psychological, social, and economic costs of injuries during medical care and rehabilitation.

Households with a land mine victim. Probabilistic topic models have been developed for applications in various domains such as text mining , information retrieval and computer vision and bioinformatics domain. In this thesis, we focus on developing novel probabilistic topic models for image mining and bioinformatics studies. Specifically, a probabilistic topic-connection PTC model…. Hydropower Baseline Cost Modeling. Recent resource assessments conducted by the United States Department of Energy have identified significant opportunities for expanding hydropower generation through the addition of power to non-powered dams and on undeveloped stream-reaches.

Additional interest exists in the powering of existing water resource infrastructure such as conduits and canals, upgrading and expanding existing hydropower facilities, and the construction new pumped storage hydropower.

Solid rocket motor cost model. A systematic and standardized procedure for estimating life cycle costs of solid rocket motor booster configurations. The model consists of clearly defined cost categories and appropriate cost equations in which cost is related to program and hardware parameters.

Cost estimating relationships are generally based on analogous experience. In this model the experience drawn on is from estimates prepared by the study contractors. Contractors' estimates are derived by means of engineering estimates for some predetermined level of detail of the SRM hardware and program functions of the system life cycle. This method is frequently referred to as bottom-up. A parametric cost analysis is a useful technique when rapid estimates are required.

This is particularly true during the planning stages of a system when hardware designs and program definition are conceptual and constantly changing as the selection process, which includes cost comparisons or trade-offs, is performed. The use of cost estimating relationships also facilitates the performance of cost sensitivity studies in which relative and comparable cost comparisons are significant. Forecast of long term coal supply and mining conditions: Model documentation and results.

A coal industry model was developed to support the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in its investigation of advanced underground coal extraction systems. The model documentation includes the programming for the coal mining cost models and an accompanying users' manual, and a guide to reading model output. The methodology used in assembling the transportation, demand, and coal reserve components of the model are also described. Results presented for and , include projections of coal production patterns and marginal prices, differentiated by coal sulfur content.

Model architecture of intelligent data mining oriented urban transportation information. Aiming at solving practical problems in urban traffic, the paper presents model architecture of intelligent data mining from hierarchical view.

With artificial intelligent technologies used in the framework, the intelligent data mining technology improves, which is more suitable for the change of real-time road condition. It also provides efficient technology support for the urban transport information distribution, transmission and display.

Knowledge modeling of coal mining equipments based on ontology. The problems of information redundancy and sharing are universe in coal mining equipment management. In order to improve the using efficiency of knowledge of coal mining equipments, this paper proposed a new method of knowledge modeling based on ontology. The knowledge description method will lay the foundation for the high effective knowledge management and sharing, which is very significant for improving the production management level of coal mining enterprises.

The upper pennsylvanian pittsburgh coal bed: Resources and mine models. The U. Geological Survey recently completed a digital coal resource assessment model of the Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal bed, which indicates that after subtracting minedout coal, 16 billion short tons 14 billion tonnes remain of the original 34 billion short tons 31 billion tonnes of coal.

When technical, environmental, and social restrictions are applied to the remaining Pittsburgh coal model , only 12 billion short tons 11 billion tonnes are available for mining. Our assessment models estimate that up to 0. This analysis is an example of a second-generation regional coal availability study designed to model recoverability characteristics for all the major coal beds in the United States.

States with active and abandoned mines face large private and public costs to remediate damage to streams and rivers from acid mine drainage AMD , the metal rich runoff flowing primarily from abandoned mines and surface deposits of mine waste. AMD can lower stream and river pH Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations.

This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment LCA model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland.

The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions GHGs based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, and years.

The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports.

It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines , not only in Poland but also in the world.

This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. Mining potential in Indonesian is very abundant, ranging from Sabang to Marauke.

Kabupaten Gorontalo is one of many places in Indonesia that have different types of minerals and natural resources that can be found in every district. The abundant of mining potential must be balanced with good management and ease of getting information by investors.

The goal of this research is to build a model of Geographical Information System that could provide data management of potential mines , so that the investors could easily get information according to their needs. To achieve that goal Research and Development method is used. The result of this research, is a model of Geographical Information System that implemented in an application to presenting data management of mines.

A Departmental Cost -Effectiveness Model. In establishing a departmental cost -effectiveness model , the traditional cost -effectiveness model was discussed and equipped with a distant and deflation equation for both benefits and costs.

Next, the economics of costing was examined and program costing procedures developed. Then, the model construct was described as it was structured around the…. A techno-economic model for optimum regeneration of surface mined land. The recent global scenario in the mineral sector may be characterized by rising competitiveness, increasing production costs and a slump in market price. This has pushed the mineral sector in general and that in the developing countries in particular to a situation where the industry has a limited capacity to sustain unproductive costs.

This, more often than not, results in a situation where the industry fails to ensure environmental safeguards during and after mineral extraction. India has an ambitious power augmentation projection for the coming 10 years. A phenomenal increase in coal production is proposed from the power grade coalfields in India. One of the most likely fall-outs of land degradation due to mining in these areas would be significant reduction of agricultural and other important land-uses.

Currently, backfilling costs are perceived as prohibitive and abandonment of land is the easy way out. This study attempts to provide mine planners with a mathematical model that distributes generated overburden at defined disposal options while ensuring maximization of backfilled land area at minimum direct and economic costs. From various geo- mining inputs, site constants of the LP constraints are calculated. Arrived value of economic vectors, which guide the programming statement, decides the optimal overburden distribution in defined options.

The case example with model test run indicates that overburden distribution is significantly sensitive to coal seam gradient. The model has universal applicability to cyclic system shovel dumper combination of opencast. Improved mine blast algorithm for optimal cost design of water distribution systems. The design of water distribution systems is a large class of combinatorial, nonlinear optimization problems with complex constraints such as conservation of mass and energy equations.

Since feasible solutions are often extremely complex, traditional optimization techniques are insufficient. Recently, metaheuristic algorithms have been applied to this class of problems because they are highly efficient. In this article, a recently developed optimizer called the mine blast algorithm MBA is considered. Optimization results obtained using IMBA are compared to those using MBA and other optimizers in terms of their minimum construction costs and convergence rates.

For the complex Balerma network, IMBA offers the cheapest network design compared to other optimization algorithms. Physician response to the United Mine Workers' cost -sharing program: the other side of the coin. The effect of cost sharing on health services utilization is analyzed from a new perspective, that is, its effects on physician response to cost sharing. A primary data set was constructed using medical records and billing files from a large multispecialty group practice during the three-year period surrounding the introduction of cost sharing to the United Mine Workers Health and Retirement Fund.

This same group practice also served an equally large number of patients covered by United Steelworkers' health benefit plans, for which similar utilization data were available. The questions addressed in this interinsurer study are: 1 to what extent does a physician's treatment of medically similar cases vary, following a drop in patient visits as a result of cost sharing? Answers to these kinds of questions are necessary to predict the effects of cost sharing on overall health care costs.

A fixed-effects model of physician service use was applied to data on episodes of treatment for all patients in a private group practice. This shows that the introduction of cost sharing to some patients in a practice does, in fact, increase the treatment costs to other patients in the same practice who remain under stable insurance plans. The analysis demonstrates that when the economic effects of cost sharing on physician service use are analyzed for all patients within a physician practice, the findings are remarkably different from those of an analysis limited to those patients directly affected by cost sharing.

How Much? Cost Models for Online Education. Reviews some of the research being done in the area of cost models for online education. Describes a cost analysis handbook; an activity-based costing model that was based on an economic model for traditional instruction at the Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis; and blending other costing models. Geological modelling of mineral deposits for prediction in mining. Accurate prediction of the shape, location, size and properties of the solid rock materials to be extracted during mining is essential for reliable technical and financial planning.

This is achieved through geological modelling of the three-dimensional 3D shape and properties of the materials present in mineral deposits, and the presentation of results in a form which is accessible to mine planning engineers. In recent years the application of interactive graphics software, offering 3D database handling, modelling and visualisation, has greatly enhanced the options available for predicting the subsurface limits and characteristics of mineral deposits.

A review of conventional 3D geological interpretation methods, and the model struc- tures and modelling methods used in reserve estimation and mine planning software packages, illustrates the importance of such approaches in the modern mining industry. Despite the widespread introduction and acceptance of computer hardware and software in mining applications, in recent years, there has been little fundamental change in the way in which geology is used in orebody modelling for predictive purposes.

Selected areas of current research, aimed at tackling issues such as the use of orientation data, quantification of morphological differences, incorporation of geological age relationships, multi-resolution models and the application of virtual reality hardware and software, are discussed. Data mining is the process of discovering new patterns and relationships in large datasets.

However, several studies have shown that general data mining techniques often fail to extract meaningful patterns and relationships from the spatial data owing to the violation of fundamental geospatial principles. In this tutorial, we introduce basic principles behind explicit modeling of spatial and semantic concepts in data mining.

In particular, we focus on modeling these concepts in the widely used classification, clustering, and prediction algorithms. Prediction is the process of finding a function that models explains the data with least error. One common assumption among all these methods is that the data is independent and identically distributed.

Such assumptions do not hold well in spatial data, where spatial dependency and spatial heterogeneity are a norm. In addition, spatial semantics are often ignored by the data mining algorithms. In this tutorial we cover recent advances in explicitly modeling of spatial dependencies and semantic concepts in data mining. Mining and underground archaeology are two domains of expertise where three-dimensional data take an important part in the associated researches.

Up to now, archaeologists study mines and underground networks from line-plot surveys, cross-section of galleries, and from tool marks surveys. All this kind of information can be clearly recorded back from the field from threedimensional models with a more cautious and extensive approach.

Besides, the volumes of the underground structures that are very important data to explain the mining activities are difficult to evaluate from "traditional" hand-made recordings. They can now be calculated more accurately from a 3D model. Finally, reconstructed scenes are a powerful tool as thinking aid to look back again to a structure in the office or in future times.

And the recorded models , rendered photo-realistically, can also be used for cultural heritage documentation presenting inaccessible and sometimes dangerous places to the public. Nowadays, thanks to modern computer technologies and highly developed software tools paired with sophisticated digital camera equipment, complex photogrammetric processes are available for moderate costs for research teams.

Recognizing these advantages the authors develop and utilize image-based workflows in order to document ancient mining monuments and underground sites as a basis for further historical and archaeological researches, performed in collaborative partnership during recent projects on medieval silver mines and preventive excavations of undergrounds in France. Parametric cost models are used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments.

This paper reviews an on-going effort to develop cost modes for space telescopes. This paper summarizes the methodology used to develop cost models and documents how changes to the database have changed previously published preliminary cost models. While the cost models are evolving, the previously published findings remain valid: it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; technology development as a function of time reduces cost ; and lower areal density telescopes cost more than more massive telescopes.

Implementing a trustworthy cost -accounting model. Hospitals and health systems can develop an effective cost -accounting model and maximize the effectiveness of their cost -accounting teams by focusing on six key areas: Implementing an enhanced data model. Reconciling data efficiently. Accommodating multiple cost-modeling techniques. Improving transparency of cost allocations.

Securing department manager participation. Providing essential education and training to staff members and stakeholders. Parametric cost models are routinely used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. Previously, the authors published two single variable cost models based on 19 flight missions. The current paper presents the development of a multi-variable space telescopes cost model.

The validity of previously published models are tested. Cost estimating relationships which are and are not significant cost drivers are identified. And, interrelationships between variables are explored. A mathematical model for costing college courses, designed for purposes of accountability, subprogram cost analysis, marketing to foreign students in Australia , and course cost analysis across institutions, is presented and discussed. The social costs of uranium mining in the US Colorado Plateau cohort, Long-term social costs associated with underground uranium mining are largely unknown.

Elevated uranium miner person-years of life lost PYLL were calculated from the most recent study of the Colorado Plateau cohort over Nine causes of death categories were included. Costs to society of miner PYLL were monetized using the value of a statistical life-year approach. Absolute health costs were largest for white miners, but Native Americans had larger costs per elevated death.

Annual excess mortality over averaged This research advances our understanding of uranium extraction legacy impacts, particularly among indigenous populations. To assess the impact of obesity on health care costs and absenteeism in a cohort of mine workers. Prospective study of 4.

Total health care cost and days of sick leave were recordedfor each individual. The association between obesity and these variables was analyzed by logistic regression adjusting for co-morbidities, age and other variables. For absenteeism the most significant predictors were: presence of diabetes mellitus OR 1. Obesity increases significantly health care costs and absenteeism.

Preference mining plays an important role in e-commerce and video websites for enhancing user satisfaction and loyalty. Some classical methods are not available for the cold-start problem when the user or the item is new. In this paper, we propose a new model , called parametric neighborhood rough set on two universes NRSTU , to describe the user and item data structures.

Furthermore, the neighborhood lower approximation operator is used for defining the preference rules. Then, we provide the means for recommending items to users by using these rules. Finally, we give an experimental example to show the details of NRSTU-based preference mining for cold-start problem. The parameters of the model are also discussed. The experimental results show that the proposed method presents an effective solution for preference mining.

Data mining approach to model the diagnostic service management. Korea has National Health Insurance Program operated by the government-owned National Health Insurance Corporation, and diagnostic services are provided every two year for the insured and their family members. Developing a customer relationship management CRM system using data mining technology would be useful to improve the performance of diagnostic service programs. Under these circumstances, this study developed a model for diagnostic service management taking into account the characteristics of subjects using a data mining approach.

This study could be further used to develop an automated CRM system contributing to the increase in the rate of receiving diagnostic services. Cost modeling to justify technology acquisitions. In an era of diminishing resources, healthcare providers must justify new technology acquisitions.

Cost modeling is one method of evaluating the financial impact a technology acquisition will have on a healthcare facility or integrated delivery system. This methodology requires careful data collection and a thorough analysis of both current costs and future cost savings resulting from the new technology. By using a cost modeling methodology, providers will be able to achieve competitive and economic advantages by analyzing both cost and value.

Sediment processes modelling below hydraulic mining : towards environmental impact mitigation. The predictive models were suggested to assess each of the mane-made processes contribution into the total sediment budget of the rivers below mining sites. The empirical data and theoretical and laboratory-derived correlations were used to obtain the predictive models for each processes of sediment supply.

It was challenging to estimate specific erosion rate of washed exposed hillsides, channel incision, water supply conditions. Climatic and anthropogenic changes of water runoff also were simulated to decrease uncertainty of the proposed model. Application of the given approach to the hydraulic platinum- mining located in the Kamchatka peninsula Koryak plateau, tributaries of the Vivenka River gave the sediment budget of the placer- mined rivers and the total sediment yield supplied into the ocean from river basin.

Based on the sediment transport modeling the decision making system for controlling water pollution and stream community preservation was developed. Descriptions are given of the Calyx No. The deposits are composed of numerous small, irregular bodies and are worked through 36 inch Calyx drill holes. The U--V ores are concentrated chiefly in the lower 30 feet of the Moss Back sandstone. In general it follows the strnta. The mine is worked by open stoping with random pillar support.

The mathematical model of radon accumulation in underground mines. Necessity to control underground mine air radon level arises during building and operating mines as well as auto and railway tunnels including those for metros. Calculation of underground mine air radon level can be fulfilled for estimation of potential radon danger of area for underground structure building.

In this work the new mathematical model of radon accumulation in underground mines has been suggested. It takes into consideration underground mine dimensions, air exchange factor and soils ability to emanate radon. The following assumptions have been taken for model development. It is assumed that underground mine is a cylinder of length L and of base area S. Due to ventilation atmosphere air of volume activity Catm, is coming in through one cylinder base and is going out of volume activity Cind from underground mine.

Diffusion radon flux is coming in through side surfaces of underground mine. The sources of this flux are radium atoms distributed evenly in rock. For simplification of the task it considered possible to disregard radon emanation by loosened rock and underground waters.

Expression found may be used for calculation of the minimum factor of necessary air exchange for ensuring safe radon levels in underground spaces. With this worked out model expected levels of radon volume activity were calculated for air in the second metro line underground spaces in the city of Yekaterinburg, Russia. Different mine waste classes were mapped around the old open pit: gossan W1 , felsic volcanic and shales W2 , shales W3 and mining waste landfill W4.

Using the LNEG Portuguese Geological Survey CONASA database company historical mining waste characterization based on shafts and reverse circulation boreholes , a methodology for tridimensional modelling mining waste pile was followed, and a new mining waste resource is presented. Considering all evaluated wastes, including village areas, an inferred resource of 4. Iron ore mine provides an important strategic resource to the national economy while it also causes many serious ecological problems to the environment.

The study summed up the characteristics of ecological environment problems of underground iron mine. Considering the mining process of underground iron mine , we analysis connections between mining production, resource, environment and economical background.

The paper proposed a land ecological security evaluation system and method of underground iron mine based on Pressure-State-Response model. Our application in Chengchao iron mine proves its efficiency and promising guide on land ecological security evaluation.

A model for the cost of doing a cost estimate. That is, for a specific project, the cost of doing a budget estimate is about 2. Use of this model should help provide the level of resources required for doing cost estimates and, as a result, provide insights towards more accurate estimates with less potential for cost overruns. Customary parallel calculations for mining nonstop item create opportunity to adjust stack of similar data among hubs.

The paper aims to review this process by analyzing the critical execution downside of the common parallel recurrent item-set mining calculations. Given a larger than average dataset, data apportioning strategies inside the current arrangements endure high correspondence and mining overhead evoked by repetitive exchanges transmitted among registering hubs.

We tend to address this downside by building up a learning apportioning approach referred as Hadoop abuse using the map-reduce programming model. All objectives of Hadoop are to zest up the execution of parallel recurrent item-set mining on Hadoop bunches. Fusing the comparability metric and furthermore the locality-sensitive hashing procedure, Hadoop puts to a great degree comparative exchanges into an information segment to lift neighborhood while not making AN exorbitant assortment of excess exchanges.

We tend to execute Hadoop on a hub Hadoop bunch, driven by a decent change of datasets made by IBM quest market-basket manufactured data generator. Trial uncovers the fact that Hadoop contributes towards lessening system and processing masses by the uprightness of dispensing with excess exchanges on Hadoop hubs. Hadoop impressively outperforms and enhances the other models considerably.

HIV impacts heavily on the operating costs of companies in sub-Saharan Africa, with many companies now providing antiretroviral therapy ART programmes in the workplace. A full cost -benefit analysis of workplace ART provision has not been conducted using primary data.

We developed a dynamic health-state transition model to estimate the economic impact of HIV and the cost -benefit of ART provision in a mining company in South Africa between and A dynamic health-state transition model , called the Workplace Impact Model WIM , was parameterised with workplace data on workforce size, composition, turnover, HIV incidence, and CD4 cell count development.

Bottom-up cost analyses from the employer perspective supplied data on inpatient and outpatient resource utilisation and the costs of absenteeism and replacement of sick workers. The model was fitted to workforce HIV prevalence and separation data while incorporating parameter uncertainty; univariate sensitivity analyses were used to assess the robustness of the model findings. Preliminary Cost Model for Space Telescopes.

However, great care is required. Some space telescope cost models , such as those based only on mass, lack sufficient detail to support such analysis and may lead to inaccurate conclusions.

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