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We will see, under Concession 2. Tetapi aku tidak akan menghormati orang, di mana pun dan bila-bila pun , jika orang itu atau mereka memang orang yang tidak tahu adat dan tidak mahu menjaga maruah orang lain.

Panggillah bila-bila masa pun. Segala persiapan telah ada. Call any time! Everything is ready. A number of compounds are used, in positive clauses to express totality, and in negative clauses to express total absence. Each one can be split. Se kecil apapun , itu harus diperlakukan dengan hormat. No matter how small, it should be treated with respect. As a metaphor for people without personality. Sati had proved her words that evening.

In combination with the minimal quantifiers satu , se- and sedikit , as well as mana pun , this construction expresses the total absence of something. Dan tidak ada lauk apa pun juga. Maka nasi dingin itulah yang kuhidangkan kepada Pram. Telur pun tak ada. And no side dishes whatsoever. So, I served that cold rice to Pram. He ate it with margarine. There was not even an egg. Ajip Rosidi receives the visit of Pramoedya Ananta Toer, who has not eaten for three days. Tempo , , p. Sebuah may be used as an exceptional variant of satu [].

Set phrases like tidak sesuatu pun , tidak seorang pun , tidak sepatah kata pun [, ] are part of this pattern. Those constructions usually modify a noun phrase but can also, exceptionally, modify a verb []. The construction can be reversed []. Tidak can be replaced by other negations [, ]. Siapa pun tidak boleh mengganggunya! No-one can bother him! Most clauses starting with itu pun or ini pun , in which ini and itu are demonstrative pronouns, are concessive [, ].

Itu pun seorang di antaranya meninggal ketika masih kecil. Even so, one of them died as a child. Both words add similar meanings to the sentence and serve to complement each other. One or the other could be deleted without altering the meaning of the whole, even though in the case of some long sentences bahkan helps indicating the concessive meaning from the start, as in [, ].

Pun can be associated with malah or malahan in exactly the same way, as in [, ]. In one exceptional example [] the conjunction used is the combination bahkan pun juga , the three components of which have the same meaning. Even on Sundays, to go to Cilicing beach near Tanjung Priuk, they would use a bike.

Sepak bola di alun-alun, main gundu di pekarangan orang, memungut buah kenari yang banyak tumbuh di tepi jalan raya, selalu kami bersama. Malah sakit pun pernah bersama-sama, sebab terlalu banyak makan rujak Guga bersama-sama.

I But yes, however frustrating, I had to admit to myself that Rusli had indeed more experience and more knowledge about life that me, even about religious matters which he regarded as no more than one of the many aspects of existence. This is recorded in all handbooks. Appended to the concessive conjunctions andai andaikan , andaikata , seandainya , bagaimana , betapa , biar , bila , jika , kalau , kendati , meski , sekiranya and walau , pun produces compounds andaipun , biarpun , etc.

With apa and apa-apa , sekali and sungguh , pun forms compounds with new meanings. We have seen two different uses of apa pun and betapapun under the heading Indefiniteness above. The combinations jika pun , kot ye pun and se-X pun also produce concessive clauses. These expressions are mostly colloquial Malaysian:. In spite of this, nevertheless, the convention of reading from left to right and top to bottom is still a binding habit. We have seen this form among the markers of indefiniteness.

Bila pun ada tak seorang pun di sana bisa membaca bahwa waktu telah berjalan sampai pada tahun Even if somebody had owned one, nobody would have been able to read that time had run until With three occurrences of pun in 26 words.

Ia akan berakhir, betapapun panjang rentang waktunya. Kalaupun berlanjut, ia tak bisa menjawab segala soal. However long it can last, it will end. It is one of the most commonly used compounds in all categories of sources. It can, exceptionally, be split []. Se marah apa pun ulama, mendengar lantunan surat itu pasti luluh. However angry were the ulamas, they would calm down when hearing the sura.

This component is most often a declarative clause [], but it also can be a circumstantial clause [], a noun [], an adjective [], a verb [], or an adverb []. Second, as an adverb located after the component it modifies. This component can be: a a circumstantial clause, either concessive [] or conditional [], b a noun phrase [], c an adjective, modified by sekalipun alone [] or in the combination yang paling X sekalipun [].

Bahkan, pemberontakan Darul Islam sekalipun , semua itu merupakan protes terhadap ketidakadilan. Even the Darul Islam rebellion, all of them were protests against injustice. Cumming , for instance, refers a few times to the role of aesthetics over syntaxic choices. But it has to be underscored that the stylistic function of pun is fundamental. Pun is often used, in written as well as oral language, to give a sentence a certain look and hence to produce a certain effect.

The use of pun is thus also a matter of style. Afterwards the curtain closed , the function of pun in the combination pun…-lah is not emphasis to underline the word layar but to mark the sequence of events, and to give the sentence a specific style, that is, a touch of classical language, reminiscent of old textbooks of literature: the effect would be totally different, and the sentence inelegant, if we had only Kemudian layar tutup or Kemudian layar tutuplah.

This is relatively common with compounds inducing indefiniteness apa pun , mana pun … as in the following examples:. Tetapi semangat modern yang sebenarnya, semangat yang menyebabkan orang Barat dapat menjadi mulia, tiada diketahui mereka sedikit jua pun. A recent phenomenon, which seems to be peculiar to colloquial Malaysian, is the positioning of a clitic pun at the end of a clause or sentence as a result of inversion of the subject or elision of the predicate.

The effect is surprising compared to standard grammar. We will see in the following examples that pun gives more and more the impression of functioning as an adverb. Example [] comes from a novel by Shahnon Ahmad, where this use is common. This pattern is also found in interrogative sentences []. In [] the clause is reduced to an affirmation suffixed by — lah , followed by pun.

Tamai lagi — Awak pun? Many others. The expression is derived from ya-lah pun. Shahnon Ahmad is a stylist capable of completely changing style from one novel to the next. In another novel, Seluang Menodak Baung , published twenty years earlier , there is not, if I am not mistaken, a single instance of pun at the end of a clause, and the occurrences of pun are half as many 0.

M , p. For Indonesian sources, the data were collected in 14 novels, 1 autobiography and 2 press media, all published between and , while for Malaysian sources, the data were collected in 10 novels and 2 autobiographical texts, published between and In Indonesian, the proportions are as follows: the average percentage of pun occurrences in a total of words is 0. Sardjono, , and Catatan Acak-Acakan by Ayatrohaedi, It contains 1, occurrences of pun , that is, 0.

A very large majority of these occurrences are composed of compounds The compounds are mostly of the type tak They contain occurrences of pun 0. Compounds are relatively rare Thus, this specimen of spoken Malaysian recorded in a written source suggest the importance of the enclitic pun , the relative insignificance of compounds, the absence of pun as a conjunction, and the tendency to use pun at the end of the sentence with an almost adverbial value.

The uses of pun as an isolated particle are considered separately from the compound words containing the particle pun. In its isolated form, pun can have two different functions: as a clitic particle or as a conjunction, placed respectively after and before the component it determines, whereas in the form of compounds, pun forms conjunctions modifying a clause or establishing the relation between two clauses.

There are about thirty compounds; many can be split and many are used in combination with other functional words. Even in its most common use as a subject marker, pun is shown to have a special, neglected, function, i. In many cases pun causes the topicalization, and even sometimes the dislocation of the subject.

As such pun can function either inside a clause, to link two components of the clause, or in a sentence made of two independent clauses, being placed at the head of the second. In that latter case, it can either mark the subject of the second clause or the whole clause. The first and the fourth of these values are caused by the enclitic particle and compounds alike, whereas the second value is the result of the enclitic particle only, and the third of compounds only.

The stylistic function of pun is actually fundamental. Among many examples, it can be observed that in recent colloquial Malaysian, an enclitic pun is placed at the end of a clause or sentence as a result of inversion of the subject or elision of the predicate. Among the novelties are the use of pun in a sentence reduced to a subject or a predicate, the frequency of the use of pun qualifying a predicate, and the use of pun at the end of a clause. One also sees that pun often functions at the level of a unique clause and that it tends to lose its syntactic function at the level of the sentence to fulfill the role of an adverb.

This justifies the choice made at the outset of this essay to describe the particle pun in all Indonesian and Malaysian registers for which written evidence is available. A much smaller but better composed corpus would actually have been sufficient.

Much work remains to be done, however: to analyze the development of usage of pun over a century, to distinguish genres or styles pun clitic with predicates and objects, as well as pun conjunction, are not used by everyone , to take into account more oral material, to include material from Brunei Malay, to quantify the various types of uses of pun , to investigate the Malay of the 19th century and so on.

Limited as it is, this article shows that the particle pun has been considerably renewed in modern language compared to classical Malay and is today very widespread and extremely dynamic. I rest my case pun.

However, he and the other scholars mentioned above are not responsible for the views expressed above or for any mistake they may contain. The documention for this article was mainly collected during the time I was a guest research fellow at the Academy of Malay Studies, University of Malaya.

I wish to thank the Academy for its hospitality and both Prof. Nor Hisham Osman and Prof. Zahir Ahmad for sharing valuable information about the variety of Malay idioms. Lie Kim Hok. Pembalesan Baccarat Samboengan Penipoe Besar novel. Djilid ka-satoe. Batavia: Hoa Siang In Kiok, Lie Kimhok. Nona Genevieve de Vadans novel. Batavia: Sin Po, Mas Marco Kartodikromo. Student Hijo novel. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Aksara Indonesia, []. Tio Ie Soei. Doea Tjerita dari Tana Preangan novel.

Raden Adipati Aria Wiranata Koesoema. Perdjalanan Saja ke Mekah travel relation. Weltevreden: Balai Poestaka, []. Kwee Tek Hoay. Drama dari Krakatau novel. Njoo Cheong Seng. Raden Adjeng Moerhia novel. Tjerita Roman, no.

Soe Lie Piet. Bidadari dari Telaga Toba novel. Tjerita Roman no. Pandji Tisna. Sukreni Gadis Bali novel. Djakarta: Balai Pustaka, Ong Ping Lok. Mateng dalem Tangisan novel. Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana. Layar Terkembang novel. Pouw Kioe An. Doea Matjem Komedi novel. Anak Ponorogo. Gila Mentega novel. Tenggelamnya Kapal Van der Wijck novel. Djakarta: Bulan Bintang, Achdiat Karta Mihardja. Atheis novel. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka, []. Mandi Tjahaja di Tanah Sutji pilgrimage relation.

Djakarta: Gapura, Pramoedya Ananta Toer. Bukan Pasar Malam novella. Motinggo Busye. Perempuan Paris novel. Jakarta: Lokajaya, Asmaraman S. Kho Ping Hoo. Surakarta: Gema, Ashadi Siregar. Cintaku di Kampus Biru novel. Jakarta: Gramedia, Godlob short story , in Godlob. Jakarta: Rombongan Dongeng dari Dirah, Mochtar Lubis. Harimau, Harimau! Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya, Teguh Esha.

Ali Topan Kesandung Cinta novel. Jakarta: Cypress, Terminal Cinta Terakhir novel. Ali Topan Detektip Partikelir novel. Ahmad Tohari. Ronggeng Dukuh Paruk novel. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Lintang Kemukus Dini Hari novel. Di Kaki Bukit Cibalak novel. Jentera Bianglala novel. Arswendo Atmowiloto. Senopati Pamungkas, buku I novel. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama, []. Gadis Pantai novel. Jakarta: Hasta Mitra, Bekisar Merah novel. Oskep novel. Jakarta: Subentra Citra Pustaka, Remy Sylado.

Mantra Penjinak Ular novel. Jakarta: Kompas, Maria A. Bintang Dini Hari novel. Dee [Dewi Lestari]. Supernova 2: Akar novel. Bandung: Truedee Books, Supernova 3: Petir novel. Andrea Hirata. Laskar Pelangi novel. Yogyakarta: Bentang, Pipit Rochijat Kartawidjaja. Jakarta: Octopus Garden, Ajip Rosidi. Hidup tanpa Ijazah: Yang Terekam dalam Kenangan autobiography. Mimpi-Mimpi Lintang Maryamah Karpov novel. Yogyakarta: Bentang Pustaka, Antologi Cerita Pendek Indonesia-Papua short stories.

Jayapura: Balai Bahasa, Habiburrahman El Shirazy. Tere Liye. Bidadari-Bidadari Surga novel. Jakarta: Republika, Goenawan Mohamad. Seno Gumira Ajidarma. Panji Tengkorak: Kebudayaan dalam Perbincangan dissertation.

Ayu Utami. Cerita Cinta Enrico novel. Drupadi Perempuan Poliandris novel. Samad Said. Salina novel. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Arena Wati. Meniti Kala memoirs. Bab III only, pp. Shahnon Ahmad. Seluang Menodak Baung novel.

Kuala Lumpur: Heinemann, Anwar Ridhwan. Hari-Hari Terakhir Seorang Seniman novel. I only consulted 1. The Concordance actually covers a few decades. I only consulted occurrences of pun. Sutan Baginda novel. Suratman Markasan.

Ampang Selangor : Pekan Ilmu, Six stories only. Pendekar Mato Tige cartoon. Kuala Lumpur: Creative Enterprise, []. Dihanyutkan ke air yang deras, dibuang ke tanah yang lekang Kompilasi Gila-Gila cartoon. Kuala Lumpur: Creative Enterprise, Kassim Ahmad. Petaling Jaya: ZI Publications, Adib Zaini. Zombijaya novel.

Petaling Jaya: Fixi, Ainul Hazrah. Bukan Hanya Sesaat novel. Shah Alam: Karangkraf, Tiga Dara Pingitan , jilid 3 cartoon. Nadia Khan. Kelabu novel. Petaling Jaya: Fixi, []. Awak Pengantin Saya! Hasrul Rizwan. Jahanam novel. Budak Hostel Otaknya Sewel novel. Bangi: Dubook, Pakar collection of two novellas. Sinaganaga dkk. Lelaki Simpanan collection of stories. Kuala Lumpur: Sindiket Sol-Jah, Ahmat Adam. Ajamiseba, Danielo C. Asmah Haji Omar. Nahu Melayu Mutakhir edisi keempat.

Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Becker, A. Givon ed. Also in A. Chaer, Abdul. Tata Bahasa Praktis Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Bhratara. Chambert-Loir, Henri. Cumming, Susanna. Berlin — New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Favre, P. Grammaire de la langue malaise. Vienne: Imprimerie Imperiale et Royale. Fokker, A. Beknopte Maleise grammatica, derde druk. Groningen: J. Goddart, Cliff. Hikayat Aceh.

Teuku Iskandar ed. Hikayat Hang Tuah. Kassim Ahmad ed. New edition, Hoogervorst, Tom. Ismail Bin Dahaman. Lewis, M. Teach Yourself Malay. London: English Universities Press. Sentence Analysis in Modern Malay. Lombard, Denys. Marsden, William. A Grammar of the Malayan Language.

London: The Author. Reprint, Singapore: Oxford University Press, Mintz, Malcolm W. Singapore: EPB Publishers. Muhammad Haji Salleh. Muhammad Yusoff Hashim ed. Melaka: Kolej Universiti Islam Melaka. Jakarta: Haru Media. Ophuijsen, Ch.

Maleische spraakkunst. Salmon, Claudine. Literature in Malay by the Chinese of Indonesia: A provisional annotated bibliography. Sneddon, James Neil. Colloquial Jakartan Indonesian. Indonesian Reference Grammar, Second Edition. Sneddon, J. Indonesian Reference Grammar with the participation of A. Steinhauer, Hein. Leerboek Indonesisch, tweede, herziene druk. Stevens, Alan M. A Comprehensive Indonesian-English Dictionary. Athens Ohio : Ohio University Press.

Sulalat al-Salatin. Abdul Rahman Haji Ismail ed. Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia. Anton M. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka. Tatabahasa Dewan. Wan Mohd Dasuki Wan Hasbullah. Werndly, George Henrik. Maleische spraakkunst, uit de eige schriften der Maleiers opgemaakt, etc.

New edition by C. Wilkinson, R. A Malay-English Dictionary Romanised. Winstedt, R. Malay Grammar , 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Henri Chambert-Loir. Word categories indexed by pun. Syntactic categories qualified by pu n. The aesthetics of pun. Pun at the end of a clause. Pun as a particle 32 In its isolated form, pun can have two different functions: as clitic particle or as conjunction, placed respectively after and before the component it determines A and B below , whereas in the form of compounds, pun forms conjunctions modifying a clause or establishing the relation between two clauses.

Clitic particle 33 A clitic particle is a particle that is placed either after enclitic or before proclitic the word or the phrase it modifies, but, contrary to an affix, remains syntactically independent from it. The functions of pun as a clitic particle belong to two categories: 34 a enclitic pun is placed after a noun-phrase which it qualifies as topic of a clause; pun is a topic marker; it can follow almost all categories of words; all types of documents considered, this function of pun represents the majority of pun uses in modern language; 35 b pun proclitic modifies the whole following clause, the relation of which with the preceding clause it determines.

Here are two examples, one Indonesian and one Malaysian: [1] Bahkan sangat ceroboh sehingga kalaupun ada buku yang dipinjam, aku tidak pernah mencatat siapa peminjamnya. Word categories indexed by pun 40 Pun can index most parts of speech: nouns, names, pronouns, intransitive verbs, transitive verbs, nominalised adjectives, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, negations, adverbs, aspectual markers, classifiers, the auxiliary ada , and maybe more.

Nouns, including substantives [3, 4], names [5, 6] and nominalised adjectives [7, 8] 41 [3] Pintu pun dibuka dari dalam. Pronouns In modern idiomatic Malaysian, it may happen that the pronoun is foreign, as in [11]. Adjectives This use represents an exception and seems to be even rarer in Indonesian than Malaysian. Preposition The corpus provided two examples only, both Indonesian and both with the preposition sampai. Negations All my examples are Malaysian. The expressions ini pun , ni pun , itu pu n 81 Apart from their function as demonstrative pronouns or adjectives buku ini , rumah itu , ini yang saya cari , itu suatu alat dapur , ini and itu also have an adverbial meaning a rare but common use, ignored in most textbooks , when they replace and may be the abbreviation of adverbial phrases such as dengan ini , bersama ini , sekarang ini , waktu itu.

Numerals Most examples regard the unity satu , sebuah in negative clauses tidak Aspectual markers This usage too is uniquely Malaysian. The auxiliary ad a This is exceptional and only found in Malaysian. Syntactic categories qualified by pu n The syntactic categories qualifyed by pun are subject, predicate, object, circumstantial expressions, circumstantial clauses of time, or concessive and conditional clauses. Subject as topic A. General conventions Qualifying of subject is, statistically, the most frequent use of pun.

In most cases where pun qualifies a subject, it is either a single noun [65] or a noun followed by a very short [66] or relatively short [67] expansion: [65] Kapal pun bertolaklah. But cases of dislocation are also found, as in: [73] Tidak saja mengorbankan kesenangan diri, harta dan kekayaan, akan tetapi menjual kehormatannya sendiri pun banyak orang yang bersedia melakukannya.

Declarative clause as subject The sentence is composed of a declarative clause, which acts as subject, and a predicate. Patient [87] Ia pun dikeluarkan oleh guru, karena tiada pernah mengunjungi sekolah lagi. Predicate Can pun qualify a predicate? Object Can pun qualify an object? Circumstantial expressions Of time, place, manner, quantity, agency, goal, and attribution as follows.

Of time Such expressions are potentially infinite in number. Of quantity I found examples in Malaysian sources only, mainly in recent popular novels. Circumstantial clauses [] Setelah meraih gelar Magister pun kami masih hidup susah Conditional clauses The conditional clauses marked by pun begin with a conditional conjunction kalau , more rarely jika and end with pun.

Coordinating conjunction Pun as a clitic particle still has another function, much rarer, which has been ignored by grammarians so far, even though it is found throughout the 20th c. Several cases arise: a. Pun coordinates two components of a clause The two components are circumstantial complements.

Pun proclitic marks the subject of a clause That subject is different from the subject of the preceding clause, and presents a similarity with it. Pun qualifies a second independent clause B. The subject of the second clause is different from that of the first The meaning is that of a similarity between the actions of the two clauses. Pun introduces a circumstantial clause B. A temporal clause [] Nov juga bisa menekan seluruh perasaannya dengan menyebutkan sebagai Bapak, pun saat hanya berdua.

A clause designating a beneficiary [] Siap tugasan itu, dicedok pula sayur… pun untuk Nurul. A clause designating a cause [] Dahulu dia dimarahi oleh Farid sebab Maryam. A clause designating manner [] Saya bangun, dan di bawah kedengaran langkah kaki dan sepatu orang-orang, yang pun sebagai saya, berlomba datang ke masjid.

Pun in compounds A. Types of compounds There are about 30 compound words formed with pun and other words, especially conjunctions. Comparison A. Enclitic particle Pun is often used in the second of two consecutive clauses, to show some parallelism: similarity, identity, or progression.

Similarity [] Langit ada terang sekali, dan dari sebab di itoe waktoe masih pagi, belun ada poekoel anam, angin poen ada sedjoek. Progression In addition to establishing a comparison, pun can add a nuance of crescendo, progression: the second term is not only similar to the first, it is, in a way, of a higher degree.

Temporal Sequence This is specific of pun as enclitic particle indicating the succession of actions, the flow of the narrative, its evolution in time. Indefiniteness There is no example with pun as enclitic particle: pun introduces this connotation only via the following compounds: apa pun , bagaimanapun , berapa pun , betapapun , bila pun , kapan pun , mana pun , siapa pun , tak se-X pun , tak sedikit pun. Time Apa pun with a word indicating time. Totality, generalization A number of compounds are used, in positive clauses to express totality, and in negative clauses to express total absence.

Positive clauses Three compounds: apa pun , siapa pun , mana pun. Enclitic particle Pun indicates that a situation is so extreme that: 1 even an exceptional event or being could be involved [, ], 2 even an unreal condition could not prevent it [, ], 3 one can be surprised at its consequences [, ]. Compounds Pun is appended to a dozen other words to form conjunctions used to introduce concessive clauses. These expressions are mostly colloquial Malaysian: [] Apa-apa jadi pun , dia tetap mama Amir.

A Matter of Style Style is not a grammatical question, so that it is not discussed in the studies referenced here, even though it is not ignored. Pun at the end of a clause It can happen that compounds built on pun are located at the end of a clause.

Kubah novel. Kompas newspaper. Tempo weekly magazine : ten issues, I Ishak Haji Muhammad. Putera Gunung Tahan novel. Gantung novel. Leuven — Paris: Peeters. Pantulan itu akan dibaca oleh alat khusus bernama hidrofon. Menghitung Untung dan Rugi Pengeboran minyak tidak dilakukan di sembarang tempat. Pengeboran minyak membutuhkan biaya yang sangat mahal.

Untuk itu harus dihitung dulu apakah kandungan minyak di dalam tanah cukup banyak atau tidak. Ledakan Penunjuk Minyak Jangan kaget jika melihat para pencari minyak meledakkan dinamit saat mereka mencari minyak. Dari ledakan itu bisa diketahui tingkat ketebalan lapisan batuan di atas batuan yang mengandung minyak. Eksperimen: Batu yang Haus Minyak terkandung dalam lapisan batuan. Namun, tak sembarang batuan bisa menyerap minyak. Batuan yang mengandung minyak adalah batuan berpori dan mempunyai kerapatan rendah.

Kumpulkan bermacam-macam batuan agar kamu tahu kemampuan masing-masing batuan menyerap cairan. Larutkan pewarna dalam air di gelas yang besar. Bagi air ke dalam gelas ukur. Banyaknya air dalam gelas harus sama. Masukkan batu ke dalam gelas ukur.

Tunggu hingga beberapa jam. Catat batu mana yang paling banyak menyerap air. Berapa volume air yang diserap batuan? Halaman 22 — 23 Eksplorasi Minyak dan Gas Bumi Metode pengeboran tertua yang dipakai sampai tahun adalah metode pengeboran perkakas-kabel. Lubang sumur dibuat dengan menghantam permukaan tanah menggunakan mata bor tajam yang berat. Bisa juga digunakan alat pemotong yang terpasang pada ujung suatu kabel.

Mata bor diangkat dan dijatuhkan berulang kali ke tanah sampai tercapai kedalaman lubang yang diinginkan. Metode pengeboran modern yang sekarang sering dipakai adalah pengeboran rotasi. Panggung Anjungan Panggung anjungan didirikan untuk meletakkan mesin dan pipa pengambilan minyak di lepas pantai. Pengeboran Pengeboran sumur minyak menggunakan mata bor yang masuk ke dalam bumi. Kilang Minyak Minyak mentah hasil pengeboran dikirim ke kilang minyak untuk diolah menjadi bermacam-macam produk.

Halaman 24 — 25 Rig sebagai Tempat Pengeboran Pengeboran di lepas pantai dapat dilakukan setelah rig sebagai tempat pengeboran dibangun. Ada tiga bentuk rig, yaitu rig berkaki tetap jack up unit , rig setengah terapung semi summersible drilling rig , dan kapal pengebor drilling ship. Jenis rig biasanya disesuaikan dengan kedalaman laut.

Rig Berkaki Tetap Jack Up Unit Kaki-kaki rig menancap kuat di dasar laut, dan bisa dinaikturunkan sesuai dengan pasang-surut air laut. Rig jenis ini dibangun jika akan dilakukan pengeboran sedalam meter. Rig Setengah Terapung Semi Summersible Drilling Rig Rig jenis ini tak memunyai kaki-kaki, tapi memunyai pengapung ponton untuk menjaga kestabilan posisi rig.

Jika pengeboran yang akan dilakukan mencapai kedalaman meter, rig jenis ini tepat untuk digunakan. Kapal Pengebor Drilling Ship Bentuk rig jenis ini mirip kapal biasa. Digunakan jika pengeboran yang akan dilakukan mencapai kedalaman 1. Macam-Macam Mata Bor Pengeboran dimulai pada saat mata bor mulai mencapai dasar laut atau permukaan tanah.

Mata bor terdiri dari dua tipe, yaitu tipe kerucut putar roller cone dan tipe berlian diamond bit. Bagaimana Mengeluarkan Minyak dari Perut Bumi? Pengeboran minyak dimulai dengan pendirian derrick atau menara bor. Derrick akan berfungsi sebagai tempat pipa panjang dengan bit atau mata bor di ujungnya. Bila pipa bor makin dalam, maka potongan pipa-pipa lain akan disambungkan. Pipa sambungan diputar oleh mesin putar agar mata bor makin masuk ke dalam. Selongsong atau pipa yang lebih lebar dari pipa bor dipasang untuk melindungi dinding lubang pengeboran.

Setelah sampai di batuan yang mengandung minyak, pipa bor ditarik ke atas, sehingga yang tinggal adalah pipa selongsong. Setelah katup besi sebagai pengatur minyak yang akan keluar dipasang, minyak mulai dipompa ke atas. Ada juga yang tingginya mencapai tinggi gedung berlantai Repotnya Jika Mata Bor Patah Ketika pengeboran dilakukan, kadang-kadang mata bor patah saat terkena batuan yang keras.

Jika mata bor akan diganti, maka para pekerja tambang harus mengangkat kembali pipa-pipa yang telah terpasang. Setelah mata bor diganti, barulah pipa-pipa dipasang kembali. Alarm Pencegah Kebakaran Minyak adalah zat yang sangat mudah terbakar. Oleh karena itu, tempat pengeboran minyak harus dilengkapi dengan alat pengaman dan pemadam kebakaran. Pada saat alarm kebakaran menyala, bahan kimia antiapi segera tersemprot secara otomatis.

Pompa Angguk di Darat Berbeda dengan eksplorasi minyak di laut, eksplorasi minyak di darat menggunakan pompa angguk. Pompa itu langsung dihubungkan dengan pipa panjang yang membawa minyak ke kilang minyak. Membersihkan Gas Hasil Tambang Gas bumi juga mengandung gas-gas yang tak bisa terbakar, seperti karbon dioksida, nitrogen, dan helium.

Sebelum gas bumi diubah jadi LPG, gas-gas tersebut dibuang melalui proses kimia. Setelah bersih, gas dipisahkan berdasarkan struktur hidrokarbonnya. Gas metan, etan, propan, dan butan dijual terpisah. Kandungan minyak dan air di gas bumi juga harus dipisahkan. Halaman 26 - 27 Siapakah Edwin Drake? Edwin Drake adalah orang pertama yang berhasil melakukan eksplorasi minyak.

Drake terkenal sebagai seorang pekerja keras sejak ia masih muda. Ia mencoba berbagai pekerjaan. Mulai dari pegawai kereta api, pelayan hotel, hingga teknisi kapal uap. Drake mulai tertarik pada bisnis minyak setelah menginvestasikan uang sebesar dollar kepada perusahaan minyak Pensylvania Rock Oil Company.

Ia mulai memimpin pengeboran pada bulan Juni di Titusville, Pensylvania. Dipasang Tapi Tak Berguna Pipa-pipa minyak sepanjang kilometer dipasang di Chicago, tapi tak bisa difungsikan secara maksimal. Alhasil, pipa-pipa tersebut dibongkar kembali. On shore adalah sebutan untuk tambang minyak di daratan, sedangkan off shore adalah sebutan tambang minyak di lepas pantai.

Kapal Tanker si Pengangkut Kapal tanker adalah transportasi yang paling sering digunakan untuk mengangkut gas dan minyak bumi. Minyak mentah bisa langsung diangkut, sedangkan gas harus dimampatkan dan didinginkan agar berwujud cair.

Pipa-Pipa Panjang Pembawa Gas Gas bumi disalurkan ke permukaan bumi melalui pipa-pipa baja yang panjang. Gas cair diubah kembali menjadi wujud gas, lalu disalurkan melalui pipa-pipa dengan cara dipompa. Pompa yang digunakan haruslah yang bertekanan sangat tinggi. Metode steam flood process sering digunakan untuk meningkatkan produksi minyak mentah.

Metode ini menggunakan uap air. Uap air hasil pemanasan dipompa ke bawah tanah untuk mengubah minyak yang kental menjadi lebih encer. Minyak yang encer lebih mudah dialirkan ke permukaan. Metode ini telah dipakai di Indonesia, terutama di ladang minyak milik Chevron di Riau. Eksperimen: Membuat Katrol Pada saat melakukan pengeboran, para petugas memasang pipa-pipa besi yang panjang dan berat. Namun beban tersebut akan terasa ringan jika diangkat menggunakan katrol.

Katrol mempunyai roda yang bisa menghasilkan gaya angkat. Dengan gulungan benang bekas cobalah buat katrol sederhana! Buktikan bagaimana katrol menyebabkan beban terasa lebih ringan. Masukkan kawat ke dalam selongsong benang. Tekuklah kawat sehingga berbentuk seperti gantungan baju. Buat dua 2 katrol, lalu siapkan gelas plastik.

Isi gelas plastik dengan kerikil. Jangan lupa beri pegangan pada gelas. Kaitkan satu katrol pada pasak yang dipasang di plafon, dan kaitkan satu katrol lainnya ke ember beban. Angkat ember beban naik-turun. Ember beban terasa lebih ringan, bukan? Halaman Refinery Minyak Mentah dan Gas Bumi Minyak mentah yang diambil dari ladang minyak harus disuling dengan baik sebelum digunakan. Proses penyulingan dan pengolahan, yang biasa disebut dengan istilah refinery, adalah proses rekayasa kimia yang sangat rumit.

Itulah sebabnya, di kilang minyak terlihat banyak menara baja bulat yang tinggi dan tungku perapian yang dililit pipa yang sangat panjang. Proses dasar pengilangan minyak adalah distilasi penyulingan dan cracking pemecahan. Menara Distilasi Minyak mentah diolah dan dipanaskan dalam menara distilasi.

Proses pemisahan dimulai dengan memanaskan minyak di menara distilasi. Panas akan memisah-misahkan minyak berdasarkan titik didihnya. Rak-rak bertingkat di menara distilasi mengumpulkan uap yang naik. Hasil penyulingan adalah minyak yang telah terpisah jadi beberapa bagian.

Bagian paling atas bertitik didih sekitar 20 derajat Celsius, akan menjadi gas. Bagian kedua bertitik didih sekitar derajat Celsius, akan menjadi bensin. Bagian ketiga bertitik didih antara hingga derajat Celsius, akan menjadi minyak tanah dan solar. Sedangkan, bagian yang berada paling bawah adalah oli dan sisa-sisa distilasi.

Setelah proses distilasi, minyak mentah akan dibawa ke proses konversi. Proses ini mengubah struktur dan ukuran senyawa hidrokarbon yang telah dipisah pada proses distilasi. Proses konversi terdiri dari tiga tahap, yaitu dekomposisi, unifikasi, dan alterasi. Setelah melalui tiga tahap itu, minyak mentah di- treatment diolah. Proses treatment dimulai dengan pencampuran dan penambahan bahan tambahan zat aditif hingga didapat produk akhir yang diinginkan.

Mendapatkan Bensin Lebih Banyak Bensin atau gasolin adalah produk utama kilang minyak. Agar diperoleh jumlah bensin yang lebih banyak daripada minyak mentah maka harus dilakukan proses pemecahan. Proses ini memecah molekul yang lebih berat menjadi molekul yang lebih ringan. Hasil pemecahan kemudian disuling lagi agar didapatkan bensin baru. Gas LPG berbau tajam dan sangat menyengat karena di dalamnya sengaja ditambahkan dan dicampurkan gas mercaptan.

Bau menyengat mercaptan berguna sebagai tanda terjadinya kebocoran dalam tabung LPG. Cokers Membuat Residu Kembali Berharga Residu atau sisa pengolahan minyak mentah dapat diolah menjadi produk berharga setelah melalui proses khusus yang disebut cokers. Dalam proses ini digunakan panas dan tekanan untuk mengubah residu yang berat menjadi produk yang lebih ringan dan berharga. Minyak itu diperoleh dari hasil pengolahan batu bara.

Gessner menyebutnya kerosin. Proses Tambahan untuk Kesempurnaan Hasil pengolahan minyak di kilang minyak masih harus mendapat proses pendukung lainnya agar hasilnya sempurna. Proses itu antara lain: penghilangan air asin, pemerolehan kembali zat sulfur, pemanasan, pendinginan, dan pembuatan hidrogen. Katalis adalah zat yang bisa mengubah kecepatan reaksi kimia tanpa memengaruhi hasilnya.

Standar oktan adalah penentu mutu bensin. Makin tinggi angka oktan, maka mutu bensin pun makin tinggi. Angka oktan didapat dari persentase partikel isooktan dalam bensin. Bensin beroktan rendah menyebabkan mesin mengalami knoking.

Akibatnya, mesin bergetar lebih cepat dan bersuara kasar. Bila dibiarkan, mesin akan cepat rusak. Cara mengatasinya adalah dengan menambah bahan antiknoking ke bensin. Contoh bahan antiknoking adalah timbal tetraetil dan tetrametil. Namun, pemakaian timbal dapat menyebabkan gangguan kesehatan dan lingkungan. Sekitar tahun , diperkenalkan bensin jenis baru yang lebih aman bagi kesehatan dan lingkungan.

Namanya gasohol. Gasohol adalah hasil campuran bensin gasolin dengan beberapa bagian alkohol etanol dan metanol. Minyak Pelumas untuk Mesin Mesin perlu minyak pelumas untuk mengurangi gesekan pada saat mesin bekerja. Minyak pelumas atau oli adalah sebagian kecil produk minyak bumi. Minyak pelumas digunakan untuk melumasi roda pada mesin, persneling, dan tangkai berputar. Macam-Macam Jenis Gas Gas yang banyak dipakai saat ini adalah jenis gas bumi. Sebagian besar gas bumi mengandung metana.

Metana terbentuk dari karbon dan hidrogen. Ada juga gas yang dibuat dari batu bara dan nafta. Aspal didapat sebagai residu atau sisa terbawah dan terberat penyulingan minyak mentah yang diberi bahan pengental. Selain digunakan sebagai pelapis permukaan jalan, aspal juga digunakan sebagai lapisan antibocor pada genteng. Apakah Avtur Itu? Mesin pesawat terbang menggunakan bahan bakar khusus. Bahan bakar itu didapat dari minyak tanah yang diolah lebih lanjut. Distilasi adalah proses pemisahan dan pemurnian minyak bumi.

Eksperimen: Pemadam Api Ajaib Tempat pengolahan minyak sangat rawan dengan kebakaran. Alat pemadam kebakaran yang terdiri dari lapisan air, busa, dan karbon dioksida, harus selalu siap mengantisipasi terjadinya kebakaran. Bagaimana cara kerja alat pemadam kebakaran dapat dilihat melalui percobaan berikut ini.

Pasang lilin dalam mangkuk. Rekatkan lilin dengan plastisin agar tak goyah. Nyalakan lilin dengan korek api. Beri cuka di sekitar lilin yang menyala. Taburkan soda kue ke atas cuka di sekitar lilin. Beberapa saat kemudian, api lilin akan padam. Api lilin tak bisa dinyalakan lagi karena campuran cuka dan soda kue menghasilkan karbon dioksida di sekitar lilin.

Sebanyak Padahal, Kepulauan Galapagos adalah rumah bagi banyak tumbuhan dan hewan langka. Para ahli segera memasang batas-batas terapung boom di sekitar kapal tanker agar minyak tak menyebar lebih jauh. Lapisan-lapisan pengisap juga dipasang di permukaan laut untuk menyerap tumpahan minyak. Semua itu adalah bukti bahwa pengeksplorasian minyak dan gas bumi pun harus disertai dengan kesigapan menjaga lingkungan hidup.

Zat Kimia Pengurai Minyak yang menyebar segera disemprot zat kimia pengurai agar tak berbahaya bagi lingkungan. Menyelamatkan Hewan Tumpahan minyak mentah adalah racun bagi sebagian hewan. Minyak mentah harus dibersihkan dari tubuh mereka agar mereka selamat. Batas Terapung Di sekitar kapal yang karam dipasang boom atau batas terapung agar minyak tak menyebar.

Alat itu mirip rangkaian sosis besi yang mengapung di air. Jika Lolos Akan Dibakar Minyak yang berhasil lolos dari batas terapung akan dibakar agar tak tersisa di laut. Halaman 36 - 37 Pelindung yang Tak Tampak Atmosfer bagaikan selimut pelindung bagi bumi. Lapisan ozon di atmosfer melindungi bumi dari sinar matahari yang panas, juga melindungi bumi dari serangan dingin angkasa luar.

Atmosfer juga mengandung udara yang dihirup manusia setiap hari. Atmosfer terdiri dari oksigen, nitrogen, dan sebagian kecil karbon dioksida. Pada saat ini, lapisan ozon banyak yang berlubang akibat pencemaran udara di bumi. Ombak Laut Berenergi Dengan bantuan generator listrik, gerakan ombak laut yang cukup kuat mampu menghasilkan arus listrik. Salah satu metode yang digunakan untuk mengubah energi gerak ombak laut menjadi arus listrik adalah metode nodding ducks. Pada metode ini digunakan pipa panjang yang dapat bergerak mengikuti alunan ombak.

Timbal yang Berbahaya Timbal ditambahkan pada bensin agar kualitas bensin meningkat. Namun, timbal sangat berbahaya sehingga penggunaannya dikurangi. Selain memperburuk kadar polusi udara, timbal dalam bensin juga menyebabkan gangguan kesehatan pada manusia.

Alat yang terlihat seperti rangkaian pipa besi itu digunakan untuk menahan partikel-partikel berbahaya dalam gas agar tak ikut terbuang ke udara. Pada saat gas masuk ke dalam pipa, gas akan disemprot dengan cairan pembersih. Cairan pembersih dialirkan ke tabung pemisahan atau tabung separasi, sehingga partikel yang berbahaya dan yang tak berbahaya dalam gas akan terpisah.

Partikel yang berbahaya diendapkan, sedangkan partikel yang tak berbahaya dibuang ke udara. Akibat kecelakaan ini, sekitar 38 juta liter minyak mentah tumpah ke laut. Namun ExxonMobil bertanggung jawab dengan membersihkan lingkungan dari tumpahan minyak mentah.

Setelah 3 tahun bekerja, Departemen Lingkungan Amerika Serikat menyatakan lingkungan telah kembali bersih. Bagaimana Jika Minyak Bumi Habis? Pada saat I ni, minyak bumi, batu bara, dan gas bumi menjadi tulang punggung bagi 90 persen kebutuhan energi dunia. Sebelum mereka habis, perlu dipersiapkan sumber energi lain sebagai sumber energi alternatif. Sumber energi alternatif yang ada saat ini adalah energi air, gelombang laut, angin, dan matahari.

Tanda-Tanda Bahaya Hati-hati saat melintas di daerah yang bertanda seperti ini. Tanda-tanda itu berarti: images Awas benda yang mudah terbakar! Awas kabel listrik tegangan tinggi! Awas ada material radioaktif! Awas tabung-tabung gas bertekanan tinggi! Kapal Tanker Harus Dirawat Kapal tanker harus dirawat secara berkala. Tangki dan lambung kapalnya pun harus selalu dibersihkan. Dalam proses pembersihan, semua tangki harus dikosongkan dari sisa-sisa minyak, untuk mencegah terjadinya ledakan dan kebakaran.

Sisa minyak dan air bilasan yang mengandung minyak juga tak mengotori laut. Oleh karena itu, galangan perawatan harus punya tangki khusus penampung limbah. Polusi udara menyebabkan terjadinya pemanasan global dan hujan asam. Pemanasan global menyebabkan perubahan iklim dan pola curah hujan.

Akibatnya, lahan-lahan subur bisa menjadi gurun pasir yang tandus. Wilayah yang biasanya bercurah hujan teratur pun bisa tiba-tiba mengalami banjir. Hujan asam terjadi saat partikel berbahaya yang keluar dari asap pabrik dan kendaraan bermotor jatuh bersamasama dengan air hujan. Hujan asam tak hanya berbahaya bagi hewan dan tumbuhan, tapi juga bagi manusia. Hujan asam mengakibatkan berbagai penyakit pernapasan, seperti asma dan bronkhitis.

Hujan asam juga bisa merusak bangunan yang terbuat dari besi dan batu. Apa Bahayanya Minyak Mentah di Laut? Banyak binatang yang tersiksa dengan tumpahan minyak di laut. Minyak dapat menghancurkan zat antiair di tubuh anjing laut dan burung, sehingga mereka bisa mati kedinginan. Minyak juga meracuni makanan hewan-hewan laut. Matahari Sumber Energi Alternatif Matahari adalah salah satu sumber energi yang diharapkan bisa menggantikan minyak dan gas bumi.

Selain terus ada, energi matahari juga bersih dan tak berasap, sehingga aman bagi lingkungan. Apa Itu Hubbert Peak Theory? Menurut teori ini, setelah produksi minyak mencapai puncak, maka jumlah produksi minyak akan terus menurun dan lama-lama habis. Teori ini digambarkan seperti kurva huruf v terbalik.

Membuat Gas dari Batu Bara Cadangan batu bara lebih banyak dibandingkan dengan cadangan gas bumi. Batu bara juga dapat diubah menjadi gas bumi. Proses perubahan itu disebut Proses Lurgi, yaitu proses pencampuran batu bara yang sudah dihancurkan dengan uap dan oksigen untuk menghasilkan gas. Tumbuhan Pembersih Polusi Udara Tumbuhan membuat makanannya sendiri. Proses pembuatan makanan pada tumbuhan sering disebut fotosintesis. Selain menghasilkan makanan bagi tumbuhan, fotosintesis juga menyebabkan tumbuhan dapat menyerap karbon dioksida dan mengeluarkan oksigen yang bermanfaat bagi manusia.

Eksperimen: Mangkuk Bubur Kertas Sampah yang bisa didaur-ulang, antara lain: kaca, logam, plastik, dan kertas. Mendaur ulang 1 ton kertas akan menghemat 17 batang pohon. Kertas bekas yang sudah didaur-ulang dapat dijadikan hiasan yang cantik. Salah satu hiasan dari kertas daur-ulang adalah mangkuk bubur kertas. Potong kertas kecil-kecil, lalu rendam dalam air hingga menjadi bubur. Campur bubur kertas dengan lem putih. Aduk hingga benar-benar menyatu. Lapisi mangkuk cetakan dengan plastik, lalu cetak bubur kertas dalam mangkuk.

Tunggu hingga bubur kertas benar-benar kering, tapi jangan dijemur di sinar matahari langsung. Setelah kering, warnai mangkuk dengan cat air atau cat minyak. Halaman Peran ExxonMobil di Indonesia Pada tahun kebutuhan energi dunia diperkirakan melonjak hingga 50 persen. ExxonMobil berusaha memecahkan krisis energi dengan cara yang efisien, ramah lingkungan, dan berwawasan sosial.

ExxonMobil Corporation ada di hampir negara. Saat ini ExxonMobil adalah perusahaan minyak dan gas terbesar di dunia. Di Indonesia, ExxonMobil telah memiliki pengalaman selama lebih dari tahun. ExxonMobil peka terhadap masalah yang menimpa masyarakat.

ExxonMobil ikut berperan dalam pembangunan Aceh setelah terkena tsunami. ExxonMobil juga berpartisipasi mendukung peningkatan produksi pertanian. Selain program pelatihan metode pertanian baru, ExxonMobil memberi bantuan sarana dan prasarana pertanian. ExxonMobil melakukan eksplorasi di beberapa tempat di Indonesia. Keselamatan, kesehatan dan keselamatan lingkungan hidup adalah hal penting bagi ExxonMobil. Dalam setiap kegiatan ExxonMobil selalu memastikan lingkungan hidup tetap terlindungi.

ExxonMobil percaya jika pendidikan, sangat penting bagi masa depan bangsa. ExxonMobil melaksanakan program beasiswa tahunan untuk membantu pelajar dan mahasiswa di seluruh Indonesia. ExxonMobil mendukung dan membantu berbagai kegiatan olahraga. ExxonMobil sering mengadakan kejuaraan olahraga, seperti sepakbola dan bolavoli.

ExxonMobil juga ikut berperan memperkenalkan kebudayaan Indonesia kepada masyarakat dunia. ExxonMobil menjadi sponsor sejumlah proyek pengenalan budaya. Halaman Kepedulian ExxonMobil pada Lingkungan Salah satu dampak pemakaian minyak bumi sebagai sumber energi adalah emisi karbondioksida CO2. Jika terus dibiarkan, emisi CO2 akan mengakibatkan pencemaran udara. Teknologi ini akan memisahkan CO2 dan partikel-partikel berbahaya lain, lalu menyimpannya ke tempat penampungan khusus.

ExxonMobil, Pelopor Pengembangan Teknologi ExxonMobil telah lama dikenal sebagai perusahaan yang peduli pada perkembangan teknologi dan penelitian. ExxonMobil adalah perusahaan pertama yang memakai survei seismik 3 dan pengeboran minyak laut dalam.

ExxonMobil juga mengembangkan aneka mobil yang hemat energi. ExxonMobil bekerja sama dengan Toyota untuk membuat mesin mobil berbahan campuran antara bensin dan diesel. Mobil ini bisa menghemat pemakaian bahan bakar hingga 30 persen. Selain itu ExxonMobil juga melakukan riset mobil hybrid mobil listrik dan mobil bertenaga hidrogen air. Mereka telah berhasil membuat kapal tanker khusus LPG yang bisa mengangkut muatan 80 persen lebih banyak. Enam Triliun untuk Teknologi Soal penelitian dan pengembangan teknologi, ExxonMobil selalu menjadi pelopor.

Setiap tahun telah dikeluarkan dana sekitar juta dollar AS atau 6 triliun rupiah untuk biaya penelitian dan pengembangan teknologi. Peduli Kelestarian Lingkungan ExxonMobil juga ikut berusaha menjaga kelestarian lingkungan. Antara lain mengembangkan teknologi hemat bahan bakar dan ramah lingkungan. Setiap tahun ExxonMobil mengeluarkan dana sebesar juta dollar Amerika Serikat untuk biaya penelitian kesehatan lingkungan yang dilakukan oleh Tim Riset Lingkungan Universitas Stanford.

Selain lebih efisien, LPG juga lebih ramah lingkungan dibanding dengan bahan bakar lainnya. Sampah plastik adalah bahan anorganik yang tidak bisa diurai tanah. Tim Peneliti ExxonMobil berhasil menemukan plastik yang lebih mudah didaur ulang. Berkat kerja sama dengan Perusahaan Mobil Jerman, Daimler Chrysler, hasil daur ulang digunakan sebagai bahan bodi kendaraan yang beratnya lebih ringan. Itulah sebabnya, ExxonMobil telah mengembangkan sumber energi alternatif.

Antara lain, tenaga nuklir, tenaga air, tenaga angin, tenaga matahari, dan bahan bakar biologis. Babilonia: Peradaban di antara Sungai Eufrat dan Tigris. Sekarang wilayah negara Irak Biara: tempat ibadah dan pemimpin agama Katolik. Bitumen: bahan seperti aspal untuk mencegah kebocoran. Cokers: pengolahan sisa minyak mentah menjadi produk yang lebih berharga Derrick: menara bor. Digester: mesin yang mempercepat perubahan bahan-bahan organik menjadi gas bumi.

Distilasi: penyulingan minyak. Fosil: jasad makhluk hidup yang telah membatu. Fotosintesis: proses pengolahan makanan oleh tumbuhan dengan menggunakan bantuan sinar matahari. Gasolin: bensin. Geofon: alat pembaca getaran dalam survei seismik.

Herodotus: ahli sejarah dan pengembara Yunani. Hidrokarbon: senyawa yang membentuk minyak dan gas bumi. Kapal tanker: kapal khusus pengangkut minyak dan gas bumi. Katalis: zat yang bisa mempercepat reaksi kimia. Katrol: alat untuk mengangkat beban berat. Kerosin: minyak tanah. Metana: molekul hidrokarbon yang menjadi unsur utama gas bumi.

Oktan: standar penentu mutu bensin. Persia: wilayah yang sekarang adalah negara Irak Petroleum: bahasa Inggris dari minyak bumi. Refinery: pengolahan minyak dan gas bumi. Rig: tempat pengeboran dan eksplorasi minyak.

Steam Flood Process: memompa minyak bumi dengan uap air panas. Trap: cebakan atau tempat kandungan minyak berada. Mining system and processing of this fuel is very complicated. This Book of Energy Exploration uncovers the details of the questing, processing and safety factors through an easy presentation with fun illustrations.

Page 4 - 5 Using of Oil and Natural gas Herodotus, traveler and historian from Greek who was lived around the fifth century Before Christ BC , told that petroleum was used by the Persia people since 6. Petroleum was used at that time as adhesive for building materials. It was also used for other purposes. Persia got oil in the form of bad smell black slurry from their shallow well. Fuel for transportation Crud oil is processed to be fuel for various vehicles.

They can also be processed to be plastic, asphalt, and synthetic yarn. At this moment, oil and natural gas are still irreplaceable. People started to use petroleum since 5. Chinese people even used the natural gas since the year of BC. Natural gas was taken from underground. The ground was hollowed with bit. From this hole, natural gas was then flowed through pipe which was made of bamboo. The natural gas was then kept and used as source of heat and light in the temple and the palace. Petroleum is often called by petroleum.

What can be made from crude oil? Crude oil which is just pumped out of the bowels of the earth can not be used directly. After passing the refinery process or processing in the hydrocracker, then this crud oil is ready to be processed to become various products. The main products of crud oil processing are gasoline, solar, and kerosene.

Is that true that oil was used as medicine? The Roman people has mixed oil with roots and leaves that it became skin drug and medicine for bronchitis, while the Babylonian used it to prevent cataract disease. Why is Petroleum often called as black gold? Petroleum is often called by black gold because it has so much benefits. Countries in the Arabia Peninsula became rich after found oil content in their land.

These countries are frequently called as Petrodollar countries. This company was established in New York by William Hart in This company was established after a significant amount of gas came out to the earth surface from a mining of 27 feet depth. Page 8 - 9 Where does Indonesia processed the oil? Half of this amount is sent to the hydrocracker through the ocean using tanker ships. Another half is sent through air and the mainland pathway.

All of them are operated by Pertamina. Cheap oil for poor Before people found the way to mine the petroleum, they used olive oil and fish oil for their light. These oils were very expensive. Only rich ones can buy. The most user of oil as fuel The United States of America is the most oil user as fuel compared to other countries. Special quality of St. Quirinus Oil The St. Quirinus monastery was popular with their sheep breeding.

They have health sheep thanks to St. Thanks to his so called Bunsen Burner instrument, our gas can produce save fire and without smoke. Anti leakage materials from Babylonia The people of Babylonia used crud oil to make bitumen. Bitumen is asphalt-like material which was used a lot to prevent leakage. They used bitumen to patch up their ships. Experiment: Oil and Water Painting There are always 3 layers in the site that contains petroleum. First layer is gas, followed by oil, and the lowest layer is water.

It is true that oil is not soluble in the water. But you can make a beautiful painting from the mixing of oil paint and water. Put water into the small tray until it fills the half of tray. Bring the oil paint into the water, then stir with straw. Adhere paper to water surface in the tray.

Do this carefully. The color of oil paint will be printed in the paper. Sunbathe until it is dry, frame it and hang it in the wall. Page 10 - 11 How is the formation of oil and gas? The experts has told that the corpses of live creatures and plants in the ocean which were in considerable amounts settled in the bottom of the sea.

They were covered by slurry in a very long time. This sediment got pressure and heat from earth. By this natural process, they gradually changed into rock layers sediment. Plants and animal corpses were also changed naturally into oil and gas. Then, what part of those animals and plants were changed into oil and gas?

They were hydrocarbons! Hydrocarbons in animals and plants were still kept even though they turned into corpse and become rotten. At the right time, oil and gas were formed from these hydrocarbons. Page 12 - 13 The stages of oil and gas formation from million years ago The creatures in the sea were dead buried in the bottom of the sea. After a while, they were covered by slurry and sand layer.

Recent oil content Oil drilling is conducted through sand layers, slurry, and rocks until it reaches rocks with oil content. Is it true that there is oil pool in the bowels of the earth? Many people thought that there is a huge cavern in the bowels of the earth that have an oil pool.

The fact is that there is no oil pool in the bowels of the earth. Oil is available in the rock layers, just like water in sponge. Oil in this reservoir rock continues to combine because there is layer of rocks upon the reservoir rock which is water or seal tight that oil can not pass through it.

What is the temperature of the gas formation? Organic materials in ground layers will turn into oil when they are subjected to quite high pressure and temperature. To make a gas of it, you need a hotter temperature. Oil will be defect by a too high temperature. Rocks with oil content Rocks that contain oil are porous rocks which are called as reservoir rock.

These rocks suck oil and keep it in their pores. These rocks are formed from the hardened sand grains. What are the main element that forms the gas? The main element of gas is methane. Methane is the lightest and shortest molecule of hydrocarbon. Petroleum gas contains also heavier hydrocarbon molecules such as ethane, propane, and butane. What is a digester? At this time, there is a machine called digester. This machine fastens the change of organic materials into gas.

Maybe later in time, gas can be formed in just tens of years. Why should we be thrifty in using oil? Right now, oil is an energy source that is irreplaceable. Nearly all machines use oil as fuel. In the same time, we need million years of time to form an organic material to become oil. Page 14 - 15 Oil collector trap Trap is a site where oil content is located. Trap happens when oil in the rocks is trapped and collected in the water-resistant rocks.

Trap is formed in three ways, namely: fault trap, salt domes trap, and anticlinal trap. Clean the crude oil Oil that is just mined is called as crude oil. Pumped crude oil will be mixed with water and slurry. To be useable, we have to process the oil and separate it from the water and slurry. One 1 BTU is heat required to increase temperature of 1 pound water to 1 Fahrenheit. Ten 10 BTU can be made from about 10 sticks of matches. Is that true that gas can be more found in offshore?

Only its one third comes from the mainland. What is hydrocarbon? Gas is often called as hydrocarbon. It is because the most molecules that form the gas are carbon and hydrogen compound. These plates are moving continuously and cause earth quakes. Sometimes we can feel these earth quakes, and sometimes not. Is that true that LPG is not in the form of gas?

It is because the gas in LPG is changed into liquid form. Gas is changed to liquid by adding pressure and lower the temperature. Liquid fuel that comes from gas is high quality fuel because it does not pollute the air. Bones, shells, and other parts which are hard to rotten are gradually turned into hard rocks. Hunting and research on fossils has been started since the end of 17th century. You can also make a artificial fossil with stuff around you.

Instruments and materials Flower Stiff plastic White cement Plasticine Water Cellophane tip Mix white cement with water, then pour it to the plastic cast. Cast flower or anything in the surface of the white cement. Wait until the casting is drying, then open it. You have now a artificial fossil. Page 16 — 17 Research on Petroleum content Location of petroleum source could be found after a research through air photography or imaging the earth surface by satellite.

We will need supporting instruments, such as gravity meter, magnetometer, and seismograph. Gravity meter is used to measure and study any changes in the form of underground rocks that caused by differences of earth gravity strength. Seismograph will be used to detect oil pouches under the earth. Seismic research in the ocean is using an instrument, namely hydrophone.

Seismic survey is now getting more accurate with the method of 3 dimension seismic. This method is found by experts from ExxonMobil. Magnetic research is using an instrument which is called by magnetometer. We use explode in the seismic research. Vibration from the explode will be caught by the geophone. Page 18 - 19 Satellite imaging works like a detective The experts must work like the detectives when searching for the petroleum location.

This searching is sometimes so far away to places that are hard to be reached. Besides, oils are frequently hidden in the bottom of the ocean and deep ground layer. Initial information about the location can be done by satellite imaging and air photography.

However, at this moment, the using of satellite imaging is more frequent than air photography for some reasons, among others are: Satellite imaging reaches more areas. Satellite imaging uses digital system that can be directly analyzed by using a computer. Information from satellite imaging is more accurate, because it is obtained from a sensor radar and optic sensor.

How do they conducting the research by using the gravity? Research on gravity needs a gravitation measurer which is called by gravity meter. This instrument is needed to know the gravitation strength differences of each layers of rock. What are the roles of Geologists and Geophysicist? Oil and gas workers can not just drilling to find oil. Except of its high cost, arbitrarily oil and gas drilling may hinder the environmental balance.

Before the drilling, a research must be conducted previously. This research includes the research of ground and rocks structure. This research will be conducted by geologist and geophysicist. The geologist will observe the origin of rocks, amount of the layers, and rock piles. While the geophysicist will investigate the character and condition of rock layers.

They will use various methods of research, among others are seismic research, magnetic research, and gravitation research. The oil searcher uses a very sensitive instrument to catch the wave reflection. While ocean research uses a hydrophone, then research in mainland uses the geophone. The oil location can be recognized from the duration of reflection which is detected by these instruments. Investigation on Environmental Safety To avoid its effects to the environment, an environmental research must be done before conducting the operational activities of oil and gas.

Most of all, if there are ecosystem of protected animals around the drilling location. Three layers in the oil source There are always three layers inside the rock layers. Gas layer is the uppermost, followed by oil layer, and water fills the lowest layer. Magnetometer for magnetic research Each rocks have different magnetic field. For examples, volcanic rocks have a stronger magnetic field than sediment rocks. Oil from coal in Nazi way Germany have a overflowing stocks of coal, but not petroleum.

During the World War II, Hitler instructed his assistants to make oil from coal so that the Germany will not depend on other countries to have petroleum. Pages 20 - 21 Wax pendulum to find out oil People had studied for almost years to find a proper way in finding out oil, from superstition and irrational to scientific ways. In the past, people used the pendulum to find out oil.

If the pendulum suddenly moved, then it was a signal that there were oils underground that can be mined. What is the different between the coal and petroleum? Petroleum and coal are frequently called as fossil energy since them both are made from organic organism. The organic organism of petroleum were mostly from animals and other live creatures, while coal was from plants.

Electric current as oil-content rocks finder We can use electric current to find out layer of rocks that contain petroleum. Rocks are generally unable to conduct electricity. However, oil-content rocks can conduct electricity.

Based upon this character difference, the experts come to the location of rocks which are oil-rich. Seismic Research on the ocean Seismic research on the ocean uses the method that almost the same as seismic research in the mainland. Air bomb exploded in the water will give waves which will be reflected again by rock layers in the bottom of the sea. This reflection will be detected by specific instrument named hydrophone. Calculating the benefit and loss Oil drilling can not be done everywhere.

Oil drilling needs a very huge fund. Exploding of Oil Indicator Never surprise when you see the oil searcher explodes dynamites when finding out oil. From this exploding a level of rock layer thickness that contains oil can be recognized.

Experiment: Thirty rocks Oil is contained in layer of rocks. However, not all rocks can absorb oil. Oil contained rocks are porous rocks and have a low density. Dissolve coloring stuff in the water in a big glass. Divide water in the measurement glass equally. Put rock into the measurement glass.

Wait for a few hours. Note which rock absorbs water the most. What is the amount of water volume absorbed by the rock? Page 22 — 23 Exploration of Petroleum and Gas The oldest drilling method which was used until was the tool-cable drilling method.

The well hole was made by heat the ground surface using a heavy sharp cutting edge of the drill. Cutter at the end of a cable can also be used. Pick up cutting edge of the drill and drop many times to the ground until a certain required hole depth was obtained.

Currently, the modern method of drilling that they use the most is rotation drilling. Scaffolding rig Scaffolding rig is established to place oil intake machines and pipes in offshore. Drilling Drilling of oil well uses cutting edge of the drill entered to the earth. Hydrocracker Crude oil as the product of drilling sent to the hydrocracker and processed to be various kinds of products.

Page 24 — 25 Rig as drilling location Offshore drilling can be done after rig establishing, as the drilling location. There are three forms of rig, namely jack up unit, semi summersible drilling rig, and drilling ship.

Jack Up Unit Rig feet firmly implanted in the bottom of the sea, and can go up and down in according to the ups and downs of the sea. This kind of rig is established for meter drilling. This rig is proper for meter drilling. Drilling Ship This kind of rig is just like a common ship. This is used for 1. Kinds of cutting edge of the drill Drilling is started when cutting edge of the drill begins to reach the bottom of the sea or land surface.

It consists of two types, namely the roller cone and diamond bit. Christmas tree in oil drilling Christmas tree in oil drilling location is an expression for regulator valve of oil output installed upon the drilling pipe. How to exclude oil out of the bowel of the earth?

Oil drilling is started with the establishment of derrick or drill tower. Derrick will do as place for long pipe with bit or cutting edge of the drill on its top. When drill pipe is getting deeper, then other pieces of pipes will be connected.

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