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This spectrum ranges from the very passive strategy of buying real estate-related stocks on a public exchange, investing in Real Estate Investment Trusts REITs or even investing in deals through a real estate crowdfunding platform , to the more active approach of purchasing individual properties directly — either to resell them for profit, or to rent them out for ongoing income.
Contrary to much of the conventional wisdom and many real estate books and courses, investing in rental properties is not a strategy for earning passive income. In fact, it is among the most active and time-consuming forms of real estate investing in which you can engage. In the sections that follow, we will discuss the basics of investing in rental properties, including an overview of how to find a viable rental property and obtain financing for it, what may be involved in operating and maintaining the property, and the basic pros and cons of such investments.
We also suggest a real estate investment approach that can serve as a possible alternative, should you find that direct investing in rental properties process is not right for you. If you would like to learn more about investing in rental properties, as well as other real estate investing opportunities, visit the RealtyMogul Resource Center.
Although there are many ways to directly invest in real estate, for simplification purposes, we can break the investment approaches into two primary categories: investing in a property to potentially resell it quickly for a profit, and investing in a property for the long-term and renting it out.
One potential benefit of investing in a rental is that it has the possibility to provide two types of return. First, it can provide appreciation over the long run, if the property value increases over time and due to improvements made by the owner, and as the owner increases equity in the property by paying down the mortgage.
If an investor can obtain attractive financing to secure a rental property that produces positive cash-flow in an appreciating market — and if the investor is willing to take on the responsibility of managing the property or working with a property management company — then rental property investing can be a viable real estate investment strategy.
Of course, just as with any investment, it is important to understand that rental property investing carries the risk of loss and there are no guarantees of a return. To determine whether a rental property investment can work for you, you first need to come up with an informed estimate of the return on investment ROI that the property is likely to generate. For many types of investments, you can determine the ROI by calculating a simple formula: gains minus cost, divided by the cost.
In reality, the ROI calculation will be more complicated than this, because you will need to factor in expenses such as capital-gains taxes on your stock sale and any broker fees you incurred while buying and selling your shares.
But things get more complicated still when you are attempting to determine the ROI potential in advance of investing in a rental property — because there are so many variables that can affect both the income potential and the expenses of the property.
Determining the possible ROI of an income-producing property will require you to make estimates based on whatever historical data is available on market rental rates, vacancy rates of similar properties in the area, ongoing expenses for maintaining and operating the property, and other variables that might change at any time.
And bear in mind, as stated previously, rental property investments carry risk of loss just as any other type of investment, and returns can never be guaranteed. But assuming you have narrowed your search for rental investments to a given area or even to a few specific properties, you should then run some basic calculations to get a better sense of how well those properties might be able to generate income for you. Your goal, of course, will most likely be to find a rental property that generates positive cash-flow — where the rents and any other income you earn on the property is greater than all expenses, including your mortgage payment, property management fee, property taxes calculated monthly , repairs, insurance, etc.
However, these calculations are always more complicated and require accounting for more variables. Keep in mind that this is purely a simplified example and potential opportunities can vary from the example provided. One of the most challenging aspects of buying rental properties is compiling a complete list of all expenses. Failure to take into account even one upfront capital outlay or ongoing expense can lead you to an inaccurate estimate of the cost and income potential of your property.
It is extremely difficult if not impossible to know in advance all of the expenses your rental property may require. It is also advisable to err on the conservative side in your calculations — factoring in an additional percentage of expenses for unforeseen costs. Financing an income property is typically more difficult than financing a home or other primary residence. The major distinction is the size required for the down payment.
There are other financing options available, however, some quite creative. There are alternative lenders, like hard money and private lenders, that can help with cash for closing and funds for repairing the property. These lenders, however, can charge high interest rates and only loan money for a short period of time.
While wholesalers can have quality off-market investment opportunities, financing difficulties can make it hard to work with them. Another way to find a potential rental property to invest in is by conducting a marketing campaign. You might use targeted online marketing or put out bandit signs.
Direct mail marketing is another popular option. In a direct mail campaign, an investor sends a series of letters or postcards to off-market sellers. Companies like List Source and Data Tree let you create and buy lists of people that meet certain criteria. You might look for owners in foreclosure or pre-foreclosure, properties that recently went through probate, or properties owned free and clear without a mortgage.
You can narrow the list down by property features, such as the number of bedrooms and bathrooms, or by county, ZIP code, or city. You can run your own mail campaign by typing or handwriting a series of letters or postcards. You can also hire a third-party company to do it for you. This method of finding potential investments involves the most effort and cost. It can be a great source for finding off-market rental properties, but it may not be the right option for you.
If you're willing to put in the time, effort, and funds required to run a successful mail campaign, this is a quality source of off-market inventory. Figuring out the net cash flow for a rental property is crucial. This is the rental income minus expenses and mortgage payments.
This is especially important if your goal is to have positive cash flow which it almost certainly is. To do this, first determine what you'll be able to collect in rental income. Rentometer is a free tool that lets you analyze the average and median rental rates based on your property's location, size, and property type. If the property already has a tenant in place, confirm that the tenant is paying market rental rates -- there may be potential to increase the rent. Always verify that the comparable rentals are in a similar condition to your property.
If your rental is outdated or lacking amenities compared to other homes in the neighborhood, you may not be able to reach market rent without doing some upgrades or renovations. After determining the market rent for the property, identify the average vacancy rate for your specific market based on the property type you're buying.
Use census data or a real estate data tool to get this information. Sparkrental has a free online rental property ROI calculator that analyzes the investment and provides the total return on investment using cash-on-cash return and cap rate. You can also calculate this on your own using the formulas below. Most rental properties use a cash-on-cash return when determining a return on investment. However, the cap rate is beneficial when investing in a property that has more than one rental unit.
You could also have unexpected problems throughout the venture. It all comes down to your personal investment goals, desired rate of return, and threshold for risk. Analyze each rental property and only move forward with the investment s that meet your requirements. If you can't buy the whole property in cash, you'll need financing. Start the paperwork and underwriting process as soon as possible once you've identified an investment. Not every bank lends to individuals for investment properties -- identify a lender or bank that you can work with before the property is under contract.
Interest rates generally are higher on investment property loans and can vary depending on the type of property you're buying. After closing on the property, you need to choose a tenant. Screening tenants can mean the difference between a quality renter that maintains the property and pays on time or one who's late each month, stops paying altogether, or trashes the property on the way out.
Third-party management companies will handle the tenant screening process for you as a part of their services, as well. If you do this yourself, make sure your screening process is consistent for every tenant. Know what screening questions you want to ask and understand the Fair Housing rules. If you discover a misdemeanor, criminal history, eviction, or another unfavorable result during the screening process, ask questions to find out more.
If the potential tenant doesn't meet your requirements for housing which must be within the guidelines of Fair Housing , you don't have to rent to them. Remember that even the best screening process can still result in a tenant that doesn't uphold the lease.
A lease is the binding agreement between the tenant and landlord that outlines the responsibilities of each party. This often includes:. Leases can be two pages or 20 pages long. While there are dozens of free leases that can be downloaded online, it's best to have a real estate attorney review or prepare the agreement for you.
There are two options when it comes to property management: hiring a third party or doing it yourself. If the goal of the rental property is to create passive income, hiring a property management company will likely be best.
They handle everything involved with managing the rental in exchange for monthly payments. Each management company has a different structure for their fees and services, which could be a flat rate or a percentage of the gross rents. Interview the management company before hiring them. Ask for referrals from other clients, visit other properties they manage, and look for online reviews to ensure they deliver on what they promise.
If you do decide to manage the property yourself, consider using a free online rental service such as Cozy or Avail , which let you:. One of the last active roles that go into managing a rental property is handling repairs and maintenance. Before the tenant moves in, ensure the property is in good working order.
Check out:. It may be worthwhile to provide your tenant with reminders or even supplies for routine maintenance such as changing the air filter. Many landlords create a list of local service professionals such as handymen, plumbers, electricians, and contractors.
If an unexpected repair arises, the landlord knows exactly who to call to solve the problem quickly. Before the tenant moves in, do a walkthrough of the property. Take time-stamped pictures of each room and note the condition of the property in an inspection report. The tenant and landlord should sign this agreement upon move-in and move-out. This agreement shows the tenant your expectations for the rental's condition upon move out and lets you refer to the initial condition if there are disparities.
Upon move-out, use this same checklist to reassess conditions and determine the portion of the tenant's deposit they get back. This is important for all rental property types but is especially important for vacation rentals. Supply and demand determine the success or failure of your rental property. Research the supply and demand in your area. Find a real-time average vacancy rate for your property type. These will tell you if it's a viable place to invest.
You can find vacancy rates in census data, and local agents and property managers can give you up-to-date insights on vacancies. Beginner investors often get excited at the prospect of owning a rental property and overestimate the net rent. If your calculations look good with this number, a market rent will be even better. Doing this leaves flexibility in your rental price in the event of market shifts or if there's more supply than demand for your rental type in that area.
Before buying a rental, confirm your estimated expenses. Research the annual tax rate, get a quote for rental property insurance , and look at historical utility bills. Even if you save money for unexpected repairs and routine maintenance, you may not have enough saved when a major item needs to be replaced. Keep a few thousand dollars in a savings account as a contingency. This ensures you have additional cash in the event of a costly emergency repair. Eviction isn't fun. However, there's always the risk that the tenant stops paying, forcing you to evict.
Often, beginner landlords give the tenant multiple chances and, before they know it, several months have passed with no rent. They still end up evicting. If the lease says you'll give a day notice after a set number of days of no payment, follow through with your lease agreement. Investing in rental property can be lucrative. But you need to do your due diligence on properties, markets, and tenants.
Simply click here to learn more and access your complimentary copy. Advertiser Disclosure We do receive compensation from some affiliate partners whose offers appear here. Millionacres-logo Created with Sketch. Millionacres Real Estate Investing. Rental Property Investing Basics Want to start investing in rental property but not sure where to start?
What is a rental property? Residential rental properties are one- to four-family homes, which include: single-family homes, duplexes, triplexes, and quadplexes. Types of commercial rental properties include: multifamily apartment complexes , industrial such as a warehouse or self-storage , office space, retail space, and multi-use. Let's take a look at the seven steps you'll need to take to invest in rental property: 1.
Determine where you want to invest Beginning real estate investors often want to purchase rental properties in their backyard. If you're not going to invest in your backyard, take a high-level view at other markets, looking for areas that meet these criteria: The demand for rental properties is high -- housing supply and vacancy rates are low.
Job growth is stable or growing. Economic expansion, job growth, and population growth are good indicators. The average rental income supports the purchase price of the rental property and aligns with the funds you have available to invest. Mashvisor is a partially free website for assessing vacation rental prices, the current supply, and the viability of a potential investment.