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No matter what the commercials say, there are only three basic categories of investment. They are products that are purchased with the expectation that they will produce income or profit, or both. Ownership is what comes to mind for most people when the word investment is batted around. These are the most volatile and profitable class of investment. The following are examples. Owning stock means owning a portion of a company. It may be a miniscule stake, but it's ownership.
More broadly speaking, all traded securities, from futures to currency swaps, are ownership investments. Investors purchase them in order to share in the profits, or because they will increase in value, or both. Some of these investments, such as stocks, come with the right to a portion of the company's value. Others, such as futures contracts, come with the right to carry out a certain action that will benefit their owners.
Your expectation of profit is realized or not by how the market values the asset you own the rights to. If you own shares in Apple AAPL and the company posts a record profit, other investors are going to want Apple shares too. Their demand for shares drives up the price, increasing your profit if you choose to sell the shares.
The money put into starting and running a business is an investment. Entrepreneurship is one of the toughest investments to make because it requires more than just money. Consequently, it is an ownership investment with extremely large potential returns.
By creating a product or service and selling it to people who want it, entrepreneurs can make huge personal fortunes. Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft and one of the world's richest men, is a prime example. Houses and apartments that are purchased to rent out or to resell are investments. The house you live in is a different matter because it is filling a basic need.
It may appreciate in value over time, but it shouldn't be purchased with the expectation of profit. The mortgage meltdown of and the underwater mortgages it produced are a good illustration of the danger of considering a primary residence as an investment. Many people made the error of purchasing homes that they could not afford on the assumption that those houses could soon be sold for much more.
Gold and precious gemstones, Impressionist paintings and signed LeBron James jerseys, all can all be considered ownership investments, provided that these objects were bought with the intention of reselling them for a profit. Like any investments, they may rise or fall in value over time.
Tastes in art and collectibles change. Gold and gems have market values that fluctuate. From the cold-eyed view of the investor, they also have costs. They must be insured and kept in pristine condition in order to retain their value. Lending money is a category of investing. The risks generally are lower than for many investments and, consequently, the rewards are relatively modest.
A bond issued by a company or a government will pay a set amount of interest over a set period of time. The only real risk is that the company or government will go bankrupt, in which case the bondholder may get little or none of the investment back. A regular savings account is an investment. The investor is essentially lending money to the bank. The bank will pay interest to the account holder and will earn its profit by loaning out the rest of the money to businesses at a higher rate of interest.
The return on savings accounts is currently quite low, but the risk is essentially zero. In the U. Bond is a catch-all category for a wide variety of investments from U. The risks and returns vary widely between the different types of bonds. Overall, these types of lending investments pose a lower risk and provide a lower return than ownership investments. These are investments are "as good as cash," which means that they can be converted back to cash easily and quickly.
Money market funds are similar to savings accounts and can be purchased at any bank. Investopedia breaks up all the different types of investments into these basic categories : investments you own, lending investments and cash equivalents. Lending investments are debts you buy, expecting to be repaid. Generally, these are low-risk, low-reward investments. Generally, a smaller percentage of your portfolio with be made up of cash. This might be a simple savings account. It might be a money market fund.
But investing companies break things down a little differently. They go by asset class: stocks, bonds, cash and alternatives. We already know about stocks, bonds and cash—the most traditional ways to invest. In terms of asset class, alternatives are everything else. Consequently, much less of your portfolio should be invested in them. Instead of buying your own property , you work with a company that earns profit from their own real estate investments. Really, an REIT can be an ownership investment or a lending investment, depending on what type you buy.
You can buy an REIT that gives you a share in the real estate itself; this would count as an ownership investment. But you could also invest in the mortgage of the real estate, which would make it a lending investment. A lot of times, venture capitalists become partners in the company, owning part of its equity and getting a say in business decisions. In this way, they can be thought of us ownership investments. Commodities: Investing in a commodity is investing in some sort of resource that affects the economy.
Oil, beef and coffee beans are all commodities. Funds can fall under any of the main categories of investments. Basically, an investment company picks a collection of similar assets for you. It can be a group of stocks or a group of bonds.
Or, the fund can be even more specific—there are funds made up of all international stocks, for example.
Some mutual funds invest only in stocks, others only in bonds and some in a mixture of the two. Mutual funds carry many of the same risks as stocks and bonds, depending on what they are invested in. Exchange-traded funds ETFs are similar to mutual funds in that they are a collection of investments that tracks a market index. Unlike mutual funds, which are purchased through a fund company, ETFs are bought and sold on the stock markets.
You can further minimize risk by choosing an ETF that tracks a broad index. A certificate of deposit CD is a very low-risk investment. You give a bank a certain amount of money for a predetermined amount of time.
When that time period is over, you get your principal back, plus a predetermined amount of interest. The longer the loan period, the higher your interest rate. There are no major risks to CDs. There are a number of types of retirement plans. Workplace retirement plans, sponsored by your employer, include k plans and b plans. The risks for the investments are the same as if you were buying the investments outside of a retirement plan. An option is a somewhat more complicated way to buy a stock.
There are two types of options: call options , for buying assets, and put options , for selling options. The risk of an option is that the stock will decrease in value. If the stock decreases from its initial price, you lose your money. Options are a highly advanced investing technique, and you must get approval to participate in the options market. Many people use annuities as part of their retirement savings plan. When you buy an annuity, you purchase a contract with an insurance company and, in return, you get periodic payments.
The payments may begin right away or at a specified future date. They may last until death or only for a predetermined period of time. They make a good supplement to retirement savings, rather than an integral source of funding. Cryptocurrencies are a fairly new investment option. Bitcoin is the most famous cryptocurrency, but there are countless others. You can buy and sell them on cryptocurrency exchanges. Some retailers will even let you make purchases with them. NASDAQ is a computerized system that provides brokers and dealers with price quotations for securities traded over-the-counter as well as for many New York Stock Exchange listed securities.
The fund's NAV is calculated daily by taking the fund's total assets, subtracting the fund's liabilities, and dividing by the number of shares outstanding. The NAV does not include the sales charge. The process of calculating the NAV is called pricing.
For a stock portfolio, the ratio is the weighted average price-to-book ratio of the stocks it holds. Par value - Par value is the amount originally paid for a bond and the amount that will be repaid at maturity. Portfolio - A collection of investments owned by one organization or individual, and managed as a collective whole with specific investment goals in mind. Portfolio allocation - Amount of assets in a portfolio specifically designated for a certain type of investment.
Portfolio manager - The person or entity responsible for making investment decisions of the portfolio to meet the specific investment objective or goal of the portfolio. Preferred stock - A class of stock with a fixed dividend that has preference over a company's common stock in the payment of dividends and the liquidation of assets. There are several kinds of preferred stock, among them adjustable-rate and convertible.
Price-to-book - The price per share of a stock divided by its book value net worth per share. Prospectus - Formal written offer to sell securities that sets forth the plan for proposed business enterprise or the facts concerning an existing one that an investor needs to make an informed decision. Prospectuses are also issued by mutual funds, containing information required by the SEC, such as history, background of managers, fund objectives and policies, financial statement, risks, services and fees.
Quality distribution - The breakdown of a portfolio's assets based on quality rating of the investments. R2 - The percentage of a fund's movements that result from movements in the index ranging from 0 to A fund with an R2 of means that percent of the fund's movement can completely be explained by movements in the fund's external index benchmark.
Ratings - Evaluations of the credit quality of bonds usually made by independent rating services. Ratings generally measure the probability of timely repayment of principal and interest on debt securities. Recession - A downturn in economic activity, defined by many economists as at least two consecutive quarters of decline in a country's gross domestic product.
Reinvestment option - Refers to an arrangement under which a mutual fund will apply dividends or capital gains distributions for its shareholders toward the purchase of additional shares. Relative risk and potential return - The amount of potential return from an investment as related to the amount of risk you are willing to accept. Rights of accumulation - The right to buy over a period of time. For example, this might be done by an institutional investor to avoid making a single substantial purchase that might drive up the market price, or by a retail investor who wants to reduce risk by dollar cost averaging.
Sales charge - An amount charged for the sale of some fund shares, usually those sold by brokers or other sales professionals. By regulation, a mutual fund sales charge may not exceed 8. The charge may vary depending on the amount invested and the fund chosen. A sales charge or load is reflected in the asked or offering price. See loads. Securities - Another name for investments such as stocks or bonds.
The name 'securities' comes from the documents that certify an investor's ownership of particular stocks or bonds. Securities and Exchange Commission SEC - The federal agency created by the Securities and Exchange Act of that administers the laws governing the securities industry, including the registration and distribution of mutual fund shares. Share classes - Classes represent ownership in the same fund but charge different fees. This can enable shareholders to choose the type of fee structure that best suits their particular needs.
Sharpe Ratio - A risk-adjusted measure that measures reward per unit of risk. The higher the sharpe ratio, the better. The numerator is the difference between the Fund's annualized return and the annualized return of the risk-free instrument T-Bills. Standard Deviation - A statistical measure of the degree to which an individual value in a probability distribution tends to vary from the mean of the distribution.
Statement of additional information SAI - The supplementary document to a prospectus that contains more detailed information about a mutual fund; also known as 'Part B' of the prospectus. Stock - A long-term, growth-oriented investment representing ownership in a company; also known as 'equity. Stockholder - The owner of common or preferred stock of a corporation. Also called 'shareholder. Systematic investment plan - A service option that allows investors to buy mutual fund shares on a regular schedule, usually through bank account deductions.
Tax-exempt income - Tax-exempt income is income that is exempt from income taxes. A purchaser of state municipal bonds is exempt from federal taxation on the income earned from the bonds. Top 10 long and short positions - The top 10 holdings ranked by market value in each position category long and short.
A long position is one in which an investor buys shares of stock and as an equity holder will profit if the price of the stock rises. With a short position an investor will sell shares of stock that they do not own but have borrowed. The investor in a short position will profit if the price of the stock falls. Top five detractors - Five assets in a portfolio that generated largest negative returns losses. Total return - Accounts for all of the dividends and interest earned before deductions for fees and expenses, in addition to any changes in the value of the principal, including share price, assuming the funds' dividends and capital gains are reinvested.
Also, a method of calculating an investment's return that takes share price changes and dividends into account. Tracking Error - The active risk of the portfolio. It determines the annualized standard deviation of the excess returns between the portfolio and the benchmark.
Transfer agent - An agent, usually a commercial bank, appointed to monitor records of stocks, bonds and shareholders. A transfer agent keeps a record of the name of each registered shareholder, his or her address, the number of shares owned, and sees that certificates presented for the transfer are properly canceled and new certificates are issued in the name of the new owner. Treasury bill - Negotiable short-term one year or less debt obligations issued by the U. Treasury bond - Negotiable long-term 10 years or longer debt obligations issued by the U.
Treasury note - Negotiable medium-term one year to 10 years debt obligations issued by the U. Treasury security - Securities issued by the U. Treasury Department and backed by the U. Trustee - 1. An organization or individual who has responsibility for one or more accounts.
An individual who, as part of a fund's board of trustees, has ultimate responsibility for a fund's activities. Valuation - An estimate of the value or worth of a company; the price investors assign to an individual stock. Value investing - A strategy whereby investors purchase equity securities that they believe are selling below estimated true value. The investor can profit by buying these securities then selling them once they appreciate to their real value.
Value-style funds - Value-style funds typically hold company stocks that are undervalued in the market. Fundamentally strong companies whose stocks are inexpensive but trending upward may also be selected for value funds. Market Cap - Most indexes are constructed by weighting the market capitalization of each stock on the index.
In such an index, larger companies account for a greater portion of the index. Weighted average maturity - A Fund's WAM calculates an average time to maturity of all the securities held in the portfolio, weighted by each security's percentage of net assets. The calculation takes into account the final maturity for a fixed income security and the interest rate reset date for floating rate securities held in the portfolio. This is a way to measure a fund's sensitivity to potential interest rate changes.
YTD total return - Year-to-date return on an investment including appreciation and dividends or interest. YTD Return w load - Year-to-date return on an investment including appreciation and dividends or interest, minus any applicable expenses or charges. Yield - Annual percentage rate of return on capital. The dividend or interest paid by a company expressed as a percentage of the current price.
Yield to maturity - Concept used to determine the rate of return an investor will receive if a long-term, interest-bearing investment, such as a bond, is held to its maturity date. Yield to maturity distribution - The average rate of return that will be earned on a bond if held to maturity.
If a fund has a 12b-1 fee, it will be disclosed in the fee table of the fund's prospectus. The day yield should be regarded as an estimate of investment income and may not equal the fund's actual income distribution rate. You are about to leave the site Close. Please review its terms, privacy and security policies to see how they apply to you. Morgan Asset Management name. Home Resources Glossary of Investment Terms.
Share LinkedIn Twitter Facebook. Appreciation - The increase in value of a financial asset. Bond fund - A mutual fund that invests exclusively in bonds. Corporate bond - A long-term bond issued by a corporation to raise outside capital. Country breakdown - Breakdown of securities in a portfolio by country.
Dividend paid - Amount paid to the shareholder of record a security or mutual fund. Fixed income security - A security that pays a set rate of interest on a regular basis. Investment grade bonds - A bond generally considered suitable for purchase by prudent investors.
Market price - The current price of an asset. Market risk - The possibility that an investment will not achieve its target. Maturity - The date specified in a note or bond on which the debt is due and payable. Number of Holdings - Total number of individual securities in a fund or portfolio. Portfolio holdings - Investments included in a portfolio.
Premium - The amount by which a bond or stock sells above its par value. Proxy - A shareholder vote on matters that require shareholders' approval. Public offering price POP - A mutual fund share's purchase price, including sales charges. Redemption - Sale of mutual fund shares by a shareholder.
Risk tolerance - The degree to which you can tolerate volatility in your investment values. Sector - A group of similar securities, such as equities in a specific industry. Sector breakdown - Breakdown of securities in a portfolio by industry categories. Share - A unit of ownership in an investment, such as a share of a stock or a mutual fund. Share class net assets date - Fund assets included in a specific share class. Short-term investment - Asset purchased with an investment life of less than a year.
Time horizon - The amount of time that you expect to stay invested in an asset or security. Top 10 holdings - Ten largest holdings in a portfolio based on asset value. Top five contributors - Top five industries in a portfolio based on amount of invested assets.
Top five holdings - Top five securities in a portfolio based on amount of invested assets. Top five industries - Top five industries in a portfolio based on amount of invested assets.
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