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Erik broman kalmar investments

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As observed for copepods, rotifers were absent at the start of the incubation. Syncheata spp. Plagiopyla spp. In contrast, Plagiopyla spp. Other ciliate species were sporadically observed in the oxygenated cores but were not quantified. Number per litre of hatched nauplii a , Syncheata spp. The oxygen concentration in the anoxic incubations was constantly less than 0. Sulfate levels were initially 4. Nutrient levels were not measured at the start of the incubations but phosphate was lower in oxygenated cores compared with anoxic cores after 26 days of incubation 6.

In contrast, nitrate plus nitrite levels were higher in the oxic compared with the anoxic treatments at the end of the experiment 3. A total of 1. Many marine systems have large areas with anoxic sediments [ 16 , 17 ] and this study demonstrated that anoxic sediments can harbour a large pool of viable zooplankton eggs that were activated after turning the sediments oxic.

Even though it is possible that mixing caused by the gentle bubbling of air triggered egg hatching rather than the increase in oxygen concentration, this seems unlikely considering that the controls were also bubbled with N 2 gas at the start of the experiment and after every sampling point. It is also unlikely that the N 2 gas prevented hatching of eggs in the anoxic controls, considering that these cores were not continuously bubbled and that N 2 gas is inert.

To our knowledge, no studies have been published to link N 2 gas to interference with zooplankton egg hatching. On average, 1. However, most estimates of resting egg frequency are derived from active sieving and hatching of eggs from the sediment. In contrast, we incubated intact sediment and studied actual emergence of zooplankton with minimal disturbance of the sediment surface which was more similar to the natural situation.

Previously, temperature and photoperiodicity have been shown to be important factors in terminating diapause and inducing hatching [ 10 ]. In contrast, although a relationship has been observed between oxygen and hatching of zooplankton eggs [ 29 ], it is not generally regarded as an important cue for hatching [ 10 ].

Most hatching occurred from the top layer of the sediment but a few hatchlings also emerged from deeper sediments. Neither age estimates nor sedimentation rates have been estimated in this system and therefore, the age of the zooplankton eggs cannot be determined. In other systems, copepod eggs at a depth of approximately 10 cm are in the order of a few decades old [ 30 ] and marine copepod eggs as old as 70 years can be viable [ 30 — 32 ].

The long-term survival of resting eggs is limited by the storage of energy and the metabolic rate and hence can be prolonged by oxygen deficiency and low temperature because anoxia can completely arrest metabolism [ 33 — 35 ]. The only copepod species detected in the sediments were Acartia spp. Copepods mainly use abiotic cues for initiation and termination of diapause, whereas rotifers and cladocerans also use biotic cues [ 10 ].

In contrast, cladocerans were absent which could indicate that their eggs were less tolerant of anoxia or that these eggs were not activated upon oxygenation. As the morphology of the eggs was not studied, it cannot be determined if the hatched eggs were subitaneous eggs in quiescent state or true diapause eggs.

Acartia bifilosa is a very common species in the study area and appears to only produce normal subitaneous eggs that can then go into a quiescent state in response to low oxygen levels [ 29 , 37 ]. In general, the quiescent state is argued to only last for a few months before the eggs die [ 38 , 39 ]. For example, egg hatching success in A. This suggests that the hatched eggs in this study were true diapausing eggs, and not subitaneous quiescent eggs, as the sediments were sampled in early spring before any major zooplankton production.

However, Baltic Sea A. Buried zooplankton eggs and their species origin were not investigated initially before the experiment, and further studies are needed to determine which eggs survive during long-term anoxic conditions. In shallow systems with anoxic sediments, eggs would probably sink to the bottom before they hatch [ 41 , 42 ] and selection for eggs that are resistant to anoxia would hence be strong.

Considering that the studied site had a depth of 31 m with cold anoxic bottom water, it is plausible that a substantial part of the eggs settle on the sediment before hatching. The Baltic Sea is a relatively shallow system with a mean depth of 55 m. Hence, eggs ending up in anoxic sediments in shallow systems can be trapped if oxygen conditions are poor. In addition to copepods, a number of rotifers also emerged from the sediment.

Rotifer resting stages have not been greatly studied in marine systems [ 10 ] but diapausing amictic eggs have been observed from Synchaeta pectinata [ 44 ]. Temperature and light are important factors initiating hatching of rotifer resting stages [ 45 ] and this is, to our knowledge, the first example of oxygen as a cue for rotifer resting stage hatching. Ciliates were not included in this study but one species belonging to Plagiopyla spp.

Several ciliate species are unable to use oxidative phosphorylation in their energy metabolism and may be sensitive to oxygen [ 46 ]. Hence, low oxygen zones are likely niches where other zooplankton cannot exist creating a competitive benefit for ciliates. Anoxic zones can be sporadically ventilated by natural inflow of oxygen rich water [ 21 ] and therefore, the extent of anoxic zones fluctuates over time [ 16 ].

This potentially triggers hatching of eggs trapped in anoxic conditions. However, current population and carbon flow models tend not to incorporate the magnitude of this benthic—pelagic coupling [ 47 , 48 ]. Carbon circulation and deposition in the ocean is generally described in a concept called the biological pump [ 48 ]. This model assumes that pelagic particles e. This model does not include the potential for carbon flows from the sediment back to the open water system.

Hence, the magnitude of hatching in terms of carbon flow was modelled in the studied anoxic zone approx. A carbon factor of 0. Taken together, hatching of the buried egg bank has the potential to contribute to a substantial share of the adult copepod population in the water column approx. However, the outcome in terms of net adult population size deriving from benthic eggs depends on the limiting factors of the system e.

More importantly, as copepod eggs in anoxic Baltic Sea sediments are estimated to survive up to 15—19 years [ 23 , 54 ], hatching of previous generation copepods will add new genetic variation to the pelagic population.

This has, for example, been observed among some freshwater zooplankton species where increased genetic polymorphism was observed in synchrony to large sediment hatching events [ 55 , 56 ]. The positive effects of higher genetic and phenotypic variability on population and species performance have been extensively studied in a variety of organisms, e.

Some of the observed effects are decreased risk of extinction, lower vulnerability to stress as well as an increase in population size stability [ 57 ]. Furthermore, lake studies have shown that a large portion of zooplankton emergence from sediments occurs during spring, when the abundance of pelagic adults is low, suggesting that benthic eggs could contribute to the initiation of the annual population cycle [ 58 ].

Hence, this benthic recruitment to the pelagic population would be absent in anoxic sediments. We suggest that the carbon flow of hatched zooplankton from oxygenated sediments to the open water should be added to the concept of the biological pump and to other future studies on benthic—pelagic coupling to quantify how this flow varies seasonally, spatially and with depth of the system.

Model of carbon flow and zooplankton production in response to oxygenation in the studied anoxic zone. The number of eggs in the egg bank is according to the literature references [ 10 , 25 — 28 ]. Coastal zones in the Baltic Sea experiencing hypoxia have increased during the last 50 years with over sites affected [ 17 ]. The Baltic Proper is, furthermore, estimated to consist of 70 — km 2 anoxic and hypoxic sediment zones [ 59 ] and results from this study implies that a substantial part of the zooplankton lie dormant as eggs in the anoxic sediments.

The lack of copepod egg hatching would also limit the capacity of the population to recover from harsh times when adult populations in the water column have decreased, such as in the spring. It has also been proposed that large-scale artificial oxygenation of anoxic sediments could be used as a remediation strategy for eutrophicated systems by reducing the flux of nutrients to the water column [ 18 — 22 ], a strategy that has recently been tested on a smaller fjord with some positive results in terms of reduced phosphate concentrations [ 60 ].

However, it is still debatable how feasible artificial oxygenation would be when implemented on a larger scale [ 19 ]. To conclude, we show that re-oxygenation of anoxic sediments will activate buried zooplankton eggs, potentially strengthening the benthic—pelagic coupling in these systems with possible effects on trophic interactions as zooplankton are important prey for fish and also can exert top down effects on lower trophic levels such as phytoplankton.

We also thank Evelina Griniene who identified the ciliate species. All authors gave final approval for publication. Read article at publisher's site DOI : Commun Biol , 3 1 , 06 Mar Sci Rep , 8 1 , 02 Nov Microb Ecol , 77 2 , 17 Jul Wood R , Erwin DH. Cited by: 9 articles PMID: Front Microbiol , , 12 Dec This data has been text mined from the article, or deposited into data resources. To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation.

Microbiome , 5 1 , 09 Aug BMC Ecol , 19 1 :1, 15 Jan PLoS One , 15 6 :e, 12 Jun PLoS One , 11 7 :e, 13 Jul Tarasov VG. Adv Mar Biol , , 01 Jan Cited by: 8 articles PMID: Coronavirus: Find the latest articles and preprints. Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively. Recent Activity. Recent history Saved searches.

Broman E 1 ,. Search articles by 'Mark Dopson'. Dopson M 2 ,. Hylander S 2. Affiliations 1 author 1. Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook. This study demonstrated that re-oxygenation of anoxic sediments activated a large pool of buried zooplankton eggs, strengthening the benthic-pelagic coupling of the system.

Free full text. Proc Biol Sci. PMID: Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Aug 21; Accepted Sep This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Go to:. Supplementary Information. Keywords: sediment, anoxia, hatching, Acartia , diapause, eggs. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Supplementary Information: Click here to view. Marcus NH, Boero F. Minireview: the importance of benthic—pelagic coupling and the forgotten role of life cycles in coastal aquatic systems.

Dagg MJ. Physical and biological responses to the passage of a winter storm in the coastal and inner shelf waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shelf Res. Sediment resuspension by coastal waters—a potential mechanism for nutrient re-cycling on the oceans margins. Deep Sea Res. Nielsen TG, Kiorboe T. Effects of a storm event on the structure of the pelagic food web with special emphasis on planktonic ciliates. Plankton Res. Wainright SC. Stimulation of heterotrophic microplankton production by resuspended marine sediments.

Science , — Lampert W. Egg bank investment. Nature , Viability of phytoplankton resting stages in the sediments of a coastal Swedish fjord. Algal cyst dormancy: a temporal escape from herbivory. B , — Gyllstrom M, Hansson LA. Dormancy in freshwater zooplankton: induction, termination and the importance of benthic—pelagic coupling. De Stasio BT.

The seed bank of a fresh-water crustacean—copepodology for the plant ecologist. Ecology 70 , — Brendonck L, De Meester L. Egg banks in freshwater zooplankton: evolutionary and ecological archives in the sediment. Hydrobiologia , 65— Phenotypic variation in a zooplankton egg bank. Ecology 77 , — Bagarinao T.

Sulfide as an environmental factor and toxicant: tolerance and adaptations in aquatic organisms. Dahms HU. Dormancy in the Copepoda—an overview. Hydrobiologia , — Deoxygenation of the Baltic Sea during the last century. Natl Acad. USA , — Conley DJ, et al. Hypoxia is increasing in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. Conley DJ. Ecology: save the Baltic Sea. Other ciliate species were sporadically observed in the oxygenated cores but were not quantified.

Number per litre of hatched nauplii a , Syncheata spp. The oxygen concentration in the anoxic incubations was constantly less than 0. Sulfate levels were initially 4. Nutrient levels were not measured at the start of the incubations but phosphate was lower in oxygenated cores compared with anoxic cores after 26 days of incubation 6.

In contrast, nitrate plus nitrite levels were higher in the oxic compared with the anoxic treatments at the end of the experiment 3. A total of 1. Many marine systems have large areas with anoxic sediments [ 16 , 17 ] and this study demonstrated that anoxic sediments can harbour a large pool of viable zooplankton eggs that were activated after turning the sediments oxic. Even though it is possible that mixing caused by the gentle bubbling of air triggered egg hatching rather than the increase in oxygen concentration, this seems unlikely considering that the controls were also bubbled with N 2 gas at the start of the experiment and after every sampling point.

It is also unlikely that the N 2 gas prevented hatching of eggs in the anoxic controls, considering that these cores were not continuously bubbled and that N 2 gas is inert. To our knowledge, no studies have been published to link N 2 gas to interference with zooplankton egg hatching. On average, 1. However, most estimates of resting egg frequency are derived from active sieving and hatching of eggs from the sediment. In contrast, we incubated intact sediment and studied actual emergence of zooplankton with minimal disturbance of the sediment surface which was more similar to the natural situation.

Previously, temperature and photoperiodicity have been shown to be important factors in terminating diapause and inducing hatching [ 10 ]. In contrast, although a relationship has been observed between oxygen and hatching of zooplankton eggs [ 29 ], it is not generally regarded as an important cue for hatching [ 10 ]. Most hatching occurred from the top layer of the sediment but a few hatchlings also emerged from deeper sediments. Neither age estimates nor sedimentation rates have been estimated in this system and therefore, the age of the zooplankton eggs cannot be determined.

In other systems, copepod eggs at a depth of approximately 10 cm are in the order of a few decades old [ 30 ] and marine copepod eggs as old as 70 years can be viable [ 30 — 32 ]. The long-term survival of resting eggs is limited by the storage of energy and the metabolic rate and hence can be prolonged by oxygen deficiency and low temperature because anoxia can completely arrest metabolism [ 33 — 35 ].

The only copepod species detected in the sediments were Acartia spp. Copepods mainly use abiotic cues for initiation and termination of diapause, whereas rotifers and cladocerans also use biotic cues [ 10 ].

In contrast, cladocerans were absent which could indicate that their eggs were less tolerant of anoxia or that these eggs were not activated upon oxygenation. As the morphology of the eggs was not studied, it cannot be determined if the hatched eggs were subitaneous eggs in quiescent state or true diapause eggs.

Acartia bifilosa is a very common species in the study area and appears to only produce normal subitaneous eggs that can then go into a quiescent state in response to low oxygen levels [ 29 , 37 ]. In general, the quiescent state is argued to only last for a few months before the eggs die [ 38 , 39 ]. For example, egg hatching success in A. This suggests that the hatched eggs in this study were true diapausing eggs, and not subitaneous quiescent eggs, as the sediments were sampled in early spring before any major zooplankton production.

However, Baltic Sea A. Buried zooplankton eggs and their species origin were not investigated initially before the experiment, and further studies are needed to determine which eggs survive during long-term anoxic conditions. In shallow systems with anoxic sediments, eggs would probably sink to the bottom before they hatch [ 41 , 42 ] and selection for eggs that are resistant to anoxia would hence be strong. Considering that the studied site had a depth of 31 m with cold anoxic bottom water, it is plausible that a substantial part of the eggs settle on the sediment before hatching.

The Baltic Sea is a relatively shallow system with a mean depth of 55 m. Hence, eggs ending up in anoxic sediments in shallow systems can be trapped if oxygen conditions are poor. In addition to copepods, a number of rotifers also emerged from the sediment. Rotifer resting stages have not been greatly studied in marine systems [ 10 ] but diapausing amictic eggs have been observed from Synchaeta pectinata [ 44 ].

Temperature and light are important factors initiating hatching of rotifer resting stages [ 45 ] and this is, to our knowledge, the first example of oxygen as a cue for rotifer resting stage hatching. Ciliates were not included in this study but one species belonging to Plagiopyla spp.

Several ciliate species are unable to use oxidative phosphorylation in their energy metabolism and may be sensitive to oxygen [ 46 ]. Hence, low oxygen zones are likely niches where other zooplankton cannot exist creating a competitive benefit for ciliates. Anoxic zones can be sporadically ventilated by natural inflow of oxygen rich water [ 21 ] and therefore, the extent of anoxic zones fluctuates over time [ 16 ].

This potentially triggers hatching of eggs trapped in anoxic conditions. However, current population and carbon flow models tend not to incorporate the magnitude of this benthic—pelagic coupling [ 47 , 48 ]. Carbon circulation and deposition in the ocean is generally described in a concept called the biological pump [ 48 ]. This model assumes that pelagic particles e. This model does not include the potential for carbon flows from the sediment back to the open water system.

Hence, the magnitude of hatching in terms of carbon flow was modelled in the studied anoxic zone approx. A carbon factor of 0. Taken together, hatching of the buried egg bank has the potential to contribute to a substantial share of the adult copepod population in the water column approx. However, the outcome in terms of net adult population size deriving from benthic eggs depends on the limiting factors of the system e.

More importantly, as copepod eggs in anoxic Baltic Sea sediments are estimated to survive up to 15—19 years [ 23 , 54 ], hatching of previous generation copepods will add new genetic variation to the pelagic population. This has, for example, been observed among some freshwater zooplankton species where increased genetic polymorphism was observed in synchrony to large sediment hatching events [ 55 , 56 ]. The positive effects of higher genetic and phenotypic variability on population and species performance have been extensively studied in a variety of organisms, e.

Some of the observed effects are decreased risk of extinction, lower vulnerability to stress as well as an increase in population size stability [ 57 ]. Furthermore, lake studies have shown that a large portion of zooplankton emergence from sediments occurs during spring, when the abundance of pelagic adults is low, suggesting that benthic eggs could contribute to the initiation of the annual population cycle [ 58 ]. Hence, this benthic recruitment to the pelagic population would be absent in anoxic sediments.

We suggest that the carbon flow of hatched zooplankton from oxygenated sediments to the open water should be added to the concept of the biological pump and to other future studies on benthic—pelagic coupling to quantify how this flow varies seasonally, spatially and with depth of the system.

Model of carbon flow and zooplankton production in response to oxygenation in the studied anoxic zone. The number of eggs in the egg bank is according to the literature references [ 10 , 25 — 28 ]. Coastal zones in the Baltic Sea experiencing hypoxia have increased during the last 50 years with over sites affected [ 17 ].

The Baltic Proper is, furthermore, estimated to consist of 70 — km 2 anoxic and hypoxic sediment zones [ 59 ] and results from this study implies that a substantial part of the zooplankton lie dormant as eggs in the anoxic sediments.

The lack of copepod egg hatching would also limit the capacity of the population to recover from harsh times when adult populations in the water column have decreased, such as in the spring. It has also been proposed that large-scale artificial oxygenation of anoxic sediments could be used as a remediation strategy for eutrophicated systems by reducing the flux of nutrients to the water column [ 18 — 22 ], a strategy that has recently been tested on a smaller fjord with some positive results in terms of reduced phosphate concentrations [ 60 ].

However, it is still debatable how feasible artificial oxygenation would be when implemented on a larger scale [ 19 ]. To conclude, we show that re-oxygenation of anoxic sediments will activate buried zooplankton eggs, potentially strengthening the benthic—pelagic coupling in these systems with possible effects on trophic interactions as zooplankton are important prey for fish and also can exert top down effects on lower trophic levels such as phytoplankton. We also thank Evelina Griniene who identified the ciliate species.

All authors gave final approval for publication. Read article at publisher's site DOI : Commun Biol , 3 1 , 06 Mar Sci Rep , 8 1 , 02 Nov Microb Ecol , 77 2 , 17 Jul Wood R , Erwin DH. Cited by: 9 articles PMID: Front Microbiol , , 12 Dec This data has been text mined from the article, or deposited into data resources. To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation.

Microbiome , 5 1 , 09 Aug BMC Ecol , 19 1 :1, 15 Jan PLoS One , 15 6 :e, 12 Jun PLoS One , 11 7 :e, 13 Jul Tarasov VG. Adv Mar Biol , , 01 Jan Cited by: 8 articles PMID: Coronavirus: Find the latest articles and preprints. Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively. Recent Activity. Recent history Saved searches. Broman E 1 ,.

Search articles by 'Mark Dopson'. Dopson M 2 ,. Hylander S 2. Affiliations 1 author 1. Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook. This study demonstrated that re-oxygenation of anoxic sediments activated a large pool of buried zooplankton eggs, strengthening the benthic-pelagic coupling of the system. Free full text. Proc Biol Sci. PMID: Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Aug 21; Accepted Sep This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract Many coastal marine systems have extensive areas with anoxic sediments and it is not well known how these conditions affect the benthic—pelagic coupling. Keywords: sediment, anoxia, hatching, Acartia , diapause, eggs. Introduction Coastal waters are among the most productive systems in the world and sustain large populations of fish.

Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Discussion Many marine systems have large areas with anoxic sediments [ 16 , 17 ] and this study demonstrated that anoxic sediments can harbour a large pool of viable zooplankton eggs that were activated after turning the sediments oxic. Figure 3. Supplementary Material Supplementary Information: Click here to view.

Data accessibility The datasets supporting this article have been uploaded as part of the electronic supplementary material. Authors' contributions E. Competing interests We have no competing interests. References 1. Marcus NH, Boero F. Minireview: the importance of benthic—pelagic coupling and the forgotten role of life cycles in coastal aquatic systems. Dagg MJ.

Physical and biological responses to the passage of a winter storm in the coastal and inner shelf waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Shelf Res. Sediment resuspension by coastal waters—a potential mechanism for nutrient re-cycling on the oceans margins. Deep Sea Res. Nielsen TG, Kiorboe T. Effects of a storm event on the structure of the pelagic food web with special emphasis on planktonic ciliates.

Plankton Res. Wainright SC. Stimulation of heterotrophic microplankton production by resuspended marine sediments. Science , — Lampert W. Egg bank investment. Nature , Viability of phytoplankton resting stages in the sediments of a coastal Swedish fjord. Algal cyst dormancy: a temporal escape from herbivory.

B , — Gyllstrom M, Hansson LA. Dormancy in freshwater zooplankton: induction, termination and the importance of benthic—pelagic coupling. De Stasio BT. The seed bank of a fresh-water crustacean—copepodology for the plant ecologist.

Ecology 70 , — Brendonck L, De Meester L. Egg banks in freshwater zooplankton: evolutionary and ecological archives in the sediment. Hydrobiologia , 65— Phenotypic variation in a zooplankton egg bank. Ecology 77 , — Bagarinao T. Sulfide as an environmental factor and toxicant: tolerance and adaptations in aquatic organisms. Dahms HU. Dormancy in the Copepoda—an overview.

Hydrobiologia , — Deoxygenation of the Baltic Sea during the last century. Natl Acad. USA , — Conley DJ, et al. Hypoxia is increasing in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea.

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But living with cancer is a life change. It could mean an inability to work and function. Even with health insurance, some patients struggle to make ends meet. Broman is a Fort Collins native and a graduate of Colorado State University with a degree in real estate and finance. He has been with Realtec for the past nine years. Erik Broman. This article has been intentionally blurred. You must purchase a subscription to view the rest of this content. Want to See More!? If you canceled your payment, click here to close this window.

Catharina passed away on month day , at age 78 at death place. Documents of Catharina von den Brincken born Broman. She was buried in , at burial place. Catharina was baptized on month day , at baptism place. Catharina married Johan Joachim Broman.

Catharina passed away on month day , at age 70 at death place. Documents of Catharina Maria Johansdotter Broman. Maria Broman Cathar. Maria Broman in Sweden, Baptisms, Cathar. Cathar was baptized on month day , at baptism place. Cathar lived in , at address. Catharina married Johan Emil Broman on month day , at age Catharina passed away on month day , at age 59 at death place.

Catharina had one sibling: Johan Walfrid. Catharina passed away on month day , at age 6. Documents of Catharina Nicolina Broman. Catharina had 8 siblings: Anna Theresia , Katarina Viktoria and 6 other siblings.

Catharina married Carl Gustaf Sandberg on month day , at age 43 at marriage place. Carl was born on September 29 , in Stockholm, Sverige. Catharina passed away. Documents of Catharina Sandberg Nr, born Broman. Johan was born on March 27 , in Svenserum, Hallingeberg H. Catharina married Nils Bengtsson. Catharina had 3 siblings: Lars Ersson Broman and 2 other siblings. Catharina married Anders Ersson. Catharina passed away on month day , at age 63 at death place.

Gustaf was born on August 25 , in Snappertuna. Catharina passed away on month day , at age 73 at death place. Catharina passed away of cause of death on month day , at death place. Catharina married Henric Broman. They had one daughter: Eva Lovisa Wahlberg. Catharina passed away on month day , at age 84 at death place. JOHAN was born in Catharina had 4 siblings: Jonas Broman and 3 other siblings. Catharina lived in , at address.

Catharina passed away on month day , at age 53 at death place. Matthias was born on March 24 , in Hellvi I. Catharina had 2 brothers: Carl Ludvig Broman and one other sibling. Catharina passed away in , at age one at death place. Catharina married Johan Broman. They had one son: Jonas Johansson Broman. Catharina passed away on month day , at age Find family history information in a whole new way. Get started. Sweden Household Examination Books, Catharina Broman Catharina Broman, - Catharina Broman was born on month day Catharina married Tertullianus Olsson on month day , at age FamilySearch Family Tree.

Catharina had 6 siblings: Anna Andersdotter , Margareta Andersdotter and 4 other siblings. Catharina married Anders Erikson on month day , at age 20 at marriage place. They had 5 children: Elin Andersson , Karin Andersson and 3 other children. Catharina lived at address. She was buried on month day , at burial place.

Catharina married Olof Nilsson Broman circa , at age 28 at marriage place. They had one daughter: Catharina Olsdotter. Catharina passed away on month day , at age 83 at death place.

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Microbiome , 5 1 , 09 Aug BMC Ecol , 19 1 :1, 15 Jan PLoS One , 15 6 :e, 12 Jun PLoS One , 11 7 :e, 13 Jul Tarasov VG. Adv Mar Biol , , 01 Jan Cited by: 8 articles PMID: Coronavirus: Find the latest articles and preprints. Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively. Recent Activity. Recent history Saved searches. Broman E 1 ,. Search articles by 'Mark Dopson'. Dopson M 2 ,. Hylander S 2. Affiliations 1 author 1.

Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook. This study demonstrated that re-oxygenation of anoxic sediments activated a large pool of buried zooplankton eggs, strengthening the benthic-pelagic coupling of the system. Free full text. Proc Biol Sci. PMID: Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Received Aug 21; Accepted Sep This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Go to:. Supplementary Information. Keywords: sediment, anoxia, hatching, Acartia , diapause, eggs. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Supplementary Information: Click here to view. Marcus NH, Boero F. Minireview: the importance of benthic—pelagic coupling and the forgotten role of life cycles in coastal aquatic systems. Dagg MJ. Physical and biological responses to the passage of a winter storm in the coastal and inner shelf waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico.

Shelf Res. Sediment resuspension by coastal waters—a potential mechanism for nutrient re-cycling on the oceans margins. Deep Sea Res. Nielsen TG, Kiorboe T. Effects of a storm event on the structure of the pelagic food web with special emphasis on planktonic ciliates. Plankton Res. Wainright SC. Stimulation of heterotrophic microplankton production by resuspended marine sediments.

Science , — Lampert W. Egg bank investment. Nature , Viability of phytoplankton resting stages in the sediments of a coastal Swedish fjord. Algal cyst dormancy: a temporal escape from herbivory. B , — Gyllstrom M, Hansson LA. Dormancy in freshwater zooplankton: induction, termination and the importance of benthic—pelagic coupling. De Stasio BT.

The seed bank of a fresh-water crustacean—copepodology for the plant ecologist. Ecology 70 , — Brendonck L, De Meester L. Egg banks in freshwater zooplankton: evolutionary and ecological archives in the sediment. Hydrobiologia , 65— Phenotypic variation in a zooplankton egg bank. Ecology 77 , — Bagarinao T. Sulfide as an environmental factor and toxicant: tolerance and adaptations in aquatic organisms.

Dahms HU. Dormancy in the Copepoda—an overview. Hydrobiologia , — Deoxygenation of the Baltic Sea during the last century. Natl Acad. USA , — Conley DJ, et al. Hypoxia is increasing in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. Conley DJ. Ecology: save the Baltic Sea. Nature , — Tackling hypoxia in the Baltic Sea: is engineering a solution?

Optimizing recovery of eutrophic estuaries: impact of destratification and re-aeration on nutrient and dissolved oxygen dynamics. Stigebrandt A, Gustafsson BG. Improvement of Baltic Proper water quality using large-scale ecological engineering. Ambio 36 , — Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Katajisto T. Copepod eggs survive a decade in the sediments of the Baltic Sea.

Valderrama JC. Methods of nutrient analysis. In Manual on harmful marine microalgae ed. Seasonal occurrence and hatching of calanoid eggs in sediments of the northern Baltic Sea. Uriarte I, Villate F. First evidences of Acartia bifilosa resting eggs in sediments of the Urdaibai estuary Bay of Biscay : abundance and hatching success.

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Longevity of subitaneous and diapause eggs of Centropages hamatus Copepoda: Calanoida from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Survival of the copepod Acartia tonsa following egg exposure to near anoxia and to sulfide at different pH values. Population dynamics of Acartia pacifica Copepoda: Calanoida the importance of benthic—pelagic coupling. Acta Oceanol. The relative importance of egg production rate, hatching success, hatching duration and egg sinking in population recruitment of two species of marine copepods.

Determining the mass density of marine copepods and their eggs with a critical focus on some of the previously used methods. Induction of diapausing amictic eggs in Synchaeta pectinata. Schroder T. Diapause in monogonont rotifers. Fenchel T, Finlay BJ. The biology of free-living anaerobic ciliates. Population modelling of Acartia spp. Biogeosciences 7 , — Turner JT. Zooplankton fecal pellets, marine snow, phytodetritus and the ocean's biological pump.

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Ambio 44 , 42— Associated Data Abstract 1. Introduction 2. Material and methods 3. Results 4. Smart citations by scite. The number of the statements may be higher than the number of citations provided by EuropePMC if one paper cites another multiple times or lower if scite has not yet processed some of the citing articles.

Explore citation contexts and check if this article has been supported or disputed. In general, the quiescent state is argued to only last for a few months before the eggs die [ 38 , 39 ]. For example, egg hatching success in A. This suggests that the hatched eggs in this study were true diapausing eggs, and not subitaneous quiescent eggs, as the sediments were sampled in early spring before any major zooplankton production.

However, Baltic Sea A. Buried zooplankton eggs and their species origin were not investigated initially before the experiment, and further studies are needed to determine which eggs survive during long-term anoxic conditions. In shallow systems with anoxic sediments, eggs would probably sink to the bottom before they hatch [ 41 , 42 ] and selection for eggs that are resistant to anoxia would hence be strong. Considering that the studied site had a depth of 31 m with cold anoxic bottom water, it is plausible that a substantial part of the eggs settle on the sediment before hatching.

The Baltic Sea is a relatively shallow system with a mean depth of 55 m. Hence, eggs ending up in anoxic sediments in shallow systems can be trapped if oxygen conditions are poor. In addition to copepods, a number of rotifers also emerged from the sediment. Rotifer resting stages have not been greatly studied in marine systems [ 10 ] but diapausing amictic eggs have been observed from Synchaeta pectinata [ 44 ].

Temperature and light are important factors initiating hatching of rotifer resting stages [ 45 ] and this is, to our knowledge, the first example of oxygen as a cue for rotifer resting stage hatching. Ciliates were not included in this study but one species belonging to Plagiopyla spp. Several ciliate species are unable to use oxidative phosphorylation in their energy metabolism and may be sensitive to oxygen [ 46 ]. Hence, low oxygen zones are likely niches where other zooplankton cannot exist creating a competitive benefit for ciliates.

Anoxic zones can be sporadically ventilated by natural inflow of oxygen rich water [ 21 ] and therefore, the extent of anoxic zones fluctuates over time [ 16 ]. This potentially triggers hatching of eggs trapped in anoxic conditions. However, current population and carbon flow models tend not to incorporate the magnitude of this benthic—pelagic coupling [ 47 , 48 ]. Carbon circulation and deposition in the ocean is generally described in a concept called the biological pump [ 48 ].

This model assumes that pelagic particles e. This model does not include the potential for carbon flows from the sediment back to the open water system. Hence, the magnitude of hatching in terms of carbon flow was modelled in the studied anoxic zone approx. A carbon factor of 0. Taken together, hatching of the buried egg bank has the potential to contribute to a substantial share of the adult copepod population in the water column approx.

However, the outcome in terms of net adult population size deriving from benthic eggs depends on the limiting factors of the system e. More importantly, as copepod eggs in anoxic Baltic Sea sediments are estimated to survive up to 15—19 years [ 23 , 54 ], hatching of previous generation copepods will add new genetic variation to the pelagic population.

This has, for example, been observed among some freshwater zooplankton species where increased genetic polymorphism was observed in synchrony to large sediment hatching events [ 55 , 56 ]. The positive effects of higher genetic and phenotypic variability on population and species performance have been extensively studied in a variety of organisms, e. Some of the observed effects are decreased risk of extinction, lower vulnerability to stress as well as an increase in population size stability [ 57 ].

Furthermore, lake studies have shown that a large portion of zooplankton emergence from sediments occurs during spring, when the abundance of pelagic adults is low, suggesting that benthic eggs could contribute to the initiation of the annual population cycle [ 58 ]. Hence, this benthic recruitment to the pelagic population would be absent in anoxic sediments.

We suggest that the carbon flow of hatched zooplankton from oxygenated sediments to the open water should be added to the concept of the biological pump and to other future studies on benthic—pelagic coupling to quantify how this flow varies seasonally, spatially and with depth of the system. Model of carbon flow and zooplankton production in response to oxygenation in the studied anoxic zone. The number of eggs in the egg bank is according to the literature references [ 10 , 25 — 28 ].

Coastal zones in the Baltic Sea experiencing hypoxia have increased during the last 50 years with over sites affected [ 17 ]. The Baltic Proper is, furthermore, estimated to consist of 70 — km 2 anoxic and hypoxic sediment zones [ 59 ] and results from this study implies that a substantial part of the zooplankton lie dormant as eggs in the anoxic sediments.

The lack of copepod egg hatching would also limit the capacity of the population to recover from harsh times when adult populations in the water column have decreased, such as in the spring. It has also been proposed that large-scale artificial oxygenation of anoxic sediments could be used as a remediation strategy for eutrophicated systems by reducing the flux of nutrients to the water column [ 18 — 22 ], a strategy that has recently been tested on a smaller fjord with some positive results in terms of reduced phosphate concentrations [ 60 ].

However, it is still debatable how feasible artificial oxygenation would be when implemented on a larger scale [ 19 ]. To conclude, we show that re-oxygenation of anoxic sediments will activate buried zooplankton eggs, potentially strengthening the benthic—pelagic coupling in these systems with possible effects on trophic interactions as zooplankton are important prey for fish and also can exert top down effects on lower trophic levels such as phytoplankton.

We also thank Evelina Griniene who identified the ciliate species. All authors gave final approval for publication. Read article at publisher's site DOI : Commun Biol , 3 1 , 06 Mar Sci Rep , 8 1 , 02 Nov Microb Ecol , 77 2 , 17 Jul Wood R , Erwin DH. Cited by: 9 articles PMID: Front Microbiol , , 12 Dec This data has been text mined from the article, or deposited into data resources. To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation.

Microbiome , 5 1 , 09 Aug BMC Ecol , 19 1 :1, 15 Jan PLoS One , 15 6 :e, 12 Jun PLoS One , 11 7 :e, 13 Jul Tarasov VG. Adv Mar Biol , , 01 Jan Cited by: 8 articles PMID: Coronavirus: Find the latest articles and preprints. Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively. Recent Activity. Recent history Saved searches. Broman E 1 ,. Search articles by 'Mark Dopson'.

Dopson M 2 ,. Hylander S 2. Affiliations 1 author 1. Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook. This study demonstrated that re-oxygenation of anoxic sediments activated a large pool of buried zooplankton eggs, strengthening the benthic-pelagic coupling of the system.

Free full text. Proc Biol Sci. PMID: Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Aug 21; Accepted Sep This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Many coastal marine systems have extensive areas with anoxic sediments and it is not well known how these conditions affect the benthic—pelagic coupling.

Keywords: sediment, anoxia, hatching, Acartia , diapause, eggs. Introduction Coastal waters are among the most productive systems in the world and sustain large populations of fish. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Discussion Many marine systems have large areas with anoxic sediments [ 16 , 17 ] and this study demonstrated that anoxic sediments can harbour a large pool of viable zooplankton eggs that were activated after turning the sediments oxic.

Figure 3. Supplementary Material Supplementary Information: Click here to view. Data accessibility The datasets supporting this article have been uploaded as part of the electronic supplementary material. Authors' contributions E. Competing interests We have no competing interests. References 1. Marcus NH, Boero F. Minireview: the importance of benthic—pelagic coupling and the forgotten role of life cycles in coastal aquatic systems.

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Stigebrandt A, Gustafsson BG. Improvement of Baltic Proper water quality using large-scale ecological engineering. Ambio 36 , — Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Katajisto T. Copepod eggs survive a decade in the sediments of the Baltic Sea. Valderrama JC. Methods of nutrient analysis. In Manual on harmful marine microalgae ed. Seasonal occurrence and hatching of calanoid eggs in sediments of the northern Baltic Sea. Uriarte I, Villate F. First evidences of Acartia bifilosa resting eggs in sediments of the Urdaibai estuary Bay of Biscay : abundance and hatching success.

Marina 70 , — Viitasalo M, Katajisto T. Mesozooplankton resting eggs in the baltic sea—identification and vertical distribution in laminated and mixed sediments. Effects of anoxia and hypoxia on the dormancy and survival of subitaneous eggs of Acartia bifilosa Copepoda: Calanoida.

Distribution and mortality of diapause eggs from calanoid copepods in relation to sedimentation regimes. Coast Shelf Sci. Age and survivorship of diapausing eggs in a sediment egg bank. Ecology 76 , —

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