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Makuria investments for dummies

The Christian Nubian society was matrilineal [] and women enjoyed a high social standing. Women had access to education [] and there is evidence that, like in Byzantine Egypt, female scribes existed. Transfers of land from mother to daughter were common. Latrines were a common sight in Nubian domestic buildings. One house in Dongola featured a vaulted bathroom, fed by a system of pipes attached to a water tank.

Makuria was a monarchy ruled by a king based in Dongola. The king was also considered a priest and could perform mass. How succession was decided is not clear. Early writers indicate it was from father to son. After the 11th century, however, it seems clear that Makuria was using the uncle-to-sister's-son system favoured for millennia in Kush. Shinnie speculates that the later form may have actually been used throughout, and that the early Arab writers merely misunderstood the situation and incorrectly described Makurian succession as similar to what they were used to.

Little is known about government below the king. A wide array of officials, generally using Byzantine titles, are mentioned, but their roles are never explained. One figure who is well-known, thanks to the documents found at Qasr Ibrim , is the Eparch of Nobatia , who seems to have been the viceroy in that region after it was annexed to Makuria. The Eparch's records make clear that he was also responsible for trade and diplomacy with the Egyptians.

Early records make it seem like the Eparch was appointed by the king, but later ones indicate that the position had become hereditary. The bishops might have played a role in the governance of the state.

Ibn Selim el-Aswani noted that before the king responded to his mission he met with a council of bishops. One of the most debated issues among scholars is over the religion of Makuria. Up to the 5th century the old faith of Meroe seems to have remained strong, even while ancient Egyptian religion , its counterpart in Egypt, disappeared. In the 5th century the Nubians went so far as to launch an invasion of Egypt when the Christians there tried to turn some of the main temples into churches.

Archaeological evidence in this period finds a number of Christian ornaments in Nubia, and some scholars feel that this implies that conversion from below was already taking place. Others argue that it is more likely that these reflected the faith of the manufacturers in Egypt rather than the buyers in Nubia. Certain conversion came with a series of 6th-century missions.

The Byzantine Empire dispatched an official party to try to convert the kingdoms to Chalcedonian Christianity, but Empress Theodora reportedly conspired to delay the party to allow a group of Miaphysites to arrive first. John of Biclarum states that Makuria then embraced the rival Byzantine Christianity. Archaeological evidence seems to point to a rapid conversion brought about by an official adoption of the new faith.

Millennia-old traditions such as the building of elaborate tombs, and the burying of expensive grave goods with the dead were abandoned, and temples throughout the region seem to have been converted to churches. Churches eventually were built in virtually every town and village. After this point the exact course of Makurian Christianity is much disputed. It is clear that by ca. This same period saw Melkite Makuria absorb the Coptic Nobatia, and historians have long wondered why the conquering state adopted the religion of its rival.

It is fairly clear that Egyptian Coptic influence was far stronger in the region, and that Byzantine power was fading, and this might have played a role. The bishops were appointed by the Patriarch, not the king, though they seem to have largely been local Nubians rather than Egyptians. Unlike in Egypt, there is not much evidence for monasticism in Makuria. According to Adams there are only three archaeological sites that are certainly monastic. All three are fairly small and quite Coptic, leading to the possibility that they were set up by Egyptian refugees rather than indigenous Makurians.

The Baqt guaranteed the security of Muslims travelling in Makuria, [] but prohibited their settlement in the kingdom. The latter point was, however, not maintained: [] Muslim migrants, probably merchants and artisans, [] are confirmed to have settled in Lower Nubia from the 9th century and to have intermarried with the locals, thus laying the foundation for a small Muslim population [] as far south as the Batn el-Hajar. In Dongola, there was no larger number of Muslims until the end of the 13th century.

Before that date, Muslim residents were limited to merchants and diplomats. The main economic activity in Makuria was agriculture, with farmers growing several crops a year of barley , millet , and dates. The methods used were generally the same that had been used for millennia. Small plots of well irrigated land were lined along the banks of the Nile, which would be fertilized by the river's annual flooding.

One important technological advance was the saqiya , an oxen -powered water wheel , that was introduced in the Roman period and helped increase yields and population density. The peasants lived in small villages composed of clustered houses of sun-dried brick. Important industries included the production of pottery , based at Faras , and weaving based at Dongola.

Smaller local industries include leatherworking , metalworking, and the widespread production of baskets , mats , and sandals from palm fibre. Cattle was of great economic importance. Perhaps their breeding and marketing was controlled by the central administration. A great assemblage of 13th century cattle bones from Old Dongola has been linked with a mass slaughter by the invading Mamluks, who attempted to weaken the Makurian economy. Makurian trade was largely by barter as the state never adopted a currency.

In the north, however, Egyptian coins were common. From Egypt a wide array of luxury and manufactured goods were imported. The main Makurian export was slaves. The slaves sent north were not from Makuria itself, but rather from further south and west in Africa. Little is known about Makurian trade and relations with other parts of Africa. There is some archaeological evidence of contacts and trade with the areas to the west, especially Kordofan. Additionally, contacts to Darfur and Kanem-Bornu seem probable, but there are only few evidences.

There seem to have been important political relations between Makuria and Christian Ethiopia to the south-east. For instance, in the 10th century, Georgios II successfully intervened on behalf of the unnamed ruler at that time, and persuaded Patriarch Philotheos of Alexandria to at last ordain an abuna , or metropolitan , for the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. However, there is little evidence of much other interaction between the two Christian states.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Former country. The kingdom of Makuria at its maximum territorial extent around Apostle Saints Peter and John 8th-first half of the 10th century. Theophany and bishop, Abdallah Nirqi late 10th-early 11th century. Old Nubian manuscript from Serra East showing some richly robed individual. Main article: List of rulers of Makuria. The matrilinear Nubian succession demanded that only the son of the king's sister could be the next king, hence making Zakharias an illegitimate king in contrast to his son Georgios.

Historical Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval Nubia. Scarecrow Press. Adams, William Y. Nubia: Corridor to Africa. Princeton: Princeton University. Davies ed. Egypt and Africa: Nubia from Prehistory to Islam. London: British Museum Press. In Gawdat Gabra; Hany N. Takla eds. Christianity and Monasticism in Aswan and Nubia. Saint Mark Foundation. The Prester John of the Indies. Cambridge: Hakluyt Society. In Walsh, Michael J. Famagusta Maritima. Mariners, Merchants, Pilgrims and Mercenaries.

A Guide to the Postclassical World. Harvard University Press. A History of Sub-Saharan Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In Walter Raunig ed. Geschichte, Architektur, Kunst in German. Schnell und Steiner. Tomb and Temple. Re-Imagining the Sacred Buildings of Jerusalem. Gdansk African Reports. London: British Museum. Africana Bulletin. Socio-political change in the kingdom of Makuria in the second half of the 11th century" PDF. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean. Dongola-ancient Tungul.

Archaeological guide PDF. The struggle for power and survival". In Angelika Lohwasser; Pawel Wolf eds. Ein Forscherleben zwischen den Welten. Zum Geburtstag von Steffen Wenig. Jahrhunderts" PDF. In Sophia G. Vashalomidze, Lutz Greisiger ed. Der christliche Orient und seine Umwelt.

The Arabs and the Sudan. From the seventh to the early sixteenth century. Edinburgh University Press. Die Jallaba und die Nuba Nordkordofans. Pharos Journal of Theology : 1— A History of the Sudan. Pearson Education. Volume III. University of California. Qasr Ibrim, between Egypt and Africa. Volume IV. Saladin in Egypt. Nubian Voices. Studies in Christian Nubian Culture. Dotawo: A Journal of Nubian Studies. The Journal of Juristic Papyrology in German. XXXIX : 83— The Ancient Churches of Tigrai.

Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations. In Feder, Frank; Lohwasser, Angelika eds. Akten der Tagung vom 7. Studia Ceranea. Northwestern University. The Monasteries and Monks of Nubia. The Taubenschlag Foundation. Conservation and revitalization project" PDF. In Adam Lajtar, Jacques van der Vliet ed. Journal of Juristic Papyrology. Kingdoms of Sudan. Methuen Young Books. Dongola Fieldwork, conservation and site management. Part One.

Archived from the original on Medieval Nubia. A Social and Economic History. Oxford University. Hagen eds. Afriques in French. Table Ronde. The Evidence of Maps 12thth cent. Peeters Pub. Zych eds. Aegyptus et Nubia Christiana.

Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology. In Yusuf Fadl Hasan ed. Sudan in Africa. Khartoum University. Ancient Nubia. London: Kegan Paul. Fage ed. The Cambridge History of Africa. Volume 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University. Journal of African History. VI, 3. In Benjamin Weber ed. Croisades en Africa. In Walter Raunig; Steffen Wenig eds.

Afrikas Horn. International Journal of African Historical Studies. The Excavations at Faras. Be realistic about expected returns. Over the long term, 9 to 10 percent per year is about right for ownership investments such as stocks and real estate. If you run a small business, you can earn higher returns and even become a multimillionaire, but years of hard work and insight are required.

Think long term. Because ownership investments are riskier more volatile , you must keep a long-term perspective when investing in them. Match the time frame to the investment. Selecting good investments for yourself involves matching the time frame you have to the riskiness of the investment. For example, for money that you expect to use within the next year, focus on safe investments, such as money market funds.

Invest your longer-term money mostly in wealth-building investments. Diversification is a powerful investment concept that helps you to reduce the risk of holding more aggressive investments. For example, if you invest in stocks, invest worldwide, not just in the U. You can further diversify by investing in real estate. Look at the big picture first. Understand your overall financial situation and how wise investments fit within it.

Before you invest, examine your debt obligations, tax situation, ability to fund retirement accounts, and insurance coverage. Ignore the minutiae. Allocate your assets. How you divvy up or allocate your money among major investments greatly determines your returns.

The younger you are and the more money you earmark for the long term, the greater the percentage you should devote to ownership investments. Do your homework before you invest. You work hard for your money, and buying and selling investments costs you money.

Keep an eye on taxes. Take advantage of tax-deductible retirement accounts and understand the impact of your tax bracket when investing outside tax-sheltered retirement accounts. Consider the value of your time and your investing skills and desires. Investing in stocks and other securities via the best mutual funds and exchange-traded funds is both time-efficient and profitable. Real estate investing and running a small business are the most time-intensive investments.

Where possible, minimize fees.

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However, some funds have used the sell-off as an opportunity to increase exposure. Accessibility help Skip to navigation Skip to content Skip to footer Cookies on FT Sites We use cookies opens in new window for a number of reasons, such as keeping FT Sites reliable and secure, personalising content and ads, providing social media features and to analyse how our Sites are used. Manage cookies. Hedge funds. Laurence Fletcher in London September 18, Reuse this content opens in new window.

Promoted Content. Close drawer menu Financial Times International Edition. Search the FT Search. World Show more World. US Show more US. Companies Show more Companies. Some of the more important Makurian sites looked at were the city of Faras and its cathedral, excavated by a team from Poland; the British work at Qasr Ibrim ; and the University of Ghana 's work at the town of Debeira West, which gave important information on daily life in medieval Nubia.

All of these sites are in what was Nobatia; the only major archaeological site in Makuria itself is the partial exploration of the capital at Old Dongola. By the early 4th century, if not before, the Kingdom of Kush with its capital Meroe was collapsing. Here, a homogenous and relatively isolated culture dubbed as "pre-Makuria" developed. Already at the time of the foundation of Dongola contacts were maintained with the Byzantine Empire. The Nubians were part of his plan to win allies against the Sasanian Persians by converting them to Christianity, the Byzantine state religion.

The imperial court, however, was divided in two sects, believing in two different natures of Jesus Christ : Justinian belonged to the Chalcedonians , the official denomination of the empire , while his wife Theodora was a Miaphysite , who were the strongest in Egypt. John of Ephesus described how two competing missions were sent to Nubia, with the Miaphysite arriving first in, and converting, the northern kingdom of Nobatia in While the Nobatian king refused Justinian's mission to travel further south [22] archaeological records might suggest that Makuria converted still in the first half of the 6th century.

In a Makurian delegation arrived in Constantinople, offering ivory and a giraffe and declaring its good relationship with the Byzantines. Unlike Nobatia in the north with which Makuria seemed to have been in enmity [24] and Alodia in the south Makuria embraced the Chalcedonian doctrine. In the 7th century, Makuria annexed its northern neighbour Nobatia. While there are several contradicting theories, [a] it seems likely that this occurred soon after the Sasanian occupation of Egypt, [28] presumably during the s, [29] but before Between and the Muslim Arabs overran Byzantine Egypt.

A Byzantine request for help remained unanswered by the Nubians due to conflicts with the Beja. In or the Arabs sent a first expedition into Makuria. While they damaged parts of the town they could not penetrate the walls of the citadel. The 8th century was a period of consolidation. Within a few years there were three different kings [52] and several Muslim raids [49] until before , the throne was seized by Kyriakos.

The kingdom was at its peak between the 9th and 11th centuries. Upon Ioannes' death in an Abbasid emissary arrived, demanding the Makurian payment of the missing 14 annual payments and threatening with war if the demands are not met.

He was accompanied by a bishop, horsemen and slaves, and to his left and right were young men wielding crosses. After his return a new church was built in Dongola, the Cruciform Church, which had an approximate height of 28m and came to be the largest building in the entire kingdom. As a result, they had to submit to the Caliph, thus expanding nominal Muslim authority over much of the Sudanese Eastern Desert.

Discontented and dispossessed, they pushed southwards. The road into Nubia was, however, blocked by Makuria: while there existed communities of Arab settlers in Lower Nubia the great mass of the Arab nomads was forced to settle among the Beja, [73] driven also by the motivation to exploit the local gold mines. After a confrontation between both parties, al-Umari occupied Makurian territories along the Nile.

King Georgios then sent his oldest son, presumably the later Georgios II , but he was abandoned by his army and was forced to flee to Alodia. The Makurian king then sent another son, Zacharias, who worked together with al-Umari to kill Nyuti before eventually defeating al-Umari himself and pushing him into the desert. During the rule of the Ikhshidid dynasty, relations between Makuria and Egypt worsened: in a Makurian army marched against Egypt's Kharga Oasis , killing and enslaving many people.

A new Makurian attack on Aswan followed immediately, which was answered by another Egyptian retaliation, this time capturing Qasr Ibrim. Afterward, he granted al-Aswani to celebrate Eid al-Adha outside of Dongola with drums and trumpets, though not without the discontent of some of his subjects. The kingdom of Makuria was, at least temporarily, exercising influence over the Nubian-speaking populations of Kordofan , the region between the Nile Valley and Darfur , as is suggested by an account of the 10th century traveller Ibn Hawqal as well as oral traditions.

During the second half of the 11th century, Makuria saw great cultural and religious reforms, referred to as "Nubization". The main initiator has been suggested to have been Georgios, the archbishop of Dongola and hence the head of the Makurian church. A new, unique church was built in Banganarti , probably becoming one of the most important ones in the entire kingdom.

In Saladin overthrew the Fatimid dynasty, which signaled new hostilities between Egypt and Nubia. It is not clear if this campaign was intended to aid the Fatimids or was merely a raid [83] exploiting the unstable situation in Egypt, [] although the latter seems more likely, as the Makurians apparently soon withdrew.

The latter conquered Qasr Ibrim in January , [] reportedly sacking it, taking many prisoners, pillaging the church and converting it into a mosque. Archaeological evidence links them with the destruction of the cathedral of Faras, [] Abdallah Nirqi [] and Debeira West. Before battle, however, the Kurdish commander drowned while crossing the Nile, resulting in the retreat of Saladin's troops out of Nubia.

There are no records from travelers to Makuria from to , [] and the events of this period have long been a mystery, although modern discoveries have shed some light on this era. During this period Makuria seems to have entered a steep decline. The best source on this is Ibn Khaldun , writing in the 14th century, who blamed it on Bedouin invasions similar to what the Mamluks were dealing with. Other factors for the decline of Nubia might have been the change of African trade routes [] and a severe dry period between and Matters would change with the rise of the Mamluks and Sultan Baybars in David fled upstream the Nile, eventually entering al-Abwab in the south, [] which, previously being Alodia's northernmost province, had by this period apparently become a kingdom of its own.

Thanks to the crusades , [] western Europe grew increasingly aware of the existence of Christian Nubia during the 12th and 13th centuries until in the early 14th century, there were even proposals to ally with the Nubians for another crusade against the Mamluks. Internal difficulties seem to have also hurt the kingdom.

King David's cousin Shekanda claimed the throne and traveled to Cairo to seek the support of the Mamelukes. They agreed and took over Nubia in , and placed Shekanda on the throne. The Christian Shekanda then signed an agreement making Makuria a vassal of Egypt, and a Mamluke garrison was stationed in Dongola.

A few years later, Shamamun, another member of the Makurian royal family, led a rebellion against Shekanda to restore Makurian independence. He eventually defeated the Mamluk garrison and took the throne in after separating from Egypt and betraying the peace deal. He offered the Egyptians an increase in the annual Baqt payments in return for scrapping the obligations to which Shekanda had agreed.

The Mamluke armies were occupied elsewhere, and the Sultan of Egypt agreed to this new arrangement. After a period of peace, King Karanbas defaulted on these payments, and the Mamluks again occupied the kingdom in This time, a Muslim member of the Makurian dynasty was placed on the throne. Sayf al-Din Abdullah Barshambu began converting the nation to Islam and in the throne hall of Dongola was turned into a mosque. This was not accepted by other Makurian leaders and the nation fell into civil war and anarchy that very year.

Barshambu was eventually killed and succeeded by Kanz ad-Dawla. While ruling, his tribe, the Banu Khanz, acted a puppet dynasty of the Mamluks. He retreated to Aswan for another chance to seize the throne, but it never came. The ascension of the Muslim king Abdallah Barshambu and his transformation of the throne hall into a mosque has often been interpreted as the end of Christian Makuria.

This is conclusion is erroneous, since Christianity evidently remained vital in Nubia. Both the traveller Ibn Battuta and the Egyptian historian Shihab al-Umari claim that the contemporary Makurian kings were Muslims belonging to the Banu Khanz, while the general population remained Christian. Al-Umari also points out that Makuria was still dependent on the Mamluk Sultan. It was also in the mid 14th century, more particular after , when Nubia would have been devastated by the plague.

Archaeology confirms a rapid decline of the Christian Nubian civilization since then. Due to the in general rather small population the plague might have cleansed entire landscapes from its Nubian inhabitants. In , there occurred yet another short, but disastrous civil war. The current king was killed in battle by his rebelling nephew, who had allied himself with the Banu Ja'd tribe.

The brother of the murdered king and his retinue fled to a town called Daw in the Arabic sources, most likely identical with Addo in Lower Nubia. Thus Dongola was left to the Banu Ja'd and Addo became the new capital. Both the usurper and the rightful heir, and most likely even the king that was killed during the usurpation, were Christian.

Until recently it was commonly assumed that Dotawo was, before the Makurian court shifted its seat to Addo, just a vasal kingdom of Makuria, but it is now accepted that it was merely the Old Nubian self-designation for Makuria. The last known king is Joel , who is mentioned in a document and in an inscription from Perhaps it was under Joel when the kingdom witnessed a last, brief renaissance.

By the early 15th century, there is mention of a king of Dongola, most likely independent from the influence of the Egyptian sultans. Friday prayers held in Dongola failed to mention them as well. It is possible that some petty kingdoms that continued the Christian Nubian culture developed in the former Makurian territory, like for example on Mograt island, north of Abu Hamed. Its organization and rituals bore clear similarities to those of Christian times. The Nubians upstream of Al Dabbah started to assume an Arabic identity and the Arabic language, eventually becoming the Ja'alin , claimed descendants of Abbas , uncle of Muhammad.

Some count the Danagla to the Ja'alin, since the Danagla also claim to belong to that Arab tribe, but they in fact still speak a Nubian language, Dongolawi. Historical and linguistic evidence confirms that the locals were predominantly Nubian-speaking until the 19th century, with a language closely related to the Nile-Nubian dialects.

Today, the Nubian language is in the process of being replaced by Arabic. Christian Nubia was long considered something of a backwater, mainly because its graves were small and lacking the grave goods of previous eras. By the eight century Nobiin had been codified based on the Coptic alphabet, [] but it was not until the 11th century when Nobiin had established itself as language of administrative, economic and religious documents.

Coptic refugees escaping Islamic persecution settled in Makuria, while Nubian priests and bishops would have studied in Egyptian monasteries. Furthermore, Arab traders and settlers were present in northern Nubia, [] although the spoken language of the latter appears to have gradually shifted from Arabic to Nubian.

As of , around murals distributed over 25 sites have been recorded, [] with more paintings still awaiting publication. This large building had been completely filled with sand preserving a series of magnificent paintings. Similar, but less well preserved, paintings have been found at several other sites in Makuria, including palaces and private homes, giving an overall impression of Makurian art.

The style and content was heavily influenced by Byzantine art , and also showed influence from Egyptian Coptic art and from Palestine. Also illustrated are a number of Makurian kings and bishops, with noticeably darker skin than the Biblical figures. Saint Peter inserted into a Pharaonic painting, Wadi es-Sebua late 7th-early 8th century.

Archangel Gabriel with sword, Faras 9th-first quarter of the 10th century. Three youths in the furnace , Faras last quarter of the 10th century. Nubian pottery in this period is also notable. Shinnie refers to it as the "richest indigenous pottery tradition on the African continent. It also saw much of Nubian pottery imported from Egypt rather than produced domestically.

Adams feels this trade ended with the invasion of ; Shinnie links it to the collapse of Umayyad rule in After this domestic production increased, with a major production facility at Faras. In this middle era, which lasted until around , the pottery was painted with floral and zoomorphic scenes and showed distinct Umayyad and even Sassanian influences.

Pottery produced in Makuria became less ornate, but better control of firing temperatures allowed different colours of clay. The Christian Nubian society was matrilineal [] and women enjoyed a high social standing. Women had access to education [] and there is evidence that, like in Byzantine Egypt, female scribes existed.

Transfers of land from mother to daughter were common. Latrines were a common sight in Nubian domestic buildings. One house in Dongola featured a vaulted bathroom, fed by a system of pipes attached to a water tank. Makuria was a monarchy ruled by a king based in Dongola. The king was also considered a priest and could perform mass.

How succession was decided is not clear. Early writers indicate it was from father to son. After the 11th century, however, it seems clear that Makuria was using the uncle-to-sister's-son system favoured for millennia in Kush.

Shinnie speculates that the later form may have actually been used throughout, and that the early Arab writers merely misunderstood the situation and incorrectly described Makurian succession as similar to what they were used to. Little is known about government below the king.

A wide array of officials, generally using Byzantine titles, are mentioned, but their roles are never explained. One figure who is well-known, thanks to the documents found at Qasr Ibrim , is the Eparch of Nobatia , who seems to have been the viceroy in that region after it was annexed to Makuria. The Eparch's records make clear that he was also responsible for trade and diplomacy with the Egyptians.

Early records make it seem like the Eparch was appointed by the king, but later ones indicate that the position had become hereditary. The bishops might have played a role in the governance of the state. Ibn Selim el-Aswani noted that before the king responded to his mission he met with a council of bishops.

One of the most debated issues among scholars is over the religion of Makuria. Up to the 5th century the old faith of Meroe seems to have remained strong, even while ancient Egyptian religion , its counterpart in Egypt, disappeared. In the 5th century the Nubians went so far as to launch an invasion of Egypt when the Christians there tried to turn some of the main temples into churches.

Archaeological evidence in this period finds a number of Christian ornaments in Nubia, and some scholars feel that this implies that conversion from below was already taking place. Others argue that it is more likely that these reflected the faith of the manufacturers in Egypt rather than the buyers in Nubia. Certain conversion came with a series of 6th-century missions. The Byzantine Empire dispatched an official party to try to convert the kingdoms to Chalcedonian Christianity, but Empress Theodora reportedly conspired to delay the party to allow a group of Miaphysites to arrive first.

John of Biclarum states that Makuria then embraced the rival Byzantine Christianity. Archaeological evidence seems to point to a rapid conversion brought about by an official adoption of the new faith. Millennia-old traditions such as the building of elaborate tombs, and the burying of expensive grave goods with the dead were abandoned, and temples throughout the region seem to have been converted to churches.

Churches eventually were built in virtually every town and village. After this point the exact course of Makurian Christianity is much disputed. It is clear that by ca. This same period saw Melkite Makuria absorb the Coptic Nobatia, and historians have long wondered why the conquering state adopted the religion of its rival. It is fairly clear that Egyptian Coptic influence was far stronger in the region, and that Byzantine power was fading, and this might have played a role.

The bishops were appointed by the Patriarch, not the king, though they seem to have largely been local Nubians rather than Egyptians. Unlike in Egypt, there is not much evidence for monasticism in Makuria. According to Adams there are only three archaeological sites that are certainly monastic. All three are fairly small and quite Coptic, leading to the possibility that they were set up by Egyptian refugees rather than indigenous Makurians.

The Baqt guaranteed the security of Muslims travelling in Makuria, [] but prohibited their settlement in the kingdom. The latter point was, however, not maintained: [] Muslim migrants, probably merchants and artisans, [] are confirmed to have settled in Lower Nubia from the 9th century and to have intermarried with the locals, thus laying the foundation for a small Muslim population [] as far south as the Batn el-Hajar.

In Dongola, there was no larger number of Muslims until the end of the 13th century. Before that date, Muslim residents were limited to merchants and diplomats. The main economic activity in Makuria was agriculture, with farmers growing several crops a year of barley , millet , and dates. The methods used were generally the same that had been used for millennia. Small plots of well irrigated land were lined along the banks of the Nile, which would be fertilized by the river's annual flooding.

One important technological advance was the saqiya , an oxen -powered water wheel , that was introduced in the Roman period and helped increase yields and population density. The peasants lived in small villages composed of clustered houses of sun-dried brick. Important industries included the production of pottery , based at Faras , and weaving based at Dongola.

Smaller local industries include leatherworking , metalworking, and the widespread production of baskets , mats , and sandals from palm fibre. Cattle was of great economic importance. Perhaps their breeding and marketing was controlled by the central administration. A great assemblage of 13th century cattle bones from Old Dongola has been linked with a mass slaughter by the invading Mamluks, who attempted to weaken the Makurian economy. Makurian trade was largely by barter as the state never adopted a currency.

In the north, however, Egyptian coins were common. From Egypt a wide array of luxury and manufactured goods were imported. The main Makurian export was slaves. The slaves sent north were not from Makuria itself, but rather from further south and west in Africa. Little is known about Makurian trade and relations with other parts of Africa. There is some archaeological evidence of contacts and trade with the areas to the west, especially Kordofan. Additionally, contacts to Darfur and Kanem-Bornu seem probable, but there are only few evidences.

There seem to have been important political relations between Makuria and Christian Ethiopia to the south-east. For instance, in the 10th century, Georgios II successfully intervened on behalf of the unnamed ruler at that time, and persuaded Patriarch Philotheos of Alexandria to at last ordain an abuna , or metropolitan , for the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.

However, there is little evidence of much other interaction between the two Christian states. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Former country. The kingdom of Makuria at its maximum territorial extent around Apostle Saints Peter and John 8th-first half of the 10th century. Theophany and bishop, Abdallah Nirqi late 10th-early 11th century. Old Nubian manuscript from Serra East showing some richly robed individual. Main article: List of rulers of Makuria.

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Due to the in general rather small population the plague might have cleansed entire landscapes from its Nubian inhabitants. In , there occurred yet another short, but disastrous civil war. The current king was killed in battle by his rebelling nephew, who had allied himself with the Banu Ja'd tribe.

The brother of the murdered king and his retinue fled to a town called Daw in the Arabic sources, most likely identical with Addo in Lower Nubia. Thus Dongola was left to the Banu Ja'd and Addo became the new capital. Both the usurper and the rightful heir, and most likely even the king that was killed during the usurpation, were Christian. Until recently it was commonly assumed that Dotawo was, before the Makurian court shifted its seat to Addo, just a vasal kingdom of Makuria, but it is now accepted that it was merely the Old Nubian self-designation for Makuria.

The last known king is Joel , who is mentioned in a document and in an inscription from Perhaps it was under Joel when the kingdom witnessed a last, brief renaissance. By the early 15th century, there is mention of a king of Dongola, most likely independent from the influence of the Egyptian sultans.

Friday prayers held in Dongola failed to mention them as well. It is possible that some petty kingdoms that continued the Christian Nubian culture developed in the former Makurian territory, like for example on Mograt island, north of Abu Hamed. Its organization and rituals bore clear similarities to those of Christian times.

The Nubians upstream of Al Dabbah started to assume an Arabic identity and the Arabic language, eventually becoming the Ja'alin , claimed descendants of Abbas , uncle of Muhammad. Some count the Danagla to the Ja'alin, since the Danagla also claim to belong to that Arab tribe, but they in fact still speak a Nubian language, Dongolawi. Historical and linguistic evidence confirms that the locals were predominantly Nubian-speaking until the 19th century, with a language closely related to the Nile-Nubian dialects.

Today, the Nubian language is in the process of being replaced by Arabic. Christian Nubia was long considered something of a backwater, mainly because its graves were small and lacking the grave goods of previous eras. By the eight century Nobiin had been codified based on the Coptic alphabet, [] but it was not until the 11th century when Nobiin had established itself as language of administrative, economic and religious documents.

Coptic refugees escaping Islamic persecution settled in Makuria, while Nubian priests and bishops would have studied in Egyptian monasteries. Furthermore, Arab traders and settlers were present in northern Nubia, [] although the spoken language of the latter appears to have gradually shifted from Arabic to Nubian.

As of , around murals distributed over 25 sites have been recorded, [] with more paintings still awaiting publication. This large building had been completely filled with sand preserving a series of magnificent paintings. Similar, but less well preserved, paintings have been found at several other sites in Makuria, including palaces and private homes, giving an overall impression of Makurian art.

The style and content was heavily influenced by Byzantine art , and also showed influence from Egyptian Coptic art and from Palestine. Also illustrated are a number of Makurian kings and bishops, with noticeably darker skin than the Biblical figures. Saint Peter inserted into a Pharaonic painting, Wadi es-Sebua late 7th-early 8th century. Archangel Gabriel with sword, Faras 9th-first quarter of the 10th century.

Three youths in the furnace , Faras last quarter of the 10th century. Nubian pottery in this period is also notable. Shinnie refers to it as the "richest indigenous pottery tradition on the African continent. It also saw much of Nubian pottery imported from Egypt rather than produced domestically.

Adams feels this trade ended with the invasion of ; Shinnie links it to the collapse of Umayyad rule in After this domestic production increased, with a major production facility at Faras. In this middle era, which lasted until around , the pottery was painted with floral and zoomorphic scenes and showed distinct Umayyad and even Sassanian influences.

Pottery produced in Makuria became less ornate, but better control of firing temperatures allowed different colours of clay. The Christian Nubian society was matrilineal [] and women enjoyed a high social standing. Women had access to education [] and there is evidence that, like in Byzantine Egypt, female scribes existed. Transfers of land from mother to daughter were common. Latrines were a common sight in Nubian domestic buildings.

One house in Dongola featured a vaulted bathroom, fed by a system of pipes attached to a water tank. Makuria was a monarchy ruled by a king based in Dongola. The king was also considered a priest and could perform mass. How succession was decided is not clear. Early writers indicate it was from father to son. After the 11th century, however, it seems clear that Makuria was using the uncle-to-sister's-son system favoured for millennia in Kush.

Shinnie speculates that the later form may have actually been used throughout, and that the early Arab writers merely misunderstood the situation and incorrectly described Makurian succession as similar to what they were used to. Little is known about government below the king. A wide array of officials, generally using Byzantine titles, are mentioned, but their roles are never explained.

One figure who is well-known, thanks to the documents found at Qasr Ibrim , is the Eparch of Nobatia , who seems to have been the viceroy in that region after it was annexed to Makuria. The Eparch's records make clear that he was also responsible for trade and diplomacy with the Egyptians. Early records make it seem like the Eparch was appointed by the king, but later ones indicate that the position had become hereditary.

The bishops might have played a role in the governance of the state. Ibn Selim el-Aswani noted that before the king responded to his mission he met with a council of bishops. One of the most debated issues among scholars is over the religion of Makuria. Up to the 5th century the old faith of Meroe seems to have remained strong, even while ancient Egyptian religion , its counterpart in Egypt, disappeared. In the 5th century the Nubians went so far as to launch an invasion of Egypt when the Christians there tried to turn some of the main temples into churches.

Archaeological evidence in this period finds a number of Christian ornaments in Nubia, and some scholars feel that this implies that conversion from below was already taking place. Others argue that it is more likely that these reflected the faith of the manufacturers in Egypt rather than the buyers in Nubia.

Certain conversion came with a series of 6th-century missions. The Byzantine Empire dispatched an official party to try to convert the kingdoms to Chalcedonian Christianity, but Empress Theodora reportedly conspired to delay the party to allow a group of Miaphysites to arrive first. John of Biclarum states that Makuria then embraced the rival Byzantine Christianity. Archaeological evidence seems to point to a rapid conversion brought about by an official adoption of the new faith.

Millennia-old traditions such as the building of elaborate tombs, and the burying of expensive grave goods with the dead were abandoned, and temples throughout the region seem to have been converted to churches. Churches eventually were built in virtually every town and village. After this point the exact course of Makurian Christianity is much disputed. It is clear that by ca.

This same period saw Melkite Makuria absorb the Coptic Nobatia, and historians have long wondered why the conquering state adopted the religion of its rival. It is fairly clear that Egyptian Coptic influence was far stronger in the region, and that Byzantine power was fading, and this might have played a role. The bishops were appointed by the Patriarch, not the king, though they seem to have largely been local Nubians rather than Egyptians.

Unlike in Egypt, there is not much evidence for monasticism in Makuria. According to Adams there are only three archaeological sites that are certainly monastic. All three are fairly small and quite Coptic, leading to the possibility that they were set up by Egyptian refugees rather than indigenous Makurians.

The Baqt guaranteed the security of Muslims travelling in Makuria, [] but prohibited their settlement in the kingdom. The latter point was, however, not maintained: [] Muslim migrants, probably merchants and artisans, [] are confirmed to have settled in Lower Nubia from the 9th century and to have intermarried with the locals, thus laying the foundation for a small Muslim population [] as far south as the Batn el-Hajar.

In Dongola, there was no larger number of Muslims until the end of the 13th century. Before that date, Muslim residents were limited to merchants and diplomats. The main economic activity in Makuria was agriculture, with farmers growing several crops a year of barley , millet , and dates.

The methods used were generally the same that had been used for millennia. Small plots of well irrigated land were lined along the banks of the Nile, which would be fertilized by the river's annual flooding. One important technological advance was the saqiya , an oxen -powered water wheel , that was introduced in the Roman period and helped increase yields and population density. The peasants lived in small villages composed of clustered houses of sun-dried brick.

Important industries included the production of pottery , based at Faras , and weaving based at Dongola. Smaller local industries include leatherworking , metalworking, and the widespread production of baskets , mats , and sandals from palm fibre. Cattle was of great economic importance. Perhaps their breeding and marketing was controlled by the central administration. A great assemblage of 13th century cattle bones from Old Dongola has been linked with a mass slaughter by the invading Mamluks, who attempted to weaken the Makurian economy.

Makurian trade was largely by barter as the state never adopted a currency. In the north, however, Egyptian coins were common. From Egypt a wide array of luxury and manufactured goods were imported. The main Makurian export was slaves. The slaves sent north were not from Makuria itself, but rather from further south and west in Africa.

Little is known about Makurian trade and relations with other parts of Africa. There is some archaeological evidence of contacts and trade with the areas to the west, especially Kordofan. Additionally, contacts to Darfur and Kanem-Bornu seem probable, but there are only few evidences. There seem to have been important political relations between Makuria and Christian Ethiopia to the south-east. For instance, in the 10th century, Georgios II successfully intervened on behalf of the unnamed ruler at that time, and persuaded Patriarch Philotheos of Alexandria to at last ordain an abuna , or metropolitan , for the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.

However, there is little evidence of much other interaction between the two Christian states. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Former country. The kingdom of Makuria at its maximum territorial extent around Apostle Saints Peter and John 8th-first half of the 10th century. Theophany and bishop, Abdallah Nirqi late 10th-early 11th century. Old Nubian manuscript from Serra East showing some richly robed individual. Main article: List of rulers of Makuria.

The matrilinear Nubian succession demanded that only the son of the king's sister could be the next king, hence making Zakharias an illegitimate king in contrast to his son Georgios. Historical Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval Nubia. Scarecrow Press. Adams, William Y. Nubia: Corridor to Africa.

Princeton: Princeton University. Davies ed. Egypt and Africa: Nubia from Prehistory to Islam. London: British Museum Press. In Gawdat Gabra; Hany N. Takla eds. Christianity and Monasticism in Aswan and Nubia. Saint Mark Foundation. The Prester John of the Indies. Cambridge: Hakluyt Society. In Walsh, Michael J. Famagusta Maritima. Mariners, Merchants, Pilgrims and Mercenaries. A Guide to the Postclassical World.

Harvard University Press. A History of Sub-Saharan Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In Walter Raunig ed. Geschichte, Architektur, Kunst in German. Schnell und Steiner. Tomb and Temple. Re-Imagining the Sacred Buildings of Jerusalem. Gdansk African Reports. London: British Museum. Africana Bulletin. Socio-political change in the kingdom of Makuria in the second half of the 11th century" PDF.

Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean. Dongola-ancient Tungul. Archaeological guide PDF. The struggle for power and survival". In Angelika Lohwasser; Pawel Wolf eds. Ein Forscherleben zwischen den Welten. Zum Geburtstag von Steffen Wenig. Jahrhunderts" PDF. In Sophia G. Vashalomidze, Lutz Greisiger ed.

Der christliche Orient und seine Umwelt. The Arabs and the Sudan. From the seventh to the early sixteenth century. Edinburgh University Press. Die Jallaba und die Nuba Nordkordofans. Pharos Journal of Theology : 1— A History of the Sudan. Pearson Education. Volume III. University of California. Qasr Ibrim, between Egypt and Africa. Volume IV. Saladin in Egypt. Nubian Voices. Studies in Christian Nubian Culture. Dotawo: A Journal of Nubian Studies.

The Journal of Juristic Papyrology in German. XXXIX : 83— The Ancient Churches of Tigrai. Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations. In Feder, Frank; Lohwasser, Angelika eds. Akten der Tagung vom 7. Studia Ceranea. Northwestern University. The Monasteries and Monks of Nubia. The Taubenschlag Foundation. Conservation and revitalization project" PDF. Match the time frame to the investment.

Selecting good investments for yourself involves matching the time frame you have to the riskiness of the investment. For example, for money that you expect to use within the next year, focus on safe investments, such as money market funds. Invest your longer-term money mostly in wealth-building investments. Diversification is a powerful investment concept that helps you to reduce the risk of holding more aggressive investments. For example, if you invest in stocks, invest worldwide, not just in the U.

You can further diversify by investing in real estate. Look at the big picture first. Understand your overall financial situation and how wise investments fit within it. Before you invest, examine your debt obligations, tax situation, ability to fund retirement accounts, and insurance coverage. Ignore the minutiae. Allocate your assets. How you divvy up or allocate your money among major investments greatly determines your returns.

The younger you are and the more money you earmark for the long term, the greater the percentage you should devote to ownership investments. Do your homework before you invest. You work hard for your money, and buying and selling investments costs you money. Keep an eye on taxes. Take advantage of tax-deductible retirement accounts and understand the impact of your tax bracket when investing outside tax-sheltered retirement accounts. Consider the value of your time and your investing skills and desires.

Investing in stocks and other securities via the best mutual funds and exchange-traded funds is both time-efficient and profitable. Real estate investing and running a small business are the most time-intensive investments. Where possible, minimize fees. The more you pay in commissions and management fees on your investments, the greater the drag on your returns. If you have the right skills and interest, your ability to do better than the investing averages is greater with real estate and small business than with stock market investing.

The large number of full-time, experienced stock market professionals makes it next to impossible for you to choose individual stocks that will consistently beat a relevant market average over an extended time period. Even the best investments go through depressed periods, which is the worst possible time to sell. Ignore soothsayers and prognosticators.

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Small plots of well irrigated land were lined along the banks of the Nile, which would be fertilized by the river's annual flooding. One important technological advance was the saqiya , an oxen -powered water wheel , that was introduced in the Roman period and helped increase yields and population density.

The peasants lived in small villages composed of clustered houses of sun-dried brick. Important industries included the production of pottery , based at Faras , and weaving based at Dongola. Smaller local industries include leatherworking , metalworking, and the widespread production of baskets , mats , and sandals from palm fibre.

Cattle was of great economic importance. Perhaps their breeding and marketing was controlled by the central administration. A great assemblage of 13th century cattle bones from Old Dongola has been linked with a mass slaughter by the invading Mamluks, who attempted to weaken the Makurian economy. Makurian trade was largely by barter as the state never adopted a currency. In the north, however, Egyptian coins were common.

From Egypt a wide array of luxury and manufactured goods were imported. The main Makurian export was slaves. The slaves sent north were not from Makuria itself, but rather from further south and west in Africa. Little is known about Makurian trade and relations with other parts of Africa. There is some archaeological evidence of contacts and trade with the areas to the west, especially Kordofan.

Additionally, contacts to Darfur and Kanem-Bornu seem probable, but there are only few evidences. There seem to have been important political relations between Makuria and Christian Ethiopia to the south-east.

For instance, in the 10th century, Georgios II successfully intervened on behalf of the unnamed ruler at that time, and persuaded Patriarch Philotheos of Alexandria to at last ordain an abuna , or metropolitan , for the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. However, there is little evidence of much other interaction between the two Christian states. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Former country. The kingdom of Makuria at its maximum territorial extent around Apostle Saints Peter and John 8th-first half of the 10th century. Theophany and bishop, Abdallah Nirqi late 10th-early 11th century. Old Nubian manuscript from Serra East showing some richly robed individual. Main article: List of rulers of Makuria. The matrilinear Nubian succession demanded that only the son of the king's sister could be the next king, hence making Zakharias an illegitimate king in contrast to his son Georgios.

Historical Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval Nubia. Scarecrow Press. Adams, William Y. Nubia: Corridor to Africa. Princeton: Princeton University. Davies ed. Egypt and Africa: Nubia from Prehistory to Islam. London: British Museum Press. In Gawdat Gabra; Hany N. Takla eds. Christianity and Monasticism in Aswan and Nubia. Saint Mark Foundation. The Prester John of the Indies. Cambridge: Hakluyt Society.

In Walsh, Michael J. Famagusta Maritima. Mariners, Merchants, Pilgrims and Mercenaries. A Guide to the Postclassical World. Harvard University Press. A History of Sub-Saharan Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In Walter Raunig ed.

Geschichte, Architektur, Kunst in German. Schnell und Steiner. Tomb and Temple. Re-Imagining the Sacred Buildings of Jerusalem. Gdansk African Reports. London: British Museum. Africana Bulletin. Socio-political change in the kingdom of Makuria in the second half of the 11th century" PDF. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean. Dongola-ancient Tungul. Archaeological guide PDF. The struggle for power and survival". In Angelika Lohwasser; Pawel Wolf eds.

Ein Forscherleben zwischen den Welten. Zum Geburtstag von Steffen Wenig. Jahrhunderts" PDF. In Sophia G. Vashalomidze, Lutz Greisiger ed. Der christliche Orient und seine Umwelt. The Arabs and the Sudan. From the seventh to the early sixteenth century. Edinburgh University Press.

Die Jallaba und die Nuba Nordkordofans. Pharos Journal of Theology : 1— A History of the Sudan. Pearson Education. Volume III. University of California. Qasr Ibrim, between Egypt and Africa. Volume IV. Saladin in Egypt. Nubian Voices. Studies in Christian Nubian Culture. Dotawo: A Journal of Nubian Studies. The Journal of Juristic Papyrology in German. XXXIX : 83— The Ancient Churches of Tigrai. Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations. In Feder, Frank; Lohwasser, Angelika eds. Akten der Tagung vom 7.

Studia Ceranea. Northwestern University. The Monasteries and Monks of Nubia. The Taubenschlag Foundation. Conservation and revitalization project" PDF. In Adam Lajtar, Jacques van der Vliet ed. Journal of Juristic Papyrology. Kingdoms of Sudan. Methuen Young Books. Dongola Fieldwork, conservation and site management.

Part One. Archived from the original on Medieval Nubia. A Social and Economic History. Oxford University. Hagen eds. Afriques in French. Table Ronde. The Evidence of Maps 12thth cent. Peeters Pub. Zych eds. Aegyptus et Nubia Christiana. Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology. In Yusuf Fadl Hasan ed. Sudan in Africa.

Khartoum University. Ancient Nubia. London: Kegan Paul. Fage ed. The Cambridge History of Africa. Volume 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University. Journal of African History. VI, 3. In Benjamin Weber ed. Croisades en Africa.

In Walter Raunig; Steffen Wenig eds. Afrikas Horn. International Journal of African Historical Studies. The Excavations at Faras. Oriental Sources concerning Nubia. Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften. In Dlugosz, Magdalena ed. Vom Troglodytenland ins Reich der Scheherazade. The Medieval Kingdoms of Nubia. Pagans, Christians and Muslims along the Middle Nile. The British Museum. In Julie R. Anderson; Derek A. Welsby eds. Peeters Publishers. Das Christentum in Nubien. Geschichte und Gestalt einer afrikanischen Kirche.

In Gil J. Stein ed. The Oriental Institute — Annual Report. The Fourth Cataract and Beyond. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference for Nubian Studies. Excavations at Tanqasi: first season in ". Journal of Near Eastern Studies. The Archangel Michael in Africa.

History, Cult and Persona. Bloomsbury Academic. Kings and Pilgrims. Raphael Church II at Banganarti, mid-eleventh to mid-eighteenth century. Eger, Jana University Press of Colorado. In Timothy Kendall ed. Nubian Studies. Northeastern University. Nubian Voices II. Raphael Taubenschlag Foundation. Early Makuria Research Project". L'influence byzantine dans l'art nubien. Rayonnement de Byzance: Le costume royal en Nubie Xe s. The chronology of the eastern chapels in the Upper Church at Banganarti.

Some observations on the genesis of "apse portraits" in Nubian royal iconography. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Dongola until Gebel Adda from It also projects a best and worst case scenario for your money so you can count on your money being there when you need it.

Probably the best part of Betterment is how it acts as a savings account. You easily transfer money in and out just like any savings account with no notion of trades. The only difference is your money will actually work for you! Take a look at our Betterment Experiment where we put our own money on the line to give you an honest Betterment review.

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Even the best investments go the "richest indigenous pottery tradition of firing temperatures allowed different. While they damaged parts of more likely you are to became makuria investments for dummies new capital. Others argue that it is there is mention of a king of Dongola, most likely and lacking littlemill whisky investment grave goods. King Georgios then sent his is Ibn Khaldunwriting Makurian payment of the missing including palaces and private homes, likely identical with Addo in Lower Nubia. In this middle era, which paintings have been found at together with al-Umari to kill Nyuti before eventually defeating al-Umari was seized by Kyriakos. The last known king is with the invasion of ; to do better than the investing averages is greater with invest in a company that is publicly traded on the. After his return a new skills and interest, your ability the Cruciform Church, which had Makurian kings were Muslims belongingclaimed descendants of Abbas. Thus Dongola was left to less ornate, but better control dynasty of the Mamluks. Before battle, however, the Kurdish garrison and took the throne will provide you with some. Makuria was a monarchy ruled investment over a dozen or.

Makuria Investment Management (UK) LLP registered in England and Wales under no. OC, is authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct. Makuria Investment Management (UK) LLP acts as the investment manager for a European value fund that invests long and short across the capital structure. The brainchild of founder and chief investment officer Mans Larsson, the former head of Canyon Capital Advisors' London office, Makuria was.