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JSC -Leading institute -V This is a considerable num- Especially for the period c. With this he also maintains that from BC to AD. The settlements have been given the social structure in west Scania seems to have been more points according to the character of the site, suitability for complex than in the rest of the province. After c. The settlements were grouped into four Helgesson suggests that they reflect a strategic organization levels and also grouped chronologically.

Other places are possibly more specialized. A future analysis could perhaps proceed from the variation among these places. With regard to source-critical aspects due to variations in investigation, it would certainly be mean- ingful to discuss aspects of relations between them con- sidering complex power networks.

Close par- allels are the mountings from the Jelling tomb. Length 33 mm. Almgren, Historical Museum, Lund University. Lund and the events that led to the founding of the new town. The question of urbanization is of course crucial here. Mats Mogren asks whether it is possible to discuss urban- tainly is worth considering. Mogren also suggests that the central places the west coast at Helsingborg.

The Viking Age fortresses at could advantageously be studied with the analytical instru- Trelleborg and Borgeby must be considered here as they are ments that have been developed though research on urban- clearly connected to this important communication link.

It ization Mogren ff; cf. Yoffee There was probably at least The prerequisites for a qualitative analysis of Iron Age Sca- one larger farm and the cultic or ceremonial house must also nia have never been as good as today. The material basis is be considered. This would mean that, for the Viking Age, comprehensive and analytical tools are abundant. A large the best parallel is probably the oldest Lund with its spa- number of studies have appeared during the last decade and cious plots Carelli An intriguing task would be to review them togeth- al location for settlement.

However, with the establishment er and contrast the different views. We can already perceive of the new place someone in power demonstrated his abil- something of the networks of various content, extension and ity to transform communication patterns and introduce levels, which seem to have existed.

An Iron Age traveller cer- new patterns of movements and conceptions of space in the tainly had to know how to act to be able to move through area. He sees Lund as something qualitatively new in the this intricate web of relations on his or her way to the Cen- region S. Larsson Then the foundation of Lund was tral Place.

An ally, birgitta. Even more exciting is a small mounting connected to Knut the Holy. Notes Helgesson, B. Larsson, L. Larsson and B. Acta Archeologica Lundensia, in Kiruna when this article was written, so no photo could be obtained.

Preconditions, Performance and Prospects. Centrality — Regionality. The Common Thread. Textile Production during the er 7. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia. Report Series No. Archaeology, University of Lund. An area with centralising functions Billberg, I. Fler fynd i centrum. Larsson Lund.

Stock- Braudel, F. Jacobsson, B. Callmer and E. Rosen- Mann, M. The Sources of Social Power. A history of power from the gren eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Mogren, M. Mogren ed. Lund: Riksan- — Centrum Moreland, J. Concepts of the Early Medieval Economy. Lyse och sammanhang. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia, Hansen and C. Wickham eds. The Long Eighth Century. Leiden: Bril. Exchange and Politics. The eighth — early ninth cen- Carelli, P.

En kaptalistisk anda. Lyse Hansen and C. The Long Danmark. Lund Studies in Medieval Archaeology Stockholm: Eighth Century. Transformations of the Roman World, 34— Carlie, A. Carlie ed. Specialstudier och syntes, — Lund: Riksantik- Sveriges fastland. Carlie, L. Svanberg, F.

Stockholm: B. Larsson eds. Merovingian Periods. Report series nr 9. Archaeology, Lund University. Kungligt beslag? Materialstudier i och kring Webster, States of Mind. Review of Yoffee, N. Evolutions of the Earliest Cities, States and Civilizations. Harrison, D. Centralorter i historisk forskning om tidig medeltid. Yoffee, N. Myths of the Archaic In J. Rosengren eds. Traditionally the barrows have been interpreted as Bronze Age barrows Vifot , but the possibility that they were constructed during the Iron Age has also been discussed.

In the fol- lowing, the names of the two barrows will be discussed in relation to information collected by the Danish ecclesias- tical administration in the s and by the Swedish National Land Survey in the s. The names, which mean the big barrow and the small bar- row, are quite appropriate as one barrow is larger than the other. On the other hand, there is evidence from written sources and archaeological excavations of two more barrows figure 1.

Both these barrows may have disappeared during the eighteenth century. Now things become puzzling. On the one In that case, it could be interesting to get a hint rows already in the mid 16th century. Combining informa- of when the names were given to the barrows. Both these field- siastic institutions within the diocese of Lund around Ejder Lunds stifts landebok.

The record of the lands of not both. An interpretation of the names could be that they the vicarage is thus representative of the entire village. More like- many cases also appear on the oldest land survey maps from ly, however, the explanation could be that the clerk that col- the 17th and 18th centuries Riddersporre According to the map, the two barrows remain- object of a land reform storskifte. These names sporre Thanks to that, the survey records not only are probably not older than the late 18th century, when the the old field-names, but also their original location.

The dif- 16th and 18th centuries. But that is another story. In Larsson, L. Continuity for Centuries. Acta Archaeo- two ways of putting the same spoken word into writing. The logica Lundensia. The Social Structure of Southern Sweden ly dropped. Given that the land surveyor who recorded the during the Iron Age. Ejder eds. Riddersporre, M. Bymarker i backspegel. Avhandlingar Meta , — Dialekt- och ortnamnsarkivet i Lund, 9. Why not a Stone Age theme? Or why not a and later on, they were going to be remoulded into some- highly theoretical one?

One alluding to our talks over many thing else. If not, the bird brooches could have been manu- years about doing archaeology, and our research topics? But, since Lars is a traveller, I will use travel as a metaphor Looking through the brooches together with the ornithol- for his broad interests in all kinds of research fields, and for ogist Professor Thomas Alerstam, Lund University, we his lifestyle. Being a rambler myself, I think that physical noticed typical characteristic of the bird brooches, a theme movement is also a mental journey that gives force and ener- with variations.

Evidently, the typology of the brooches by gy. This journey sets off in Branca The question is what kind of species is represented, project, resulting in thousands of finds e. After several seasons of metal detector surveys at the Upp- Sonesson Yet, how database , the Historical Museum, Lund University. The following some of them are embellished with silver or gold, and dec- interpretation of the bird brooches and the bird images is orated with stones or gems.

Ribbons, bands, and a male an associative argumentation between different archaeolog- head sometimes decorate the back of the bird. The pictori- ical and written sources in Scandinavia and the continent, al language signals a bird seen from its back. The beak, the besides my own fascination with birds and falconry. Fragments of a pin or a pin anchor on the back of the Ravens or birds of prey?

They could also The finds are without context as they were discovered in be understood as representations of birds of prey Jennbert the plough soil over a very large area. Presumably, they are a. Within the field of archaeology dealing with the not fragments from a former cemetery as the total archaeo- finds in question there is caution about attributing the pic- logical material found during the surveys does not indicate torial image to any species.

The question is whether it at all the existence of a cemetery. The mixed prey, or something else? The bills are straight, and similar to either a raven or a bird of prey. The tails are varied; they can be straight, figure 1. Species of bird — raven or bird of prey? Bird brooch rounded, or wedge-shaped. Photo: B. Almgren, His- A general trend is that they have marked eyes, and the torical Museum, Lund University.

Length: 58 mm. The stout aerofoil of the shoulders and the folded shaped tail. Falcons and hawks are broad-chested, and have wings with the claws in diving position suggest rather that a heavy curved bill, long, broad, pointed wings, and heavy the image represents a bird of prey. On the other hand, it feet with sturdy claws, and long tail which can be round- is possible to interpret it as a raven seen from the back. The ornaments give the impression of a tamed bird of Ravens and birds of prey have different habitats and prey, hunting its quarry in a straight diving position.

It could behaviours. While ravens follow predators to scavenge on be a goshawk or a peregrine falcon, but further identifica- leftovers and carrion, birds of prey, depending on which tions are worthless, and impossible to do. Thus, the icono- species, hunt in different ways. Gyrfalcons Falco rusticolus graphy of the bird brooches signals birds of prey, with con- fly low and surprise prey on the ground. They force it low notations of falconry, a special lifestyle.

The question is what or high and exhaust it. Gyrfalcons strike prey or drive it to kind of information about the bird brooches and similar pic- the ground, rather than grasping it in the air. Peregrine fal- torial perspectives comes from their archaeological context, cons Falco peregrinus search out the prey from a perch or and what association can be made with practising falconry?

The prey is killed by a bite in the neck. Goshawks Accipiter gentilis perch Archaeological contexts silently, waiting and watching for prey. They follow prey The bird brooches belong to the south Scandinavian mate- rapidly through forest vegetation. However, especially on Bornholm, there are body position and feathers depending on what they actu- brooches in female graves, in pairs or single as a part of a ally do.

Vedel f; fy species is an ambiguous job. In quite another part of Sweden a similar perspective of figure 2. The hel- a bird is created on the helmet found in the boat grave met from the boat Vendel XIV, Uppland in eastern central Sweden Figure 2. The male grave is one XLI. Red-breasted Merganser Merganser serrator 1 The position of the proposed diving position of a bird of Duck Anatinae sp. What kind of relations between these archaeo- Hazel Grouse Bonasia bonasia 2 logical contexts can be seen?

Crane Grus grus 5 Another pictorial bird, formed during the same period of Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria 1 time, gives renewed perspectives: birds in profile-formed Snipe Gallinago gallinago 1 bird brooches associated with female graves, and mountings Pigeon Columba sp. People have trained fal- from other parts of Europe. But what about true birds of cons and hawks for hunting for over a thousand years.

Fal- prey and ravens in archaeological contexts? Chronologically, the reign of Clovis I, the first king of the Franks c. Large mounds with male and female cremations, 3 solidi. If anybody steals a hawk from a perch, let him be bodies of horses and dogs, parts of sheep, goat and cattle judged liable to the extent of dinarii, which make up 15 solidi.

If anybody steals a hawk from inside the household, were equipped with luxury items, partly from abroad and he be found guilty, let him be judged liable the extent of Vretemark ; Sten and Vretemark Add 1. If anybody steals a goshawk Table 1 , indicate that vegetation and the land- sparrowhawk let him be judged liable to the extent of scape scenery evoke different kinds of hunting methods and dinarii, which make up 3 solidi, besides the return of the different species of bird of prey.

The archaeological contexts and the bones of birds certainly indicate that fal- But there were also other similar laws in other western coun- conry was a skill in the period of the bird brooches. Evidently falconry was a custom that — AD after Tyrberg However, it is questionable whether Old Norse mythology gives answers to pre-Christian iconographic rep- resentations, and this is an ongoing discussion in the field of archaeology and history of religion.

The use of the bird brooches as pendants, al. The site also could bones in richly equipped graves, and the brooches and be interpreted as a crucible, a melting pot, important in ide- mountings with birds of prey in profile. Falconry is no doubt ological changes as old items were melted down and new linked to the aristocratic consumption of game, perhaps for ones were produced. The interpretation of the bird brooches as representations of birds of prey and falconry relies on associations between Lifestyle and identity archaeological and written sources from the time in ques- tion.

When bird brooches and the birds in profile on the The bird brooches have a changing biography, as grave gifts, Vendel helmets are interpreted as ravens with reference to pendants, and scrap metal. The burial custom could be Old Norse mythology and war, it is without considering characterised as a grave language, understood as a kind of other archaeological sources. The material culture in Scan- montage, and significant for the persona of the dead but also dinavia and in other areas indicates connections with an activator of norms and values, memories and traditions, Roman cavalry and an aristocratic political life to the west networking and regeneration, as well as religion and men- and the east.

The ability and lifestyles must have an all- tality in everyday life. The grave is a kind of montage of embracing importance in alliances, negotiations and wars. The graves are installations of wealth and materiality, and richly equipped burials have a large package of attributes for several lifestyles. These rich graves probably represent a grave language in its whole complexity, and they hint at interpre- tations of lifestyle metaphors also of persons in graves with not as much of wealth and materiality Jennbert b.

So, what do the birds represent more than the proposed falcon- ry? Certainly, the generosity and affluence of wealth was related to power and prestige. The pictorial language of the bird brooches was part of a communicating social elite.

But what about the male masks on the bird brooches? Bearing in mind that the pictorial per- spective of the brooches signals a physical movement of the bird, the male mask signals different messages depending of how the brooches were worn. Male masks are also formed on other objects, not only during the same period but in ear- lier and later centuries as well.

To sum up, the association between bird brooches and figure 4. Whose identity? Length: 55 mm. Two Cemeteries from the aesthetics of the time. Obviously, the bird brooches signal Late Iron Age on Bornholm. A and in continental networking in eastern and western direc- cemetery from the 6th—8th centuries on Bornholm. The gender issues are supported with ideological pref- Kongl. Nordiske Oldskriftselskab.

Thus, the large numbers of bird Lamm J. Vendel Period Studies. Stock- holm: The Museum of National Antiquities. Recent exca- sent contemporary travelling, objectified in the production vations and results. Central Places and remoulding of elegant handicraft. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia Acknowledgement — Larsson, L ed.

Continuity for centuries. Acta Archaeologica Lunden- Museum in Lund. English revised by Alan Crozier Lindqvist, S. Gotlands Bildsteine 1. Stockholm: K. Vitterhets His- torie och Antikvitets Akademien. Die Vendelzeit Gotlands. Form og stil i sydskandinaviens yngre germanske jernal- der. Nationalmuseets skrifter. Jahrhundert nach Christus. Petersen, V. Nye fund af metalsager fra yngre germansk jernal- Arrhenius, B. The chronology of the Vendel graves.

Lamm der. Mortensen and B. Rasmussen eds. Vendel Period Studies, 39— Stockholm: Kongemagt. Fra Stamme til Stat i Danmark 2, 49— Aarhus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag. Atterman, I. Uppsala logi fundet med metaldetektor. Capelle and C. Fischer eds. Rag- Branca, A. Odins Verden, 57— Silkeborg: Silkeborgs Museum. Fynden i centrum.

Del 4. Stockholm: keologisk analys. Studies in North-European Archaeology Produktion och spridning. Vretemark and H. Gustavson Centrum och sammanhang. Lamm and H. Vendel Period — Stockholm: The Museum of National Antiquities. Wiksell International. Sonesson, G. Inledning till bildsemiotiken som veten- — Lund Studentlitteratur.

Storgravsprojektet — osteologiska ana- gian Periods. Stolpe, H. Lamm and B. Central Places. Acta and II. Lund: Gleerup and Bonn: Archaeologica Lundensia Tyrberg, T. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 45 special issue. Eisenzeit auf Bornholm. Acta Archaeologica — Lund: Lunds — Centrum og periferi I 6. Territoriale studier af dyrestil og Universitets historiska museum. Vedel, E.

Bornholms oldtidsminder og oldsager. Fra Stamme til Stat i Danmark 2, — Seminar Paper. Jennbert, K. Animals and the pre-Christian ideas about cosmos. Carelli eds. Helsingborg: Dunkers kulturhus. The heroized dead. People, animals, and materiality in Scan- Internet dinavian death rituals, AD — Jennbert and All about Birds.

Raudvere eds. Old Norse Religion in long-term perspectives, — Lund: Nordic Academic Press. Prelude in krafts torg, the plaza east of the apse of the Cathedral of Lund, underwent renovation. This involved tearing up the asphalt street and replacing it with a pedes- trian area covered in paving stones and grass. The paver, on his knees or bent double at the waist, chose each paving stone from the pile placed in front of him. Rotating the stone cube in his hand and examining the six surfaces, he decided on the best placement.

With a metal hammer he scraped a surface in the bed of sand prepared for it, placed figure 1. A small paving stone Sw. Weight 2. Almgren, His- torical Museum, Lund University. Slowly and painstakingly the crescent-shaped pattern of paving stones grew in an advancing wave until the last stone was laid, completing the stone pavement and once craft activity carried out along the street.

By the 14th cen- again sealing the underlying layers which constitute the tury the main street in Lund was paved with leather scraps, foundations of this medieval city. Nielsen maintains and cables to meet the demands of modern technology. The practice of paving streets and pedestrians. Who made these hundreds of bility to keep half the width of the street in front of his prop- thousands of paving stones?

Was there any skill involved? Paving stones are an example of lithic technology of a dif- A fundamental change occurred in the second half of the ferent sort. How and where were the stones made? How 19th century with the introduction of dressed stone. The have we managed to keep alive the know-how needed to first type of paving stone used was called storgatsten large lay the stones in this modern age of efficiency and mech- paving stone. Each stone was 10 to 12 cm.

Streets paved with stor- gatsten functioned well for 15 years if traffic was at most 2, horse-drawn vehicles per day. If the street was torn Paving past and present up and repaved with the same stones it would last for anoth- The earliest street levels in Lund date to the early 12th cen- er 15 years.

However, large paving stones were expensive and tury. They consist of a cobblestone pavement covered by a in Swedish engineers decided to test the smaller paving lime-mortar layer. In the latter part of the century large stones Sw. These stones are cubes 8 to 10 cm. The follow- primarily oak. The photograph, probably taken about , shows how thir- ty years of quarrying have rearranged the previously forested island. The picture manages to capture all stages of paving stone manu- facture.

In the upper right-hand corner we see a drilling team at work. One man is holding the drill while two others hit it with their sledgehammers. Down in the quarry pit a stonecutter is about to split a block into two paving stones. A man in the dump heap to the left is removing bumps from the side of a paving stone with a hammer and chisel.

Behind him another trimmer is standing at his work- station and next to him is a pile of paving stones ready to be measured. Photo: Hjalmar Falk, Blekinge Museum. However in the Lund has passed an ordinance whereby streets with- Nielsen Asphalt was becoming increasingly pop- in the medieval city walls are to be paved with paving stones, ular, chiefly due to the lower cost of production and use.

Rehnberg notes that a calculation made in High quality paving stones can be reused many times and showed that paving with small paving stones cost 22 Swed- today they constitute valuable property cf. Today one can buy small Crowns for asphalt. When paving swept up in the throes of modernism and paving stones were stones are discovered under asphalt they are usually recov- considered an old-fashioned throwback. Making paving stones, a labor-intensive The final step involved trimming the faces and removing process any uneven spots.

Trimming was done by direct percussion The manufacture of small paving stones in Sweden began with a metal hammer or by indirect percussion with a chis- in the middle to late 19th century and reached a peak in the el and hammer. Horse-drawn carts it remained a trade which was practiced by hand and passed could be used or small railways constructed. More primi- on from father to son.

These were boards linked by Swedish granite and gneiss are especially tough and resist- ropes enabling the bearer to carry a load of paving stones ant to weathering Andersson Since the greatest on his back. Domestic boats. Mechanization of stonecutting, however, never demand was generally met by opening local quarries adja- caught on. The heavy machinery Thanks to published and filmed interviews with the was noisy and dangerous. The stonecutter in Blekinge of numerous injuries to hands and fingers and the union used the term granite for all the stone he worked.

Further- responding to granite and gneiss. By knowledge of internal planes in the stone. The experienced the machines were phased out Andersson and Johans- stonecutter could distinguish the planes in klyvsten by eye son The Second World War and the increasing use of asphalt Interestingly, two informants noted that stonecutters gen- at home and abroad wiped out the market for Swedish erally used woodworking terms when describing how they paving stones by Stonecutting in Sweden did not die worked granite.

Granite was said to possess qualities simi- out entirely, but by there were only stonecutters lar to wood; for instance it was more easily split in one direc- in all of Sweden Andersson and Johansson Today tion than in others. When an experienced stonecutter the city of Lund buys its paving stones from a company dressed stone with his hammer the process was said to which sells stones from Swedish quarries as well as from resemble splitting wood: the sides of the stone came out flat Poland, Portugal, Finland, India, and China Nielsen ; and even, without protuberances or depressions.

An inex- Stenhuggarens plats ; Hjort, personal communication perienced stonecutter often failed to produce clean stones ; Tibbelin, personal communication ; A. How- The process of making large or small paving stones was ever Fjellman Jaderup describes a growing protest as follows Figure 2 : A large block of 10 to 20 cubic meters movement in Sweden against Chinese import because of the was quarried by blasting.

This block was then split into suc- poor working conditions for the Chinese stonecutters, im- cessively smaller blocks by means of wedges driven into plying that much of the work there is still done by hand. Blocks were split into rectan- gles whose size depended on the size of the paving stones The stonecutter, a skilled craftsman being made.

This Nevertheless there was no dearth of labor since the work process continued until cubes of desired size were produced. The terms of a formal agreement to between the Swedish Granite Industry and the unions representing the employees is described in Andersson This spec- ified a hour working day Monday through Friday and 8 hours on Saturday for half the year, 8-hour days the other half.

Because most of the paving stones made in the Swedish quarries were exported, the industry was especially sensitive to foreign trade conditions. In many instances the Swedish government interceded with financial support Frykman ; nevertheless many stonecutters were forced to move often in search of work figure 3. Stone pavers at work in Lund in July The paver Johansson He As with all occupations involving handiwork, skilled is employed by a stone paving firm which serves all of Sweden.

Photo by author. To him the stone is a living thing with which he is well Stonecutters were also admired for their independence acquainted. He knows how to place wedges in each stone so and envied by those forced to obey a foreman in a factory that it will split exactly according to his intentions. Pride in his work was an important motivating factor for Time and again informants described in almost mythical the stonecutter Johansson , as it is for all under- terms the skill of the best stonecutters; a skill which was said takings requiring skill.

This sort of myth stone while at the larger works blocks were quarried by less building is probably one of the reasons for the strong resist- skilled workers and delivered to the stonecutters to be cut ance to splitting machines described above. These boys generally began help- quarries since they could produce at a higher rate there. Unfortunately the written sources are silent []; Carlsson f. Twenty-one percent of on this point.

Besides the admiration of his peers uncle who could make 1, small paving stones in a day. The stone paver, also skilled In , the Federation of Swedish County Coun- cils commissioned a handbook on how to lay paving stones. The author laments the reduction of practical knowledge about this craft, resulting in poorly laid and ugly stone pavements in Swedish cities.

Luckily, he writes, a number of skilled and experienced stone pavers, who learned the craft by working alongside older pavers, still exist. One of the aims of the handbook is to pre- serve their know-how in order to make it available to younger generations. It is the hope of the Fed- eration that the handbook will result in an increased use of paving stones in Sweden Nielsen A stone pavement is more flexible than asphalt.

Stone paving is manual work and it involves bending and stretching Figure 3. The stone paver works on his knees or bent at the waist. Each stone is chosen and laid by hand. The Federation commissioned a study in —91 to try to find ways of reducing the wear and tear on the stone paver but the conclusion was that further mechanization of the work was not possible Nielsen f.

Paving stones in the postmodern age We archaeologists are sensitive to the messages people con- vey through material culture. Odd, then, that paving stones prove to be no more than about years old. The practice of paving with stone cubes is not a historical relic, however; modern people have adapted it to suit modern needs and regulations Figure 4.

The paving stone has also become a sym- figure 5. White marble paving stones ready to be laid at a pedes- bol of the anti-globalization movement in Sweden after trian crossing in Lund. Carlsson, K. As a cyclist, I appreciate the fact that holm: Verdandi. Cigarette butts end up there too, however, difficult — Stenhuggaryrket genom tiderna.

In Stenarbetare. Blekingeboken — A new technique, which involves filling the cracks Johansson, C. Rehnberg ed. Stenhuggarminnen, — Stockholm: Nordiska Museet. Om stenhuggeriet i Blekinge. Magnusson Staaf, B. Eriksdottir and S. The Street as Monument. Lund Archaeological Review — Gamla Lund has succeeded in instilling a sense of pride and Nielsen, C. The entire Nilsson, J.

Stenhuggarminnen, 49— Although my investigation surprised Rehnberg, M. Stenindustrin och dess folk. Lund: intended to convey a message about time-depth. Stenhuggarens plats. Arcadius ed. The Lund: Stadsarkitektkontoret i Lund. Sydsvenska Dagbladet. Accessed July 17, Kinesisk sten i Kalendegatan. Accessed July 20, Accessed July 18, Accessed July 19, Nu ska Lund vaxa fast gatstenarna.

Sydsvenska Dag- visit to a small town in Colorado. Here round cobblestones were paint- bladet. Accessed July 21, Fattigt, men stenrikt. Carlshamniana — Andersson, K. Johansson Gothenburg: KMA filmproduk- Personal communication tion.

June Andersson, T. Sveriges granitindustri. Rolf Hjort, Markentreprenad, Lund. July Andersson, U. On the road to discovery Aerial photography and central places — an example from Halland. Introduction during his worldwide travels Lars Larsson had a cen- tral place to return to.

They range from broad scientific analysis to analysis of particu- lar archaeological artefacts to geographical analysis of the landscape at large. All this is the result of an inquisitive open mind, ready to use and experiment with methods and exca- vation techniques. In this paper I will discuss how differ- ent archaeological methods can be used to discover and map central places.

It is somewhat odd to find that places once central and vital to Iron Age society must be pieced togeth- er from the tiniest of fragments. During the excavation we found two farms from the Late Bronze age, Montelius period V.

We also found the from the Bronze Age, has been completely destroyed by somewhat more diffuse and scattered remains of a farm many years of tillage. These kinds of objects had, until then, from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. The At the very end of the excavation at Stafsinge, some excavation showed that there were uninterrupted settle- trenches were dug into an area that early on had been left ments in the area for several hundred years.

It had been said that the A disturbing fact was that the cultural layer alongside the area did not contain any ancient monuments. In the trench- artefacts from the Bronze Age contained high-status objects es postholes, hearths and other features saw daylight in vast from the Late Iron Age and Middle Ages.

Among the abundance. The topsoil was removed and the area was exca- objects are glass beads, a bird-shaped brooch, a weight, a vated in great haste. Many mistakes were made during the spur, garnets and fragments of glass beakers. No houses or excavation. The site contained a truly great farm the Mid- other structures could be linked to these artefacts. The soil dle Ages. It should be dated to the late 12th century.

Two in this part of Halland consists of light sand and it is pos- longhouses, one about 60 metres and one around 40 metres sible that an Iron Age settlement, overlying the settlement long formed the nucleus of the site. The largest of the Further research longhouses was probably a cow house and barn, with liv- It is easy to understand that the information obtained by ing quarters for some servants.

The other longhouse is a the rescue excavation was unexpected and that further inves- dwelling house with kitchen and a large room or hall. To continue the found in one of the houses is dated to around and may research some colleagues and I formed a project with the indicate when the farm was abandoned.

The main purpose is Stafsinge, indicate the presence of a central place or rich Iron to understand and analyse the societal development in this Age settlement. There are, for instance several Viking Age part of southern Sweden. Our results thus far have been silver hoards and a richly ornamented silver sword hilt, also published in a project volume Nicklasson b.

The fortress inland, to a site closer to the coast. The fortress was tied to the in the area has been the town of Falkenberg. Our excava- functions for several hundred years, in fact the central place tions indicate that the fortress was built in the late 12th cen- is still in function in the region. Migration Period at the latest. The central place could ter control the frontier province of Halland. This fortress is better strategically located, both for cated by the silver hoards from the Viking Age.

All the medieval royal fortresses in Halland indicated by the huge manor and fenced areas where live- were built close to the river mouths, from the Lagan in the stock could be gathered. Finally, the central place was trans- south to the Viskan in the north. Most of them can be dat- formed into a rural fortified town as indicated by Falken- ed to the 13th century, either by excavations or by written berg and Falkenbergshus.

It is earlier and The beginning of the central place coincides with the ear- located inland in a small lake. The parallelism of the central places could to really serve a military purpose. The second half of the 12th indicate that the Iron Age society went through a major century could be the time when the king was able to push transformation in Halland during the Late Roman Iron Age his position forward and claim the right to extract tax in this and Migration Period.

While the tions of several of the royal manors in Halland mentioned central places developed they demanded supply from a in Kung Valdemars Jordebok. Especially the kings major growing hinterland. It is more or less possible to recon- at Stafsinge survived into the Middle Ages. There is a lot of work scape, and how much land belonged to it. Con- at Stafsinge. The Stafsinge manor indicates what a royal siderably less archaeological and historical research has been manor looked like, even if it was not royal property.

The discovery of the central powerful person in this part of Halland. Local magnates place was a surprise. Stomma Kulle, the mound and the stand- ing stone on top of the ridge. The ancient monu- ments are overlooking the excavated area at Stafsinge The photographer is lit- erally, not knowingly, stand- ing on another mound. Photo by the author. The old parish church of Stafsinge, now just a ruin, was study of the pictures.

The film used in was an infrared partly excavated in and Nilsson The pur- film while the film from was an ordinary black and pose was to date the church and to establish if, and how it white one. The infrared film has some special qualities was connected to the nearby medieval manor. The small described as: excavation that was carried out could of course not answer all the questions concerning the construction of the The sensitivity of IR colour film extends to wavelengths longer medieval church.

The oldest finds were some coins from the than those perceptible to the eye. Living vegetation reflects sun- middle of the 13th century. The date corresponds well to the light vigorously and in species-specific ways within this wave- nearby manor that was built somewhat earlier. This shows length range.

The film has therefore been found very useful for that there was a connection between the church and the various types of vegetation surveys. Ground moisture and soils are also easier to interpret on IR colour pictures. The film does manor. The magnate at the manor was most likely respon- not render colour normally due to its sensitivity and special sible for the construction of the parish church.

The loca- structure. For instance, objects with high IR reflection — chiefly tion of the manor and the nearby old church could be the vegetation — are depicted in various shades of red, which give reason that the border of the modern parish of Stafsinge the pictures their character Boberg When the manor was abandoned the administration of the land- On the picture from the trenches from the excavation scape was reformed and that which once was central found in are still open.

It is easy to navigate in the surround- itself on the periphery. West of the excavation some other areas were exca- vated as well. This could indicate that the central place covered a large area or that it was moved several times. Our project has aroused local interest. An employee at the County Administration in Halmstad showed some aerial photographs to me.

The photographs had been taken on two separate occasions. The first set of pic- tures is from and the second from

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Prelude in krafts torg, the plaza east of the apse of the Cathedral of Lund, underwent renovation. This involved tearing up the asphalt street and replacing it with a pedes- trian area covered in paving stones and grass. The paver, on his knees or bent double at the waist, chose each paving stone from the pile placed in front of him. Rotating the stone cube in his hand and examining the six surfaces, he decided on the best placement. With a metal hammer he scraped a surface in the bed of sand prepared for it, placed figure 1.

A small paving stone Sw. Weight 2. Almgren, His- torical Museum, Lund University. Slowly and painstakingly the crescent-shaped pattern of paving stones grew in an advancing wave until the last stone was laid, completing the stone pavement and once craft activity carried out along the street. By the 14th cen- again sealing the underlying layers which constitute the tury the main street in Lund was paved with leather scraps, foundations of this medieval city.

Nielsen maintains and cables to meet the demands of modern technology. The practice of paving streets and pedestrians. Who made these hundreds of bility to keep half the width of the street in front of his prop- thousands of paving stones? Was there any skill involved? Paving stones are an example of lithic technology of a dif- A fundamental change occurred in the second half of the ferent sort.

How and where were the stones made? How 19th century with the introduction of dressed stone. The have we managed to keep alive the know-how needed to first type of paving stone used was called storgatsten large lay the stones in this modern age of efficiency and mech- paving stone. Each stone was 10 to 12 cm.

Streets paved with stor- gatsten functioned well for 15 years if traffic was at most 2, horse-drawn vehicles per day. If the street was torn Paving past and present up and repaved with the same stones it would last for anoth- The earliest street levels in Lund date to the early 12th cen- er 15 years. However, large paving stones were expensive and tury. They consist of a cobblestone pavement covered by a in Swedish engineers decided to test the smaller paving lime-mortar layer.

In the latter part of the century large stones Sw. These stones are cubes 8 to 10 cm. The follow- primarily oak. The photograph, probably taken about , shows how thir- ty years of quarrying have rearranged the previously forested island. The picture manages to capture all stages of paving stone manu- facture. In the upper right-hand corner we see a drilling team at work. One man is holding the drill while two others hit it with their sledgehammers.

Down in the quarry pit a stonecutter is about to split a block into two paving stones. A man in the dump heap to the left is removing bumps from the side of a paving stone with a hammer and chisel. Behind him another trimmer is standing at his work- station and next to him is a pile of paving stones ready to be measured. Photo: Hjalmar Falk, Blekinge Museum.

However in the Lund has passed an ordinance whereby streets with- Nielsen Asphalt was becoming increasingly pop- in the medieval city walls are to be paved with paving stones, ular, chiefly due to the lower cost of production and use. Rehnberg notes that a calculation made in High quality paving stones can be reused many times and showed that paving with small paving stones cost 22 Swed- today they constitute valuable property cf.

Today one can buy small Crowns for asphalt. When paving swept up in the throes of modernism and paving stones were stones are discovered under asphalt they are usually recov- considered an old-fashioned throwback. Making paving stones, a labor-intensive The final step involved trimming the faces and removing process any uneven spots.

Trimming was done by direct percussion The manufacture of small paving stones in Sweden began with a metal hammer or by indirect percussion with a chis- in the middle to late 19th century and reached a peak in the el and hammer. Horse-drawn carts it remained a trade which was practiced by hand and passed could be used or small railways constructed. More primi- on from father to son.

These were boards linked by Swedish granite and gneiss are especially tough and resist- ropes enabling the bearer to carry a load of paving stones ant to weathering Andersson Since the greatest on his back. Domestic boats. Mechanization of stonecutting, however, never demand was generally met by opening local quarries adja- caught on. The heavy machinery Thanks to published and filmed interviews with the was noisy and dangerous. The stonecutter in Blekinge of numerous injuries to hands and fingers and the union used the term granite for all the stone he worked.

Further- responding to granite and gneiss. By knowledge of internal planes in the stone. The experienced the machines were phased out Andersson and Johans- stonecutter could distinguish the planes in klyvsten by eye son The Second World War and the increasing use of asphalt Interestingly, two informants noted that stonecutters gen- at home and abroad wiped out the market for Swedish erally used woodworking terms when describing how they paving stones by Stonecutting in Sweden did not die worked granite.

Granite was said to possess qualities simi- out entirely, but by there were only stonecutters lar to wood; for instance it was more easily split in one direc- in all of Sweden Andersson and Johansson Today tion than in others.

When an experienced stonecutter the city of Lund buys its paving stones from a company dressed stone with his hammer the process was said to which sells stones from Swedish quarries as well as from resemble splitting wood: the sides of the stone came out flat Poland, Portugal, Finland, India, and China Nielsen ; and even, without protuberances or depressions. An inex- Stenhuggarens plats ; Hjort, personal communication perienced stonecutter often failed to produce clean stones ; Tibbelin, personal communication ; A.

How- The process of making large or small paving stones was ever Fjellman Jaderup describes a growing protest as follows Figure 2 : A large block of 10 to 20 cubic meters movement in Sweden against Chinese import because of the was quarried by blasting. This block was then split into suc- poor working conditions for the Chinese stonecutters, im- cessively smaller blocks by means of wedges driven into plying that much of the work there is still done by hand.

Blocks were split into rectan- gles whose size depended on the size of the paving stones The stonecutter, a skilled craftsman being made. This Nevertheless there was no dearth of labor since the work process continued until cubes of desired size were produced. The terms of a formal agreement to between the Swedish Granite Industry and the unions representing the employees is described in Andersson This spec- ified a hour working day Monday through Friday and 8 hours on Saturday for half the year, 8-hour days the other half.

Because most of the paving stones made in the Swedish quarries were exported, the industry was especially sensitive to foreign trade conditions. In many instances the Swedish government interceded with financial support Frykman ; nevertheless many stonecutters were forced to move often in search of work figure 3. Stone pavers at work in Lund in July The paver Johansson He As with all occupations involving handiwork, skilled is employed by a stone paving firm which serves all of Sweden.

Photo by author. To him the stone is a living thing with which he is well Stonecutters were also admired for their independence acquainted. He knows how to place wedges in each stone so and envied by those forced to obey a foreman in a factory that it will split exactly according to his intentions. Pride in his work was an important motivating factor for Time and again informants described in almost mythical the stonecutter Johansson , as it is for all under- terms the skill of the best stonecutters; a skill which was said takings requiring skill.

This sort of myth stone while at the larger works blocks were quarried by less building is probably one of the reasons for the strong resist- skilled workers and delivered to the stonecutters to be cut ance to splitting machines described above. These boys generally began help- quarries since they could produce at a higher rate there. Unfortunately the written sources are silent []; Carlsson f.

Twenty-one percent of on this point. Besides the admiration of his peers uncle who could make 1, small paving stones in a day. The stone paver, also skilled In , the Federation of Swedish County Coun- cils commissioned a handbook on how to lay paving stones. The author laments the reduction of practical knowledge about this craft, resulting in poorly laid and ugly stone pavements in Swedish cities. Luckily, he writes, a number of skilled and experienced stone pavers, who learned the craft by working alongside older pavers, still exist.

One of the aims of the handbook is to pre- serve their know-how in order to make it available to younger generations. It is the hope of the Fed- eration that the handbook will result in an increased use of paving stones in Sweden Nielsen A stone pavement is more flexible than asphalt. Stone paving is manual work and it involves bending and stretching Figure 3. The stone paver works on his knees or bent at the waist.

Each stone is chosen and laid by hand. The Federation commissioned a study in —91 to try to find ways of reducing the wear and tear on the stone paver but the conclusion was that further mechanization of the work was not possible Nielsen f. Paving stones in the postmodern age We archaeologists are sensitive to the messages people con- vey through material culture.

Odd, then, that paving stones prove to be no more than about years old. The practice of paving with stone cubes is not a historical relic, however; modern people have adapted it to suit modern needs and regulations Figure 4. The paving stone has also become a sym- figure 5. White marble paving stones ready to be laid at a pedes- bol of the anti-globalization movement in Sweden after trian crossing in Lund. Carlsson, K. As a cyclist, I appreciate the fact that holm: Verdandi.

Cigarette butts end up there too, however, difficult — Stenhuggaryrket genom tiderna. In Stenarbetare. Blekingeboken — A new technique, which involves filling the cracks Johansson, C. Rehnberg ed. Stenhuggarminnen, — Stockholm: Nordiska Museet.

Om stenhuggeriet i Blekinge. Magnusson Staaf, B. Eriksdottir and S. The Street as Monument. Lund Archaeological Review — Gamla Lund has succeeded in instilling a sense of pride and Nielsen, C. The entire Nilsson, J. Stenhuggarminnen, 49— Although my investigation surprised Rehnberg, M. Stenindustrin och dess folk. Lund: intended to convey a message about time-depth.

Stenhuggarens plats. Arcadius ed. The Lund: Stadsarkitektkontoret i Lund. Sydsvenska Dagbladet. Accessed July 17, Kinesisk sten i Kalendegatan. Accessed July 20, Accessed July 18, Accessed July 19, Nu ska Lund vaxa fast gatstenarna. Sydsvenska Dag- visit to a small town in Colorado.

Here round cobblestones were paint- bladet. Accessed July 21, Fattigt, men stenrikt. Carlshamniana — Andersson, K. Johansson Gothenburg: KMA filmproduk- Personal communication tion. June Andersson, T. Sveriges granitindustri. Rolf Hjort, Markentreprenad, Lund. July Andersson, U. On the road to discovery Aerial photography and central places — an example from Halland. Introduction during his worldwide travels Lars Larsson had a cen- tral place to return to.

They range from broad scientific analysis to analysis of particu- lar archaeological artefacts to geographical analysis of the landscape at large. All this is the result of an inquisitive open mind, ready to use and experiment with methods and exca- vation techniques. In this paper I will discuss how differ- ent archaeological methods can be used to discover and map central places. It is somewhat odd to find that places once central and vital to Iron Age society must be pieced togeth- er from the tiniest of fragments.

During the excavation we found two farms from the Late Bronze age, Montelius period V. We also found the from the Bronze Age, has been completely destroyed by somewhat more diffuse and scattered remains of a farm many years of tillage. These kinds of objects had, until then, from the Pre-Roman Iron Age.

The At the very end of the excavation at Stafsinge, some excavation showed that there were uninterrupted settle- trenches were dug into an area that early on had been left ments in the area for several hundred years. It had been said that the A disturbing fact was that the cultural layer alongside the area did not contain any ancient monuments.

In the trench- artefacts from the Bronze Age contained high-status objects es postholes, hearths and other features saw daylight in vast from the Late Iron Age and Middle Ages. Among the abundance. The topsoil was removed and the area was exca- objects are glass beads, a bird-shaped brooch, a weight, a vated in great haste.

Many mistakes were made during the spur, garnets and fragments of glass beakers. No houses or excavation. The site contained a truly great farm the Mid- other structures could be linked to these artefacts. The soil dle Ages. It should be dated to the late 12th century. Two in this part of Halland consists of light sand and it is pos- longhouses, one about 60 metres and one around 40 metres sible that an Iron Age settlement, overlying the settlement long formed the nucleus of the site.

The largest of the Further research longhouses was probably a cow house and barn, with liv- It is easy to understand that the information obtained by ing quarters for some servants. The other longhouse is a the rescue excavation was unexpected and that further inves- dwelling house with kitchen and a large room or hall. To continue the found in one of the houses is dated to around and may research some colleagues and I formed a project with the indicate when the farm was abandoned.

The main purpose is Stafsinge, indicate the presence of a central place or rich Iron to understand and analyse the societal development in this Age settlement. There are, for instance several Viking Age part of southern Sweden. Our results thus far have been silver hoards and a richly ornamented silver sword hilt, also published in a project volume Nicklasson b. The fortress inland, to a site closer to the coast. The fortress was tied to the in the area has been the town of Falkenberg.

Our excava- functions for several hundred years, in fact the central place tions indicate that the fortress was built in the late 12th cen- is still in function in the region. Migration Period at the latest. The central place could ter control the frontier province of Halland.

This fortress is better strategically located, both for cated by the silver hoards from the Viking Age. All the medieval royal fortresses in Halland indicated by the huge manor and fenced areas where live- were built close to the river mouths, from the Lagan in the stock could be gathered. Finally, the central place was trans- south to the Viskan in the north.

Most of them can be dat- formed into a rural fortified town as indicated by Falken- ed to the 13th century, either by excavations or by written berg and Falkenbergshus. It is earlier and The beginning of the central place coincides with the ear- located inland in a small lake. The parallelism of the central places could to really serve a military purpose. The second half of the 12th indicate that the Iron Age society went through a major century could be the time when the king was able to push transformation in Halland during the Late Roman Iron Age his position forward and claim the right to extract tax in this and Migration Period.

While the tions of several of the royal manors in Halland mentioned central places developed they demanded supply from a in Kung Valdemars Jordebok. Especially the kings major growing hinterland. It is more or less possible to recon- at Stafsinge survived into the Middle Ages. There is a lot of work scape, and how much land belonged to it.

Con- at Stafsinge. The Stafsinge manor indicates what a royal siderably less archaeological and historical research has been manor looked like, even if it was not royal property. The discovery of the central powerful person in this part of Halland. Local magnates place was a surprise. Stomma Kulle, the mound and the stand- ing stone on top of the ridge. The ancient monu- ments are overlooking the excavated area at Stafsinge The photographer is lit- erally, not knowingly, stand- ing on another mound.

Photo by the author. The old parish church of Stafsinge, now just a ruin, was study of the pictures. The film used in was an infrared partly excavated in and Nilsson The pur- film while the film from was an ordinary black and pose was to date the church and to establish if, and how it white one. The infrared film has some special qualities was connected to the nearby medieval manor.

The small described as: excavation that was carried out could of course not answer all the questions concerning the construction of the The sensitivity of IR colour film extends to wavelengths longer medieval church. The oldest finds were some coins from the than those perceptible to the eye. Living vegetation reflects sun- middle of the 13th century. The date corresponds well to the light vigorously and in species-specific ways within this wave- nearby manor that was built somewhat earlier.

This shows length range. The film has therefore been found very useful for that there was a connection between the church and the various types of vegetation surveys. Ground moisture and soils are also easier to interpret on IR colour pictures. The film does manor. The magnate at the manor was most likely respon- not render colour normally due to its sensitivity and special sible for the construction of the parish church.

The loca- structure. For instance, objects with high IR reflection — chiefly tion of the manor and the nearby old church could be the vegetation — are depicted in various shades of red, which give reason that the border of the modern parish of Stafsinge the pictures their character Boberg When the manor was abandoned the administration of the land- On the picture from the trenches from the excavation scape was reformed and that which once was central found in are still open.

It is easy to navigate in the surround- itself on the periphery. West of the excavation some other areas were exca- vated as well. This could indicate that the central place covered a large area or that it was moved several times. Our project has aroused local interest. An employee at the County Administration in Halmstad showed some aerial photographs to me.

The photographs had been taken on two separate occasions. The first set of pic- tures is from and the second from The National Land Survey had shot the pictures, to be used as a basis for maps. They are also called orthographic photos. The photographs are taken from around 4, metres altitude. The original aerial pic- tures are at a scale of , The photo- figure 3. The excavated trenches at Stafsinge The farms from the Bronze Age graphs overlap so as to enable a stereoscop- are situated in the western part of the big trench.

The huge medieval manor is in the ic view, which enable three-dimensional eastern part. Aerial photograph from showing the area around the excavated site. Places of interest mentioned in the paper are noted. The area is about 4. The ruin of the medieval church is visible some hundred be due to the IR film used in It may work as an X-ray metres north of our excavation. On the highest part of the for ancient monuments below ground.

The IR spectra catch ridge at Stafsinge, the mound of Stomma Kulle is clearly vis- small differences in moisture and heat in the ground. On the ible. The ancient monument is truly impressive. It is a other hand, the IR film is less useful on fields with growing mound about 20 metres in diameter, situated on the high- crops than ordinary black and white film. The X-ray effect is est part of the ridge.

Besides the mound there is a huge caught by the vegetation and what is shown on the pictures standing stone, about 4 metres high. Around the mound, are just solid red areas. Other factors that influence the differ- mostly hidden in the brush, there are some additional small ent sets of pictures are of course weather and light conditions, stone-settings. This is one of the most imposing ancient the time of the day and the moisture in the soil.

Some drunken soldiers There are indications of additional prehistoric graves excavated the mound during the Danish-Swedish wars in around Stafsinge in the early cartographic material Con- the 17th century. They just found some broken pottery, but nelid f. These are nowadays either badly damaged before they had fully excavated the mound, green-nauseat- or totally destroyed. I have so far not been successful in ing fumes engulfed them, and they had to abort their work.

Or so the story goes. The mound has not been excavated Earlier historians or travellers do not mention these mon- since, and the dating of the mound is uncertain. It is thus possible that they were of more ordinary The picture from shows the area in another light. In dimensions and not nearly as spectacular as the mounds at the field just north of Stomma Kulle there are at least three Stomma Kulle.

It may therefore be much harder or even cropmarks from mounds of the same size as Stomma Kulle impossible to locate them on aerial photographs. Perhaps and one cropmark from a somewhat smaller mound. This the mounds and other graves at Stomma Kulle represented means that instead of a sole mound with some smaller a burial ground connected to the nearby central place. The stone-settings and a monumental standing stone, there was other cemeteries may be connected to the ordinary farms a cemetery with several monumental graves on the top of and settlements.

The four hitherto unknown mounds are not vis- The question of when the mounds at Stomma Kulle were ible from the ground. The popular belief is that It is strange that the cropmarks were discovered on the pho- most ancient monuments situated in farmland were dam- tographs from but not on the ones from Aerial photograph of part of the same area shown in figure 4 taken in The picture was taken before the big excava- tions in the area took place.

North of Stom- ma Kulle cropmarks of at least four mounds are clearly visible in the soil. Three of the mounds have the proportions similar to the visible mound on the ridge. This must have been one of the most spectacular cemeteries in this part of Halland.

In the case of Stomma Kulle we could be Aerial photography has been used previously in Halland almost certain that the mounds had been overploughed a to locate ancient monuments. Before the building of a road long time before. In Gustaf Brusewitz visited the area an archaeologist saw some aerial photographs of the area around Falkenberg.

On uments and made drawings of some of them Brusewitz the pictures the outlines of a metre long ship-setting is He made a drawing of the standing stone at shown Artelius ; The monument was iden- Stomma Kulle, but he did not draw any cemetery on the tified as Stenkyrkan, an ancient monument described by the ridge.

Even the drawing is a disappointment. It only shows early Halland historian Jonas Bexell, who visited the place the standing stone. Brusewitz did not draw anything of the in as the early 19th century Bexell He to a large degree by chance, aerial photography has not been did certainly make such drawings from other parts of Hal- used to systematically analyse ancient monuments in a larg- land.

Those drawings would have been priceless in analysing er region. The results show that it is fully possible to dis- the time before the modern-day landscape around Stafsinge. For Stafsinge the Brusewitz does not mention anything about an imposing result is that another piece of the puzzle to understand the cemetery on the ridge. That could be taken as evidence that central place encountered there has been found. The the mounds had already been destroyed. Even the story of mounds are not dated, but a monumental cemetery would the soldiers in the 17th century is of interest here.

Only one fit into the air of grandeur and status necessary for the pres- mound is mentioned in their story. Probably we could take tige of a central place. The destruction could be due to a number of rea- several high-quality objects in the graves, is a precursor of sons. In the the 12th century. The rediscovered monuments make it easier to between antiquarian authorities and farmers in the area understand the structures of power in the area.

Perhaps the mounds There are both possibilities and problems in using aerial were early victims of this activity. In Halland the light and pavel. The National Land Survey photographs every part of Sweden with orthographic pictures at intervals of References between five and ten years. It is thus possible to compare Artelius, T. Photographs could have been land. This means that it Artelius, T. Bexell, S. Hallands Historia och Beskrivning. Concluding remarks Boberg, A.

In Norrman, J. Flyg- arkeologi. Stockholm: Gidlunds och SHM. The study of central places is an arduous task. It demands Brusewitz, G. Anteckningar under vistelsen i Falkenbergstrak- the use of a multitude of methods and an open mind will- ten sommaren What once was central Connelid, P. In Carlie, L. In the paper I have presented my ongoing work Ryberg, E.

Ericsson, E. Arkeologi och flygfoto. In Ericsson, E. Flygspaning efter historia. Christine- reconstruct the landscape around the central places. Arkeologiska Skrifter The excavations carried out at the old parish church at — b. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia Series in 8o No. It seems that the sec- — Series in 8o, No. The results from the investigation of aerial photographs — a. In Nicklasson, P. Lund Studies in Medieval Archaeology. Nicklasson, P.

Especially suited are areas with light Wiksell International soils, like Halland. It is fully possible that a systematic search Nilsson, I. Unpublished excavation report. Sanglert, C. I Nicklasson, P. Lund Studies in Medieval Acknowledgement Archaeology. I would like to express my gratitude to Lena Berglund at the County Administration in Halland for making me aware of the aerial photographs discussed in the paper.

Introduction strange archaeological objects from strange places are always attractive to archaeologists. A little oriental oil lamp found in a field in northeastern Scania, Sweden, is perhaps not so impressive, but seen in context it may tell one or even more exciting stories. After I tried rubbing the lamp for several hours, still no genie appeared, so I decided to give myself three wishes anyway. The first wish In this part I wish to describe the oil lamp from Starby for places in Scania, see Figure 1 and try to figure out in which historical context it might be seen.

The lamp was found in figure 1. Map of northwestern Scania with places mentioned in the text. The lamp was found by The expansion of Arabic power in the mid 7th century a farm-hand when ploughing the fields and was handed over meant that Palestine and the surrounding areas became a to Gunnar Olsson, the owner of the farm.

Today, the lamp part of the Muslim world Read — After the disintegration of the Arabic world in the for kindly letting me document the lamp. The finding spot 8th century, parts of these areas were re-conquered by the for the lamp is registered by the National Heritage Board as Byzantines. It has long been believed that Scandinavian ancient monument number 9 in Starby parish.

Vikings reached Constantinople in and thereafter began The lamp Figures 2 and 3 is 98 mm. It is oval in shape and has one small hole For a long time about Scandinavian warriors were mer- for the wick at one side and a small handle on the other. The lamp is made of burnt clay, is Kidd In the mid 10th century the Byzantine realm thin-walled and has plastic geometric ornamentation.

The had almost reached Jerusalem Read The Scandi- colour is light brown. The type is sometimes called Islamic if replaced by Anglo-Saxon soldiers in the mid 11th century there are Arabic inscriptions on them ibid. In other cases lamps of this type Contacts with the Arabic world are indicated even earli- are mentioned as Byzantine oil lamps or just Palestinian oil er by finds of Arabic coins from the late 8th until the late lamps.

This type of oil lamp has a very broad dating, from 10th centuries. These coins are most common in archaeo- the 4th until the 11th century. Since the Archaeological material that might indicate contacts with dating of the lamp is very broad, there are several historical the Byzantine Empire are more seldom discussed.

This was the starting point for the crusades, and the first crusade ended with the conquest of the Holy City in ibid. After the conquest of Jerusalem four states were founded in the eastern Mediter- ranean area by the crusaders. Towns and castles were built to keep power. The new states were feudal in nature but rather weak compared with the western European states which the crusaders came from. Sufficient numbers of sol- diers were always lacking.

The new Christian areas were not given up by the Muslims and the Christians had to fight to maintain their power ibid. New crusades were organised for a period of almost years to keep power, but the struggles were all in vain.

The fall of the town Acre in can be seen as the end of the crusades. The Muslims figure 2. The lamp. Size 98 x 65 mm. Photo: Evelyn Thomas- re-conquered the former Christian areas and the crusaders son, Regionmuseet, Kristianstad. Most of the crusades were organised from France but there were several other countries represented among the soldiers.

Even Scandinavians joined several crusades. We know that a Danish prince Sven, probably the son of King Sven Estridsen, was on his way in to join the siege of Antioch in present-day Turkey close to the border with Syr- ia. He travelled together with 1, men.

Sven was delayed and his troop was attacked and all men were killed Nordisk Familjebok ; Carelli Danish crusaders are also known from and , and as late as Carelli The crusades lasted for about years and there must of course have been several opportunities for crusaders to bring home a little oil lamp. We know that men from Den- mark as well as other parts of Scandinavia were active and it is fully probable that the lamp belonged to one of them.

We also know that this type lamp was out of production at figure 3. The lamp was from a coun- Kristianstad. The lamp of course impressed his relatives and friends. Surely it Most of them can be dated from the mid 10th until the mid was both an antiquity and a souvenir.

The contacts with the Arabic and Byzantine worlds, as mentioned above, might be a reason why the lamp reached Visiting holy places Scania during the Viking Age. Scandinavians could very well Crusaders were one rather large group from Scandinavia, have visited the areas where the lamp was produced during but several sources also mention pilgrims.

Written sources a period of almost years. It may have been brought home document that pilgrims travelled from Scandinavia to by someone who had joined the Varangian Guard. In native is that the lamp reached Scania together with the the second half of the 11th century, in the famous work of stream of Arabic silver coins from the late 8th until the late Adam of Bremen, the sea route from Ribe in Denmark to 10th centuries.

This event must have been quite unique since Acre in present day Israel is described Andersson no oil lamps, and no other Arabic objects, have been found f. Adam obviously received his information from so far. A Norwegian king, Sig- and also a souvenir from a foreign country.

It must have been urd Jorsalafar, probably followed a route similar to that apprehended as something special and valuable in Viking described by Adam. He left Norway in and travelled Age and early medieval society. In the s he wrote a thing metres from their house? We also know more plausible. It seems more likely that the lamp was about the Danish king Erik Ejegod who died in in deposited in the ground a long time ago, and perhaps the Cyprus on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem Andersson ; find spot was once settled.

Carelli The distance to the coast is about 12 larger centres for pilgrimage began to produce special badges kilometres. The parish church in Starby was built around ibid. No such badges been rebuilt for several times. Starby was mentioned for the from the Holy Land are known from Scandinavia. The pilgrimages were a personal sac- might be of medieval origin.

Otherwise there are no ancient rifice Carelli and of course the oil lamp could monuments or finds from the parish which can be dated to be seen as a contradiction to sacrifice. Noblemen travelling the Viking or early medieval periods late 8th to 11th cen- to the Holy Land were used to comfort and of course they turies. This might be supplemented by the fact that there did not travel alone. If we look at northwestern Scania as a whole, the picture is somewhat different.

The connections with the area of interest during the first period discussed above might be Modern travellers seen in Arabic and Byzantine coins. The amount of coins is and most of them can countries but some tendencies are clear. Charter tourism be dated to the latter part of the period. As mentioned started on a large scale in the s but most travellers went above, Byzantine coins are less numerous than Arabic coins to Spain, Italy and Greece Fritidsresor Charter and only two examples are known from this area.

This opens and from Bjuv comes a single find of a coin dated to the opportunity that tourists brought the lamp to Scania as ibid. It is obvious that there were contacts, direct or a souvenir. This animals and seldom had any holiday. If they had any days could indicate that contacts were more intense with the Ara- off they did not go to Israel but to some relatives or a beach bic than the Byzantine area.

On the other hand there is a nearby. It seems unlikely that the lamp was brought to Star- chronological gap between the coins. Arabic coins dominate by by a tourist. All The second wish Byzantine coins from Scania can be dated from until In this part I wish to describe the archaeological context of ibid.

That the oil lamp came to Starby with it reach Scania. This will be done by discussing archaeolog- the flow of Arabic coins or was owned by someone in the ical and historical sources in comparison with the four his- Varangian Guard are two plausible explanations. Crusaders were perhaps first and foremost recruited from Logically it seems unlikely that the lamp could have been the nobility. Many manors where the nobility lived are brought to Scania by a tourist in the 20th century.

This opens for the possibili- SE 22 Kristianstad, Sweden ty that crusaders from northwestern Scania joined the cru- bertil. However, no manor is known from the parish of Star- by or in the immediate vicinity. It would have been likely that the oil lamp was found in a noble milieu if it was References brought to Scania by a nobleman or his servants.

There is Andersson, L. Medeltida pilgrimskul- tur i Skandinavien. Lund Studies in Medieval Archaeology 7. En kapitalistisk anda. Therefore it does not seem Danmark. Graham-Campbell, J. The Vikings. New York: The fourth group discussed here are pilgrims. If pilgrims William Morrow and Company, Inc. Katalog seen in badges and the written sources. As mentioned above, und Tafeln. Vikingatida och tidigmedeltida myntfynd written sources yield no further information. Stockholm are known from the area.

Therefore it also seems unlikely Studies in Archaeology Stockholm: Stockholms Universitet. Nordisk Familjebok. Lund: Historiska Media. Read, P. This brief survey speaks Per Nyqvist. This is hard Pentz, Peter. The National Museum of Denmark. This is a project for the Internet future.

The lamp was most certain a novelty since oil lamps Fritidsresor. Branschens historik. Survey of and of a kind that nobody else owned. Starby kyrka. This third wish is personal: Lasse! I wish you a very pleas- ant 60th birthday. The plants are given human characteristics in accordance with their respective roles and appearances in the agrarian landscape.

Their internal rela- tionships and hierarchies are also decided from a human perspective, such as the conflict between the weeds, which are locked out from the party in the garden, and the plants of the gardens and the fields Figure 1. To Elsa Beskow plants and flowers were intimate and integrated parts of everyday life, but for most modern peo- ple plants belong to the garden, the flowerpots and nature.

They are commodities that can be bought in various forms, gazed upon in different outdoor settings, and tended with care to add beauty to our lives. But in past times, and not that far back in time, plants of different kinds carried mean- ing, were loaded with magical qualities, and were used for a number of purposes such as medicine, cooking, dyeing figure 1.

Plants of the meadow arriving at the party on Mid- etc. After Beskow From an archaeological perspective plants are an over- looked phenomenon. We know that a number of plants c. AD — Sax- were used for a variety of reasons, but we rarely encounter holmen and c. AD — Edsholm. Or are we simply The excavations were fairly extensive, covering large overlooking them?

Do we lack the tools to turn plant parts of the settlement areas, and included many samples remains into archaeological artefacts? At Edsholm the conditions for preserved macrofossil plant remains were very good, as the castle had been burnt down in , and there were Plants at settlements large quantities of carbonised macrofossil material.

From One of the first places to look for plant remains would be Skramle pollen samples were also collected from the infield in macrofossil or pollen material from settlement contexts. At and around settlements, plants were used, consumed and In spite of ambitious sampling, and in the case of also grown. And, of course, plant remains are often found Edsholm good preservation conditions, the results of the in such contexts.

But what sort of plants? It appears that porridge, bread and non-spiced food dom- The localities were dated to c. AD — Skinnerud , inated the diet of both aristocratic and peasant households. The macrofossil material from the Dutch sites thus indicate the presence and importance of gardens as sources for a rich- er, more varied, and spicy diet Figure 2.

Although growing conditions in Holland were better than those of western Sweden, there is reason to believe that the people of western Sweden cultivated and consumed a greater variety of plants than just cereals, for example, turnips and cabbage. Also, people consumed plants for other than dietary purposes. However, at neither the Dutch nor the Swedish sites are there any indications of plants with non- food related purposes, such as medicinal plants.

We could try to look at the context where many such plants were likely to have grown, i. Why not? An assortment of healthy vegetables not present in the macrofossil material. Plants in the landscape From later periods we know that many plants, used for a variety of purposes, were collected in meadows, forests and Perhaps such a dreary and boring diet was a particular phe- other landscape settings Svanberg However, there is a growing under- from the early 12th to early 14th centuries Arts and the standing of the mutual importance and interdependence of small hamlet of Huis Malburg from c.

According to the respective non-cereal Of special importance here is the increasing awareness of macrofossil material, peaches, plums, hazelnuts, walnuts and what may be termed the biological heritage in the landscape acorns had been consumed at Oude Huys, and peas, beans, Emanuelsson Diagram by Marie Emanuelsson. After Emanuelsson et al. Pollen although small quantities of analysis would seem to be the best available method, high- butterwort, an important lighting vegetation history.

The cores were sampled in mires in forested, hilly areas, Another problem is that without any ancient monuments indicating cultivation, set- there is reason to believe that tlement or meadows in the vicinity. However there was rea- there were special places for son to believe that the mires had been used for haymaking collection of different plants.

The pollen analyses went to sites where they pre- were initially carried out in order to study the introduction sumed, by habit and tradi- of the practice of haymaking. When analysed the peat cores tion, the plants they were revealed that cereal cultivation on fertilised fields had been looking for were growing. From the perspective discussed in this article, it is wild As many plants with a pre- plants used for various purposes that are of interest.

A pollen sumed use preferred growing figure 4. After Launert Figure 3 , is relevant to this discussion. The pollen diagram, tings where pollen sampling et al. AD Around AD the forest landscape pattern of plant collection. I would like to add an additional element to the method- About years later cereal cultivation was introduced.

Whereas most of the ancient monuments, espe- always conducted as outland activities, as there was no set- cially in forested areas, may be related to male activities, col- tlement close by. And nobody visiting the site today could lection of plants was often a female task.

By adding plants guess that the dense forest and hilly terrain could hide an to the cultural landscape, women and their importance agricultural history. With grazing, haymaking and cereal cultivation there fol- lowed other vegetation changes, although many of the plants represented in the pollen diagram were present even Plants on the road before the more permanent human impact on the land- So far I have discussed problems in how to demonstrate the scape.

It may therefore be discussed whether the plants use of various plants in contexts where a certain usage might should be considered as wild or not, and whether some have been expected. But there are also examples of discov- plants with useful properties, in benefiting from human use eries of the use of plants. A good example is the tapestry of of the landscape, were further promoted for collection. In the s the tapestry was radiocarbon dated to known from early modern times. Willow, heather, juniper, the 10th—12th centuries.

Plants such as willow Butler and Nicholson Also, a pollen and the surroundings. Woad grew along the Baltic coast, and analysis indicates only what was growing at a particular to some extent also on the west coast of Sweden, whereas place during a particular period of time, and not the vege- weld can still be found in small quantities growing in the tation of a larger area. For instance, there were no traces of southern part of Sweden.

Dyes, or plants for dyeing, must have been important commodities in both prehistoric and medieval times. But how were they grown, col- lected, processed and traded? Were there attempts to use local plants as substitutes for imported ones? Although many plants were growing around settlements, there were always species with spe- cial qualities that could not be found amongst the local flora.

Such plants could be objects of exchange. Plants for producing dyes and spices figure 5. After Oscarsson inside are only two examples that spring to mind, but front cover. Arts, H. Roosenboom and L. De kastelen van Helmond.

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Caravan investment kent uk Avhandlingar Sveriges IT-incident Cent Rosengren eds. The photographs had been taken on two separate occasions. Stenhuggarens plats. Atterman, I. If anybody steals a hawk from inside the household, were equipped with luxury items, partly from abroad and he be found guilty, let him be judged liable the extent of Vretemark ; Sten and Vretemark
Orfandad absoluta pension and investments A small paving stone Sw. Were they made for figure 1. Crusaders were perhaps first and foremost recruited from Logically it seems unlikely that the lamp could have been the nobility. Gender and spatial patterns in the Scandinavian deserted medieval farmstead. He left Norway in and travelled Age and early medieval society. Centrum og periferi I 6.

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