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The popularity of this metal is related to its physical properties, mainly its ductility, conductivity and resistance to corrosion. In order to expand on these properties, copper can be alloyed with different materials to create combinations that are capable of being used in a wide range of applications.
Copper is a base metal with an atomic symbol of Cu. Copper alloys are metals that have the predominant component of copper. Copper-based investment castings are incredibly versatile, with more than different alloys with different properties. Because the number of copper-based alloys is so large, it is necessary that you choose the right one for your needs. While each alloy has its own properties, they tend to provide similar advantages that can help you make the right decision:.
We can investment cast any part you require from copper-based alloys. Bronze has been used for thousands of years to cast metal objects such as weaponry, jewellery and artwork, but in modern times these alloys are used for many applications such as, bushes, bearings, gears, boat propellers and other marine applications. Brass is a general term that can encompass many different grades, and one of the most popular is nickel silver, created from copper, nickel and zinc — its colour is not as brassy, but silvery instead.
Brass alloys can be used to produce musical instruments, plumbing components, decorative valves, locks and tools for non-sparking applications such as explosive environments. These two also tend to be combined. The fragile wax patterns must withstand forces encountered during the mold making.
Much of the wax used in investment casting can be reclaimed and reused. Investment casting derives its name from the pattern being invested surrounded with a refractory material. Many materials are suitable for investment casting; examples are stainless steel alloys, brass, aluminium, carbon steel and glass. The material is poured into a cavity in a refractory material that is an exact duplicate of the desired part.
Due to the hardness of refractory materials used, investment casting can produce products with exceptional surface qualities, which can reduce the need for secondary machine processes. Water glass and silica sol investment casting are the two primary investment casting methods nowadays. The main differences are the surface roughness and cost of casting. Water glass method dewaxes into the high-temperature water, and the ceramic mold is made of water glass quartz sand.
Silica sol method dewaxes into the flash fire, and silica sol zircon sand makes the ceramic mold. Silica sol method costs more but has the better surface than the water glass method. The process can be used for both small castings of a few ounces and large castings weighing several hundred pounds. It can be more expensive than die casting or sand casting , but per-unit costs decrease with large volumes.
Investment casting can produce complicated shapes that would be difficult or impossible with other casting methods. It can also produce products with exceptional surface qualities and low tolerances with minimal surface finishing or machining required. Castings can be made from an original wax model the direct method or from wax replicas of an original pattern that need not be made from wax the indirect method.
The following steps describe the indirect process, which can take two to seven days to complete. The investment shell for casting a turbocharger rotor. The main disadvantage is the overall cost, especially for short-run productions. Some of the reasons for the high cost include specialized equipment, costly refractories, and binders, many operations to make a mould, a lot of labor is needed and occasional minute defects occur.
However, the cost is still less than producing the same part by machining from bar stock ; for example, gun manufacturing has moved to investment casting to lower costs of producing pistols. The variation on the gravity pouring technique is to fill the mold using a vacuum. A common form of this is called the Hitchiner process after the Hitchiner Manufacturing Company that invented the technique.
In this technique, the mold has a downward fill pipe that is lowered into the melt. A vacuum draws the melt into the cavity; when the important parts have solidified, the vacuum is released, and the unused material leaves the mold. The technique can use substantially less material than gravity pouring because the sprue and some gating need not solidify. This technique is more metal efficient than traditional pouring because less material solidifies in the gating system. There is also less turbulence, so the gating system can be simplified since it does not have to control turbulence.
The metal is drawn from below the top of the pool, so the metal is free from dross and slag which are lower density lighter and float to the top of the pool. The pressure differential helps the metal flow into every intricacy of the mold. Finally, lower temperatures can be used, which improves the grain structure.
This process is also used to cast refractory ceramics under the term vacuum casting. Vacuum pressure casting VPC , properly referred to as vacuum assist direct pour , uses gas pressure and a vacuum to improve the quality of the casting and minimize porosity. Typically VPC machines consist of an upper and a lower chamber—the upper chamber, or melting chamber, housing the crucible, and the lower casting chamber housing the investment mould.
Both chambers are connected via a small hole containing a stopper. A vacuum is pulled in the lower chamber, while pressure is applied in the upper, and then the stopper is removed. This creates the greatest pressure differential to fill the molds. Turbocharger products are a common applications for this casting process,  though it is also regularly used in the manufacture of silver and gold jewellery.
Investment casting is used with almost any castable metal. However, aluminium alloys, copper alloys, and steel are the most common. Typical tolerances are 0.
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