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When taken in excess, alcohol can increase your possibilities of getting a headache or getting dizzy, rising your coronary heart price or decreasing your blood stress. If you notice any adjustments in your vision whereas taking this drug, name your physician or health care professional as soon as potential.
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Stop using this medication and name your health care provider instantly if you have a loss of sight in one or each eyes. This listing could not describe all possible interactions. Give your health care provider a listing of all of the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you employ.
Also tell them if you smoke, drink alcohol, or use unlawful drugs. The higher your general well being, the lower the risk of ED. Discuss any of these points along with your doctor totally, in addition to any medications you may be taking. They work by defending a sure enzyme referred to as cyclic guanosine monophosphate.
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Penile erection is a hemodynamic process initiated by the comfort of smooth muscle in the corpus cavernosum and its associated arterioles. During sexual stimulation, nitric oxide is released from nerve endings and endothelial cells within the corpus cavernosum. RxList does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or remedy. For more info, ask your doctor or pharmacist. Take vardenafil tablets by mouth with or with out food. The dose is often taken about 1 hour before sexual exercise.
Levitra enables the muscle tissue within the penis to unwind, which allows bloodstream to flow into in, growing a firm erection. Levitra allows a more durable erection to last lengthy sufficient that you should satisfactorily complete intercourse. Have had an erection that lasted more than 4 hours. Have coronary heart problems similar to angina, heart failure, irregular heartbeats, or have had a coronary heart assault.
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In IGT, total netscores were lower for the alexithymia group compared to the control group, particularly with regard to block 5. Moreover, the alexithymia individuals selected significantly more adverse cards than the controls, indicating significant decision-making impairments.
Alexithymia selectively influences decision-making under ambiguity. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Previous work shows that the same set of brain regions recruited during tests of episodic memory and future imagining are also engaged during standard laboratory tests of ToM. However, hippocampal amnesic patients who show deficits in past and future thinking, show intact performance on ToM tests, which involve unknown people or fictional characters.
Here we present data from a developmental amnesic person H. Narratives were scored using an adapted autobiographical interview scoring procedure. Due to the visually rich stimuli, internal details were further classified as either descriptive i. Relative to controls, H. These data converge with previous neuroimaging results showing that the brain regions underlying pToM and episodic memory overlap to a greater extent than those supporting ToM.
Taken together, these results suggest that detailed episodic representations supported by the hippocampus may be pivotal for imagining the experiences of personally familiar , but not unfamiliar, others. Selected missense mutations impair frataxin processing in Friedreich ataxia. Frataxin FXN is a highly conserved mitochondrial protein. Reduced FXN levels cause Friedreich ataxia, a recessive neurodegenerative disease.
Typical patients carry GAA repeat expansions on both alleles, while a subgroup of patients carry a missense mutation on one allele and a GAA repeat expansion on the other. Here, we report that selected disease-related FXN missense mutations impair FXN localization, interaction with mitochondria processing peptidase, and processing. Immunocytochemical studies and subcellular fractionation were performed to study FXN import into the mitochondria and examine the mechanism by which mutations impair FXN processing.
Coimmunoprecipitation was performed to study the interaction between FXN and mitochondrial processing peptidase. A proteasome inhibitor was used to model traditional therapeutic strategies. In addition, clinical profiles of subjects with and without point mutations were compared in a large natural history study. Furthermore, blocking proteosomal degradation does not increase FXN levels. Visual selective attention in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Subtle deficits in visual selective attention have been found in amnestic mild cognitive impairment aMCI.
However, few studies have explored performance on visual search paradigms or the Simon task, which are known to be sensitive to disease severity in Alzheimer's patients. Furthermore, there is limited research investigating how deficiencies can be ameliorated with exogenous support auditory cues. Sixteen individuals with aMCI and 14 control participants completed 3 experimental tasks that varied in demand and cue availability: visual search-alerting, visual search-orienting, and Simon task.
Visual selective attention was influenced by aMCI, auditory cues, and task characteristics. Visual search abilities were relatively consistent across groups. The aMCI participants were impaired on the Simon task when working memory was required, but conflict resolution was similar to controls. Spatially informative orienting cues improved response times, whereas spatially neutral alerting cues did not influence performance.
Finally, spatially informative auditory cues benefited the aMCI group more than controls in the visual search task, specifically at the largest array size where orienting demands were greatest. These findings suggest that individuals with aMCI have working memory deficits and subtle deficiencies in orienting attention and rely on exogenous information to guide attention.
For permissions, please e-mail: journals. Selective attention affects implicit and explicit memory for familiar pictures at different delay conditions. Three experiments investigated the effects of two variables - selective attention during encoding and delay between study and test- on implicit picture fragment completion and object naming and explicit free recall and recognition memory tests.
Experiments 1 and 2 consistently indicated that a at all delays immediate to 1 month , picture-fragment identification threshold was lower for the attended than the unattended pictures; b the attended pictures were recalled and recognized better than the unattended; and c attention and delay interacted in both memory tests.
For implicit memory, performance decreased as delay increased for both attended and unattended pictures, but priming was more pronounced and lasted longer for the attended pictures; it was still present after a 1-month delay. For explicit memory, performance decreased as delay increased for attended pictures, but for unattended pictures performance was consistent throughout delay.
By using a perceptual object naming task, Experiment 3 showed reliable implicit and explicit memory for attended but not for unattended pictures. This study indicates that picture repetition priming requires attention at the time of study and that neither delay nor attention dissociate performance in explicit and implicit memory tests; both types of memory require attention, but explicit memory does so to a larger degree.
Selective noradrenaline depletion impairs working memory and hippocampal neurogenesis. Noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus play a role in learning and memory, and their loss is an early event in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Moreover, noradrenaline may sustain hippocampal neurogenesis; however, whether are these events related is still unknown. When tested in the Water Maze task, lesioned animals exhibited no reference memory deficit, whereas working memory abilities were seen significantly impaired , as compared with intact or sham-lesioned controls.
Stereological analyses confirmed a dramatic noradrenergic neuron loss associated to reduced proliferation, but not survival or differentiation, of 5-bromo-2'deoxyuridine-positive progenitors in the dentate gyrus. Thus, ascending noradrenergic afferents may be involved in more complex aspects of cognitive performance i. Digest of impaired driving and selected beverage control laws. This digest reports the status of State laws that are concerned with impaired driving offenses and alcoholic beverage control.
Unless otherwise indicated, the status of the laws reported is January 1, Selective cognitive impairments associated with NMDA receptor blockade in humans. NMDAR antagonists like ketamine induce schizophrenia-like features in humans.
This study investigated the effects of ketamine on spatial learning acquisition vs retrieval in a virtual Morris water task in humans. Verbal fluency, working memory, and learning and memory of verbal information were also assessed. Healthy human subjects participated in this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Ketamine impaired learning of spatial and verbal information but retrieval of information learned prior to drug administration was preserved. Schizophrenia-like symptoms were significantly related to spatial and verbal learning performance.
Ketamine did not significantly impair attention, verbal fluency, or verbal working memory task performance. Spatial working memory was slightly impaired. In conclusion, these results provide evidence for ketamine's differential impairment of verbal and spatial learning vs retrieval.
By using the Morris water task, which is hippocampal-dependent, this study helps bridge the gap between nonhuman animal and human NMDAR antagonism research. Impaired cognition is a core feature of schizophrenia. A better understanding of NMDA antagonism, its physiological and cognitive consequences, may provide improved models of psychosis and cognitive therapeutics.
Violencia familiar. Recognition memory is selectively impaired in adult rats exposed to binge-like doses of ethanol during early postnatal life. Exposure to alcohol in utero can induce a variety of physical and mental impairments , collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders FASD. This study explores the persistent cognitive consequences of ethanol administration in rat pups over postnatal days PD , modeling human third trimester consumption.
No treatment group differences were observed in object exploration during the sample session for any task. Postnatal ethanol exposure is hypothesized to impede object memory consolidation in the perirhinal cortex of 5E rats, hindering their ability to discriminate between familiar and novel objects at short delays. Selective dentate gyrus disruption causes memory impairment at the early stage of experimental multiple sclerosis.
Memory impairment is an early and disabling manifestation of multiple sclerosis whose anatomical and biological substrates are still poorly understood. We thus investigated whether memory impairment encountered at the early stage of the disease could be explained by a differential vulnerability of particular hippocampal subfields. By using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis EAE , a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we identified that early memory impairment was associated with selective alteration of the dentate gyrus as pinpointed in vivo with diffusion-tensor-imaging DTI.
Neuromorphometric analyses and electrophysiological recordings confirmed dendritic degeneration, alteration in glutamatergic synaptic transmission and impaired long-term synaptic potentiation selectively in the dentate gyrus, but not in CA1, together with a more severe pattern of microglial activation in this subfield. Systemic injections of the microglial inhibitor minocycline prevented DTI, morphological, electrophysiological and behavioral impairments in EAE-mice. Furthermore, daily infusions of minocycline specifically within the dentate gyrus were sufficient to prevent memory impairment in EAE-mice while infusions of minocycline within CA1 were inefficient.
We conclude that early memory impairment in EAE is due to a selective disruption of the dentate gyrus associated with microglia activation. These results open new pathophysiological, imaging, and therapeutic perspectives for memory impairment in multiple sclerosis. An impaired attentional dwell time after parietal and frontal lesions related to impaired selective attention not unilateral neglect. The attentional blink, a measure of the temporal dynamics of visual processing, has been documented to be more pronounced following brain lesions that are associated with visual neglect.
This suggests that, in addition to their spatial bias in attention, neglect patients may have a prolonged dwell time for attention. Here the attentional dwell time was examined in patients with damage focused on either posterior parietal or frontal cortices. In three experiments, we show that there is an abnormally pronounced attentional dwell time, which does not differ in patients with posterior parietal and with frontal lobe lesions, and this is associated with a measure of selective attention but not with measures of spatial bias in selection.
These data occurred both when we attempted to match patients and controls for overall differences in performance and when a single set stimulus exposure was used across participants. In Experiments 1 and 2, requiring report of colour-form conjunctions, there was evidence that the patients were also impaired at temporal binding, showing errors in feature combination across stimuli and in reporting in the correct temporal order.
In Experiment 3, requiring only the report of features but introducing task switching led to similar results. The data suggest that damage to a frontoparietal network can compromise temporal selection of visual stimuli; however, this is not necessarily related to a deficit in hemispatial visual attention but it is to impaired target selection. We discuss the implications for understanding visual selection.
Virtue ethics and the selection of children with impairments : a reply to Rosalind McDougall. Applying the virtue-based account to the selection of children with impairments does not lead, according to McDougall, to an unequivocal answer to the morality of selecting impaired children.
In ' Impairment , Flourishing, and the Moral Nature of Parenthood,' she also applies the virtue-based account to the discussion of child selection , and claims that couples with an impairment are morally justified in selecting a child with the same impairment. This claim, she maintains, reveals that the flourishing of a child should be understood as requiring environment-specific characteristics. I argue that McDougall's argument begs the question.
More importantly, it does not do justice to virtue ethics. I also question to what extent a virtue ethics framework can be successfully applied to discussions about the moral permissibility of reproductive actions. Lepra familiar.
Todos son desplazados y viven en condiciones de hacinamiento y pobreza extremas. Type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance are associated with word memory source monitoring recollection deficits but not simple recognition familiarity deficits following water, low glycaemic load, and high glycaemic load breakfasts. It has been established that type 2 diabetes, and to some extent, impaired glucose tolerance IGT , are associated with general neuropsychological impairments in episodic memory.
However, the effect of abnormalities in glucose metabolism on specific retrieval processes such as source monitoring has not been investigated. The primary aim was to investigate the impact of type 2 diabetes and IGT on simple word recognition familiarity and complex source monitoring recollection. A secondary aim was to examine the effect of acute breakfast glycaemic load manipulations on episodic memory.
Data are presented from two separate studies; i 24 adults with type 2 diabetes and 12 controls aged years, ii 18 females with IGT and 47 female controls aged years. Recognition of previously learned words and memory for specifically which list a previously learned word had appeared in source monitoring was examined at two test sessions during the morning after consumption of low glycaemic load, high glycaemic load and water breakfasts according to a counterbalanced, crossover design.
Type 2 diabetes pglucose metabolism are not detrimental for global episodic memory processes. This enhances our understanding of how metabolic disorders are associated with memory impairments. Purpose: The present study was designed to investigate the performance of preschool children with specific language impairment SLI and their typically developing TD peers on sustained selective attention tasks.
Method: This study included 23 children diagnosed with SLI and 23 TD children matched for age, gender, and maternal education level. A new selective developmental deficit: Impaired object recognition with normal face recognition. However, no developmental cases with the opposite dissociation - normal face recognition with impaired object recognition - have been reported. The existence of a case of non-face developmental visual agnosia would indicate that the development of normal face recognition mechanisms does not rely on the development of normal object recognition mechanisms.
To see whether a developmental variant of non-face visual object agnosia exists, we conducted a series of web-based object and face recognition tests to screen for individuals showing object recognition memory impairments but not face recognition impairments. Through this screening process, we identified AW, an otherwise normal year-old female, who was then tested in the lab on face and object recognition tests. AW's performance was impaired in within-class visual recognition memory across six different visual categories guns, horses, scenes, tools, doors, and cars.
In contrast, she scored normally on seven tests of face recognition, tests of memory for two other object categories houses and glasses , and tests of recall memory for visual shapes. Testing confirmed that her impairment was not related to a general deficit in lower-level perception, object perception, basic-level recognition, or memory.
AW's results provide the first neuropsychological evidence that recognition memory for non-face visual object categories can be selectively impaired in individuals without brain damage or other memory impairment. These results indicate that the development of recognition memory for faces does not depend on intact object recognition memory and provide further evidence for category-specific dissociations in visual.
Differential motor neuron impairment and axonal regeneration in sporadic and familiar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with SOD-1 mutations: lessons from neurophysiology. SOD-1 catalyses the superoxide radical O -2 into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. The clinical neurophysiology in ALS plays a fundamental role in differential diagnosis between the familial and sporadic forms and in the assessment of its severity and progression.
Fifteen of these patients are SOD-1 symptomatic mutation carriers nine males, six females. SOD-1 mutation carriers have a higher number of motor units at the moment of diagnosis when compared with the sporadic form, despite a more dramatic drop in later stages. Moreover, in familiar SOD-1 ALS there is not a specific time interval in which the axonal regeneration can balance the neuronal damage. Results and Discussion: SOD-1 mutation carriers have a higher number of motor units at the moment of diagnosis when compared with the sporadic form, despite a more dramatic drop in later stages.
Full Text Available In massive multiple-input multiple-output M-MIMO systems, a large number of antennas increase system complexity as well as the cost of hardware. Also, it increases abruptly up to number of BSA. Further, the bulk antenna selection technique has comparatively more EE than the per-subcarrier antenna selection. Moreover, EE gaps between antenna selection schemes decrease with increase in the value of hardware impairments and power scaling factor. However, as the hardware degradation effect increases, the EE of the bulk antenna selection scheme suffers more degradation as compared to the Per-subcarrier antenna selection scheme.
Full Text Available We present a Chinese-speaking patient, SJ, who makes phonological errors across all tasks involving oral production. Detailed analyses of the errors across different tasks reveal that the patterns are very similar for reading, oral picture naming, and repetition tasks, which are also comparable to the error patterns of the phonological buffer deficit cases reported in the literature.
The nature of the errors invites us to conclude that the patient's phonological output buffer is selectively impaired. Different from previously reported cases, SJ's deficits in oral production tasks are not accompanied by a similar impairment of writing performance.
We argue that this dissociation is evidence that the phonological output buffer is not involved in writing Chinese words. Furthermore, the majority of SJ's errors occur at the onset of a syllable, indicating that the buffer has a structure that makes the onset more prone to impairment. Fine-structure processing, frequency selectivity and speech perception in hearing- impaired listeners. Hearing- impaired people often experience great difficulty with speech communication when background noise is present, even if reduced audibility has been compensated for.
Other impairment factors must be involved. In order to minimize confounding effects, the subjects participating in this study The perceptual listening experiments assessed the intelligibility of full-spectrum as well as low-pass filtered speech in the presence of stationary and fluctuating interferers, the individual's frequency selectivity and the integrity of temporal In addition, these binaural and monaural thresholds were measured in a stationary background noise in order to assess the persistence of the fine-structure processing to interfering noise.
Apart from elevated speech reception thresholds, the hearing impaired listeners showed poorer Social exclusion impairs distractor suppression but not target enhancement in selective attention. Social exclusion has been thought to weaken one's ability to exert inhibitory control. Existing studies have primarily focused on the relationship between exclusion and behavioral inhibition, and have reported that exclusion impairs behavioral inhibition.
However, whether exclusion also affects selective attention, another important aspect of inhibitory control, remains unknown. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore whether social exclusion impairs selective attention, and to specifically examine its effect on two hypothesized mechanisms of selective attention: target enhancement and distractor suppression.
The Cyberball game was used to manipulate social exclusion. Participants then performed a visual search task while event-related potentials were recorded. In the visual search task, target and salient distractor were either both presented laterally or one was presented on the vertical midline and the other laterally. Results showed that social exclusion differentially affected target and distractor processing.
While exclusion impaired distractor suppression, reflected as smaller distractor-positivity Pd amplitudes for the exclusion group compared to the inclusion group, it did not affect target enhancement, reflected as similar target-negativity Nt amplitudes for both the exclusion and inclusion groups. Together, these results extend our understanding of the relationship between exclusion and inhibitory control, and suggest that social exclusion affects selective attention in a more complex manner than previously thought.
Published by Elsevier B. Multimodal brain monitoring has been utilized to optimize treatment of patients with critical neurological diseases. However, the amount of data requires an integrative tool set to unmask pathological events in a timely fashion. Recently we have introduced a mathematical model allowing the simulation of pathophysiological conditions such as reduced intracranial compliance and impaired autoregulation.
Utilizing a mathematical tool set called selected correlation analysis sca , correlation patterns, which indicate impaired autoregulation, can be detected in patient data sets scp. In this study we compared the results of the sca with the pressure reactivity index PRx , an established marker for impaired autoregulation. Mean PRx values were significantly higher in time segments identified as scp compared to segments showing no selected correlations nsc. The sca based approach predicted cerebral autoregulation failure with a sensitivity of Autoregulation failure, as detected by the results of both analysis methods, was significantly correlated with poor outcome.
Sca of brain monitoring data detects impaired autoregulation with high sensitivity and sufficient specificity. Since the sca approach allows the simultaneous detection of both major pathological conditions, disturbed autoregulation and reduced compliance, it may become a useful analysis tool for brain multimodal monitoring data.
Full Text Available Multimodal brain monitoring has been utilized to optimize treatment of patients with critical neurological diseases. Utilizing a mathematical tool set called selected correlation analysis sca, correlation patterns, which indicate impaired autoregulation, can be detected in patient data sets scp.
In this study we compared the results of the sca with the pressure reactivity index PRx, an established marker for impaired autoregulation. Patients with chronic insomnia have selective impairments in memory that are modulated by cortisol. Memory impairment is a frequent complaint in insomniacs; however, it is not consistently demonstrated. It is unknown whether memory impairment in insomniacs involves neuroendocrine dysfunction.
The participants in this study were selected from the clinical setting and included 21 patients with chronic insomnia disorder CID , 25 patients with insomnia and comorbid depressive disorder CDD , and 20 control participants without insomnia. We evaluated spatial working and reference memory, object working and reference memory, and object recognition memory using the Nine Box Maze Test. We also evaluated serum neuroendocrine hormone levels.
The results suggest that the CID patients had selective memory impairment , which may be mediated by increased cortisol levels. Impaired working memory capacity is not caused by failures of selective attention in schizophrenia. The cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia have long been known to involve deficits in working memory WM capacity. To date, however, the causes of WM capacity deficits remain unknown.
The present study examined selective attention impairments as a putative contributor to observed capacity deficits in this population. To test this hypothesis, we used an experimental paradigm that assesses the role of selective attention in WM encoding and has been shown to involve the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia.
In experiment 1, participants were required to remember the locations of 3 or 5 target items red circles. In another condition, 3-target items were accompanied by 2 distractor items yellow circles , which participants were instructed to ignore. People with schizophrenia PSZ exhibited significant impairment in memory for the locations of target items, consistent with reduced WM capacity, but PSZ and healthy control subjects did not differ in their ability to filter the distractors.
This pattern was replicated in experiment 2 for distractors that were more salient. Taken together, these results demonstrate that reduced WM capacity in PSZ is not attributable to a failure of filtering irrelevant distractors. For permissions, please email: journals. Deficits of spatial and task-related attentional selection in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.
Visual selective attention was assessed with a partial-report task in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease AD , amnestic mild cognitive impairment MCI , and healthy elderly controls. Based on Bundesen's "theory of visual attention" TVA , two parameters were derived: top-down control of attentional selection , representing task-related attentional weighting for prioritizing relevant visual objects, and spatial distribution of attentional weights across the left and the right hemifield.
Compared with controls, MCI patients showed significantly reduced top-down controlled selection , which was further deteriorated in AD subjects. Moreover, attentional weighting was significantly unbalanced across hemifields in MCI and tended to be more lateralized in AD.
These results indicate that impaired top-down control may be linked to early dysfunction of fronto-parietal networks. An early temporo-parietal interhemispheric asymmetry might cause a pathological spatial bias which is associated with ApoE4 genotype and may therefore function as early cognitive marker of upcoming AD. Introduction Reducing the amount of testing required to accurately detect cognitive impairment is clinically relevant.
The aim of this research was to determine the fewest number of clinical measures required to accurately classify participants as healthy older adult, mild cognitive impairment MCI or dementia using a suite of classification techniques. Methods Two variable selection machine learning models i. Participants classified using clinical diagnosis criteria included 52 individuals with dementia, 97 with MCI, and cognitively healthy older adults. Twenty-seven demographic, psychological, and neuropsychological variables were available for variable selection.
Results No significant difference was observed between naive Bayes, decision tree, and logistic regression models for classification of both clinical diagnosis and CDR datasets. Participant classification Through variable selection only 2 — 9 variables were required for classification and varied between datasets in a clinically meaningful way.
Conclusions The current study results reveal that machine learning techniques can accurately classifying cognitive impairment and reduce the number of measures required for diagnosis. Selective memory retrieval can impair and improve retrieval of other memories. Research from the past decades has shown that retrieval of a specific memory e. More recently, however, it has been shown that retrieval can both attenuate and aid recall of other memories K. Samenieh, To identify the circumstances under which retrieval aids recall, the authors examined retrieval dynamics in listwise directed forgetting, context-dependent forgetting, proactive interference, and in the absence of any induced memory impairment.
They found beneficial effects of selective retrieval in listwise directed forgetting and context-dependent forgetting but detrimental effects in all the other conditions. Because context-dependent forgetting and listwise directed forgetting arguably reflect impaired context access, the results suggest that memory retrieval aids recall of memories that are subject to impaired context access but attenuates recall in the absence of such circumstances.
The findings are consistent with a 2-factor account of memory retrieval and suggest the existence of 2 faces of memory retrieval. Impaired distractor inhibition on a selective attention task in unmedicated, depressed subjects. Impaired distractor inhibition may contribute to the selective attention deficits observed in depressed patients, but studies to date have not tested the distractor inhibition theory against the possibility that processes such as transient memory review processes may account for the observed deficits.
A negative priming paradigm can dissociate inhibition from such a potentially confounding process called object review. The negative priming task also isolates features of the distractor such as colour and location for independent examination. A computerized negative priming task was used in which colour, identification and location features of a stimulus and distractor were systematically manipulated across successive prime and probe trials.
Thirty-two unmedicated subjects with DSM-IV diagnoses of non-psychotic unipolar depression were compared with 32 age, sex and IQ matched controls. Depressed subjects had reduced levels of negative priming for conditions where the colour feature of the stimulus was repeated across prime and probe trials but not when identity or location was the repeated feature. When both the colour and location feature were the repeated feature across trials, facilitation in response was apparent. The pattern of results supports studies that found reduced distractor inhibition in depressed subjects, and suggests that object review is intact in these subjects.
Greater impairment in negative priming for colour versus location suggests that subjects may have greater impairment in the visual stream associated with processing colour features. Although Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD is closely linked to executive function deficits, it has recently been attributed to procedural learning impairments that are quite distinct from the former.
These observations challenge the ability of the executive function framework solely to account for the diverse range of symptoms observed in ADHD. A recent neurocomputational model emphasizes the role of striatal dopamine DA in explaining ADHD's broad range of deficits, but the link between this model and procedural learning impairments remains unclear.
Significantly, feedback-based procedural learning is hypothesized to be disrupted in ADHD because of the involvement of striatal DA in this type of learning. In order to test this assumption, we employed two variants of a probabilistic category learning task known from the neuropsychological literature. Feedback-based FB and paired associate-based PA probabilistic category learning were employed in a non-medicated sample of ADHD participants and neurotypical participants.
In the FB task, participants learned associations between cues and outcomes initially by guessing and subsequently through feedback indicating the correctness of the response. In the PA learning task, participants viewed the cue and its associated outcome simultaneously without receiving an overt response or corrective feedback. In both tasks, participants were trained across trials. Learning was assessed in a subsequent test without a presentation of the outcome or corrective feedback.
Results revealed an interesting disassociation in which ADHD participants performed as well as control participants in the PA task, but were impaired compared with the controls in the FB task. The learning curve during FB training differed between the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that the ability to incrementally learn by feedback is selectively disrupted in ADHD participants.
These results are discussed in relation to both. Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluate performances of various user selection protocols under impact of hardware impairments. We assume that all of the US randomly appear around the BS. For performance evaluation, we derive exact and asymptotic closed-form expressions of average Outage Probability OP over Rayleigh fading channels.
We also consider average harvested energy per a US. Finally, Monte-Carlo simulations are then performed to verify the theoretical results. Novel versus Familiar Brands. Two experiments were conducted to analyze neurophysiological activation, response latency, and actual brand choice concerning novel and familiar brands. The results show that 1 the choice of novel brands compared to the choice of familiar brands is preceded by increased activation of both Full Text Available Objective Familiarity is a subjective sensation that contributes to person recognition.
This process is described as an emotion-based memory-trace of previous meetings and could be disrupted in schizophrenia. Consequently, familiarity disorders could be involved in the impaired social interactions observed in patients with schizophrenia. Previous studies have primarily focused on famous people recognition. Our aim was to identify underlying features, such as emotional disturbances, that may contribute to familiarity disorders in schizophrenia.
We hypothesize that patients with familiarity disorders will exhibit a lack of familiarity that could be detected by a flattened skin conductance response SCR. MethodThe SCR was recorded to test the hypothesis that emotional reactivity disturbances occur in patients with schizophrenia during the categorization of specific familiar , famous and unknown faces as male or female.
Forty-eight subjects were divided into the following 3 matched groups with 16 subjects per group: control subjects, schizophrenic people with familiarity disorder, and schizophrenic people without familiarity disorders. ResultsEmotional arousal is reflected by the skin conductance measures. The control subjects and the patients without familiarity disorders experienced a differential emotional response to the specific familiar faces compared with that to the unknown faces.
Nevertheless, overall, the schizophrenic patients without familiarity disorders showed a weaker response across conditions compared with the control subjects. In contrast, the patients with familiarity disorders did not show any significant differences in their emotional response to the faces, regardless of the condition. ConclusionOnly patients with familiarity disorders fail to exhibit a difference in emotional response between familiar and non- familiar faces.
These patients likely emotionally process familiar faces similarly to unknown faces. Hence, the lower. Constelaciones familiares y discapacidad. While it is widely accepted that lesions to orbital prefrontal cortex lead to emotion related disruptions and poor decision-making, there is very little patient data on this issue involving actual logical reasoning tasks.
Where unfiltered content is passed to the reasoning engine, either as a result of pathology as in the case of our patients or as a result of individual differences, reasoning performance suffers. Conversely, deficits in executive functioning, such as working memory and cognitive control, are implicated in secondary psychopathic traits.
Results revealed a significant relationship between traits typically associated with primary psychopathy e. In contrast, some characteristics linked to secondary psychopathy e. These results suggest that psychopathic traits are differentially related to selective impairments in attentional functioning, which may help explain the observed heterogeneity in psychopathic manifestations. Sleep deprivation impairs object- selective attention: a view from the ventral visual cortex.
Most prior studies on selective attention in the setting of total sleep deprivation SD have focused on behavior or activation within fronto-parietal cognitive control areas. Here, we evaluated the effects of SD on the top-down biasing of activation of ventral visual cortex and on functional connectivity between cognitive control and other brain regions.
Twenty-three healthy young adult volunteers underwent fMRI after a normal night of sleep RW and after sleep deprivation in a counterbalanced manner while performing a selective attention task. During this task, pictures of houses or faces were randomly interleaved among scrambled images.
Across different blocks, volunteers responded to house but not face pictures, face but not house pictures, or passively viewed pictures without responding. The appearance of task-relevant pictures was unpredictable in this paradigm. SD resulted in less accurate detection of target pictures without affecting the mean false alarm rate or response time.
In addition to a reduction of fronto-parietal activation, attending to houses strongly modulated parahippocampal place area PPA activation during RW, but this attention-driven biasing of PPA activation was abolished following SD. Additionally, SD resulted in a significant decrement in functional connectivity between the PPA and two cognitive control areas, the left intraparietal sulcus and the left inferior frontal lobe.
SD impairs selective attention as evidenced by reduced selectivity in PPA activation. Further, reduction in fronto-parietal and ventral visual task-related activation suggests that it also affects sustained attention. Reductions in functional connectivity may be an important additional imaging parameter to consider in characterizing the effects of sleep deprivation on cognition. Selective impairments of resting-state networks in minimal hepatic encephalopathy.
Little is known, so far, about the exact neuro-pathophysiological mechanisms of aberrant cognition function in this disease. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the RSNs functional connectivity FC and venous blood ammonia levels, and neuropsychological tests scores for all patients. Our fMRI study might supply a novel way to understand the neuropathophysiological mechanism of cognition function changes in MHE.
Reduction of excitatory currents onto GABAergic interneurons in the forebrain results in impaired spatial working memory and altered oscillatory network patterns in the hippocampus. Whether this phenotype is caused by an alteration in hippocampal interneurons is not known because most studies employed genetic manipulations affecting several brain regions.
This regionally selective manipulation led to a strong spatial working memory deficit while leaving reference memory unaffected. These changes were associated with an increased firing rate of pyramidal cells during ripples. The spatial selectivity of hippocampal pyramidal cells was comparable to that of controls in many respects when assessed during open field exploration and zigzag maze running.
However, GluA4 ablation caused altered modulation of firing rate by theta oscillations in both interneurons and pyramidal cells. These results establish the involvement of AMPA receptor-mediated currents onto hippocampal interneurons for ripples and theta oscillations, and highlight potential cellular and network alterations that could account for the altered working memory performance.
Abnormal externally guided movement preparation in recent-onset schizophrenia is associated with impaired selective attention to external input. Several theories propose that the primary cognitive impairment in schizophrenia concerns a deficit in the processing of external input information.
There is also evidence, however, for impaired motor preparation in schizophrenia. This provokes the question whether the impaired motor preparation in schizophrenia is a secondary consequence of disturbed selective processing of the input needed for that preparation, or an independent primary deficit.
The aim of the present study was to discriminate between these hypotheses, by investigating externally guided movement preparation in relation to selective stimulus processing. The sample comprised 16 recent-onset schizophrenia patients and 16 controls who performed a movement-precuing task. In this task, a precue delivered information about one, two or no parameters of a movement summoned by a subsequent stimulus.
Performance measures and measures derived from the electroencephalogram showed that patients yielded smaller benefits from the precues and showed less cue-based preparatory activity in advance of the imperative stimulus than the controls, suggesting a response preparation deficit. However, patients also showed less activity reflecting selective attention to the precue.
We therefore conclude that the existing evidence for an impairment of externally guided motor preparation in schizophrenia is most likely due to a deficit in selective attention to the external input, which lends support to theories proposing that the primary cognitive deficit in schizophrenia concerns the processing of input information.
This study sought to establish the role of music in speech intelligibility of learners with Post Lingual Hearing Impairment PLHI and strategies teachers used to enhance speech intelligibility in learners with PLHI in selected special units for the deaf in Lusaka district. The study used a descriptive research design. Qualitative and quantitative…. This article describes the systematic and detailed processes undertaken to modify a research methodology for use with language- impaired adolescents.
The original methodology had been used previously with normally achieving adolescents and speech pathologists to obtain their opinions about the relative importance of selected communication skills…. Presynaptic active zones of mammalian neuromuscular junctions: Nanoarchitecture and selective impairments in aging. Neurotransmitter release occurs at active zones, which are specialized regions of the presynaptic membrane. A dense collection of proteins at the active zone provides a platform for molecular interactions that promote recruitment, docking, and priming of synaptic vesicles.
The molecular architecture of presynaptic active zones has been revealed using super-resolution microscopy techniques that combine nanoscale resolution and multiple molecular identification. Interestingly, the active zones of adult NMJs are not stable structures and thus become impaired during aging due to the selective degeneration of specific active zone proteins.
This review will discuss recent progress in the understanding of active zone nanoarchitecture and the mechanisms underlying active zone organization in mammalian NMJs. Furthermore, we will summarize the age-related degeneration of active zones at NMJs, and the role of exercise in maintaining active zones. Our interpretation of these selective impairments is based on a discussion suggesting that different neural networks within the central nervous system, which process specific executive functions, are affected differently by nitrogen narcosis.
Selective neuronal degeneration in the retrosplenial cortex impairs the recall of contextual fear memory. The retrosplenial cortex RSC is one of the largest cortical areas in rodents, and is subdivided in two main regions, A29 and A30, according to their cytoarchitectural organization and connectivities. However, very little is known about the functional activity of each RSC subdivision during the execution of complex cognitive tasks. Here, we used a well-established fear learning protocol that induced long-lasting contextual fear memory and showed that during evocation of the fear memory, the expression of early growth response gene 1 was up-regulated in A30, and in other brain areas implicated in fear and spatial memory, however, was down-regulated in A29, including layers IV and V.
To search for the participation of A29 on fear memory, we triggered selective degeneration of neurons within cortical layers IV and V of A29 by using a non-invasive protocol that takes advantage of the vulnerability that these neurons have MKtoxicity and the modulation of this neurodegeneration by testosterone. Degeneration of A29 neurons did not affect exploratory or anxiety-related behavior nor altered unconditioned freezing.
Importantly, protecting A29 neurons from MKtoxicity by testosterone preserved fear memory recall in orchiectomized rats. Thus, neurons within cortical layers IV-V of A29 are critically required for efficient retrieval of contextual fear memory. The chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel selectively impairs learning while sparing source memory and spatial memory.
Chemotherapeutic agents are widely used to treat patients with systemic cancer. The efficacy of these therapies is undermined by their adverse side-effect profiles such as cognitive deficits that have a negative impact on the quality of life of cancer survivors.
Cognitive side effects occur across a variety of domains, including memory, executive function, and processing speed. Such impairments are exacerbated under cognitive challenges and a subgroup of patients experience long-term impairments. Episodic memory in rats can be examined using a source memory task.
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Yet as fiduciaries, boards must take care to verify the reality of what they are buying —knowing what questions to ask and what information to demand regarding best-practices adherence and performance data. To do this, they need to become familiar with the marketing-versusreality practices in this emerging sector. This can be a Herculean challenge for board members and staff already heavily burdened by the operational and policy duties of running their organizations.
Moreover, even for those who can find the time, the universe of OCIO providers is so large, varied and expanding that the task becomes all the more daunting. To make such engagements meaningful and productive, institutional boards must recognize the imperative for oversight of future or existing OCIOs. Typically, institutions are far more focused on simplifying the investment process than on finding a proper steward to oversee their total investment management program.
Many boards need consultants who can act as a trusted advisor in their search for an OCIO, and, on an ongoing basis, to represent their interests in all facets of investment management execution, including negotiating fees and acting steadfastly as their voice at the table in all aspects involving service providers.
Bringing on an OCIO can carry myriad benefits for boards. This move can mean a shift to improved and more varied investment management expertise, bringing significant increases in short- and long-term net returns to fund programs and liabilities while fortifying risk management. By hiring the right OCIO and providing the right kind of oversight, boards can derive these benefits to reach their investment goals while reducing fees and expenses. Hence, for some boards, a well-crafted, well-overseen, well-monitored OCIO program can redirect an investment management program to the purpose for which it was originally conceived: a means to an end rather than an end in itself.
These tasks require specialized knowledge and expertise, including a true understanding of client needs and mission, a familiarity with the viable structural models, performance assessment skills to assure accountability and an understanding of the range of professionals seeking OCIO business and their limitations.
Fit with the organization. Even if the qualifications of the candidate are impeccable, finding the right fit is paramount. Firms that are too small might lack the necessary experience and breadth of expertise the organization requires. On the other hand, if a board of a midsize organization engages a financial services giant, it could be relegated to second-fiddle status — or even 32nd-fiddle status.
Though some board members may view a large OCIO firm as being desirable from a brand-name point of view, this can be problematic for smaller organizations. Moreover, large firms typically have substantial turnover in the junior ranks, sometimes creating a lack of continuity for clients who need ready access to advisors intimately familiar with their needs on an ongoing basis.
Further, there is the problem of asymmetric information. Asset management moves undertaken by the big investment houses to serve their equally large institutional clients can work to the detriment of the portfolios of small and midsize institutions.
Customization is a concern as well. Board investment committees often hear a lot about customized solutions from big asset managers, but may actually receive a one-size-fits-all solution, albeit with a bit of tweaking and rewriting of boilerplate. Flexibility of providers. As when entering into any business relationship, engineering contingencies for an exit strategy is essential. From the outset, boards should be vigilant to identify and avoid candidates who might bring about a scenario in which their organization could be blocked from ready access to assets—and thus be reluctant or unable to fire a possibly under-performing OCIO.
To be proactive in this regard, boards should be sure to ask about the use of illiquid investments in any proposed program. OCIO firms often claim that they use illiquid investments to boost performance, of course. Yet the real motivation for this may be to lock in long-term revenue streams or make them opaque, given that some illiquid assets are notoriously difficult to value, especially in the absence of recent arms-length transactions.
Proof of performance. Each candidate must present specific evidence of a clear value-add for the hiring organization, along with proof of a successful track record. This would likely include detailed insights regarding appropriate manager-selection criteria, a proposed custom basis for tactical asset allocation, and information on any associated services the firms may offer. Boards often encounter roadblocks in attempting to assess performance records of OCIO candidates. There is a common refrain that every client is unique, so the summary data they might provide could not possibly be pertinent or applicable.
They might say there is no point in presenting performance results, citing the lack of uniformity in client risk profiles as a key reason. Here are some items boards should keep in mind when seeking and considering performance data from OCIO candidates:. Ask candidates to show the percentage of their clients that beat their custom benchmarks, over 1, 3, 5 and 10 years.
Be sure to compare net, not gross, returns. Make sure performance is actual, not backtested or simulated. Beware of cherry picking. If there are no laggards in the group presented, this may be a red flag for low credibility. Ask for historical average returns by institution size, asset class and type of organization or institution.
Pricing and fees. Boards should drill down on the pricing metrics to learn whether fees are affected by asset allocation choices and, if so, exactly how. If proprietary products are being used, does this pricing differ? Identifying conflicts of interest is paramount—before and after engagement. Before engaging an OCIO, boards should make a thorough effort to identify all potential conflicts, starting with a request to disclose all lines of business, partnerships and affiliations.
Some boards assume that they can easily manage conflicts or adjust their judgments of OCIOs to protect against any negative effects, but they may overestimate the ease with which they can identify conflicts, considering the tendencies for incomplete or misleading disclosures by candidates. When they come and talk to us, they will discuss how they are managing the portfolio, any changes they are making and thinking about making, but pre-approval is not required. We may ask about their logic or thinking behind certain issues, but we have little to no authority or influence on their decision.
This puts the entire onus of success on them as an organization. Tom: Yes, and when we went through our process, we did consider a number of OCIO organizations with different models, some of which operate on a single pool concept, and others that had more of a consultant-type relationship, requiring approvals when it came to manager changes or strategy decisions. In our case, we chose this model of OCIO relationship for very clean and quick responses. David V: It is similar in the sense that the asset owner retains discretion over the selection of strategies and the underlying managers.
And that performance is derived from a benchmark that looks a lot like the strategic allocation with tactical bands around the asset class weights. Once you have done that, then that is how you fulfill your fiduciary duty. You have to benchmark them, monitoring them, and reviewing them in-depth. Tom: It does, and we did have some discussions about it, especially coming from a consultant model.
We discussed what our investment committee would do under the new model. Would it continue to be an engaging way for board members to participate in the foundation? The improvement here is that, where we used to come to the investment committee and discuss issues around asset allocation or manager selection, we now get to discuss broader themes, such as the rise of the middle class in China or the Fed raising interest rates.
The discussions are at a higher level and more relevant to the knowledge and experience of our investment committee members. What we had to get comfortable with was the concentration of risk. Before, we had a consultant who oversaw the entire portfolio but had no discretion. They partnered with individual managers who had discretion over small pieces of the portfolio. We then migrated to an environment with one external organization with discretion over the entire portfolio.
The due diligence and monitoring responsibility became that much greater. Tom: This is a bit of a grey area. In our case, we are outsourcing the entire portfolio. There are certainly organizations that are either multi-asset specialists or OCIOs that do invest in specific asset classes and manage a portion of the portfolio or do a slice of the portfolio across asset classes. They may be managing half the portfolio in a multi-asset kind of structure, while the other half of the portfolio is internally managed or with a consultant.
It is a way of differentiating and benchmarking the two styles of management against each other. Hal: It makes me wonder whether hiring an outside CIO might require a more sophisticated investment committee to make that decision and to feel comfortable in their ability to evaluate the performance attributions and results over time.
I wonder if there might be committees who feel that they need a little more hand holding along the way. The traditional consulting model might feel better to some boards or investment committees. There is a little bit of a larger leap that has to be made in order to hire that outsourced OCIO. Once you understand it and have found good firms who can play that role, it is something that almost all fiduciaries ought to consider.
If we consider the limited amount of time that you have to meet and discuss these matters as a committee, in some ways you might be undercutting your fiduciary effectiveness by getting yourselves, as a committee, involved in anything other than the largest, highest level decisions.
Anything beyond this, and you could be dragging the process down and costing yourself returns. Tom: I agree. Part of the challenge for an investment committee is in trying to select an OCIO based on process and relationship. But as a long-term investor, to evaluate performance requires a long-term timeframe, maybe a timeframe that is longer than even the tenure of the investment committee members who are making the decision.
This can create a challenge in making that decision properly. David G: David, how do you view what is applicable to the different types of organizations? How does the strategic partnership differ from those two models? David V: One of the key issues that was mentioned earlier is the idea of these organizations being resource constrained. Ultimately, one of the chief constraints is the available time with the board or investment committee.
Many committees also meet fairly infrequently, such that a couple of months can go by in between the meetings. As such, some of the more important decisions revolve around how to best address the constraints that these organizations face. Granted, some of these constraints do go away as you get into bigger organizations. There, you might have a team of people devoting their time to specialized efforts, such as overseeing research projects and conducting regular meetings.
The industrial logic is even clearer at that level, where you can see that you are going to get some completely different things out of the relationship. That should be viewed as solving a different organizational problem. At our size, the goals are simply to tease out strategic insights from the relationship and harvest the incremental value.
For an even smaller organization, it may be about how to alleviate that time constraint at the board level, which often creates a strong desire to make just one major decision, rather than many small ones. However, a question is whether the OCIO firm that makes those decisions should also be the one to monitor them. That person was in day-to-day conversation with the strategic partners, gathering their insights and relaying those to the rest of the organization, where they may or may not be acted upon.
Here at COAERS, where the staff is much smaller, we envision a different kind of structure where we might speak to the strategic partner once a week at the most, and probably more like once a month, to see how the their thinking may have changed with respect to the portfolio. We would also like for them to talk to us whenever they do make a significant change. Because we are limited in our ability to act quickly, being notified that an asset class is being bought or sold may take 6-months to be reflected at the broader asset allocation level for the fund.
David V: I would make the distinction between a simple multi-asset strategy and an OCIO or strategic partner type of relationship. There are firms out there that offer a premium package-wrapped approach in stocks and bonds.
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