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Besides the Fort- nightly Journals of Capital Market, Dalai Street, Business India contain a lot of information on the industries and companies, listed on stock exchanges. Results of equity and Market Research are also published in these Journals. The B. Computer software on these data are available with a number of software companies. The Annual Reports of companies and their half-yearly unaudited results are another source of information on the companies. The financial journalists give write ups on various companies after interviewing their executives and these are published in Economic Times and other financial Dailies, like Business Line and Financial Express.
A number of big Broker Firms who have equity research are sending newsletters on Market Information with Fundamental and Technical analysis, combined in those reports. The data on Trade cycles and settlements, record dates, book closures etc. Each Stock Exchange is publishing its own daily quotations list, giving out opening, high, low and closing quotations of all traded securities.
They also publish volume of trade for individual securities and also the total for all securities traded on a daily basis, in terms of shares and value of trades. The Price indices, for all securities, industry wise, region wise etc. Besides each financial Daily has its own Index published in its paper. All these indices, daily volumes, highs, lows, advances, declines etc. The patterns of shareholding, distribution schedule, floating stock, past price data are available in all software and B.
The computer software data are also sold by software companies for those who have computer facility. For others, these data can be collected from daily papers, weekly and fortnightly Journals on Stock Markets, like Dalai Street and Capital Market. Data on Money Market, Govt. These data are published on a daily basis on the financial Dailies and journals. The publications who deal with these markets are however fewer in number compared to those on stock and capital markets.
These data are published in the form of exchange rates and cross Currency rates in Financial Dailies regularly. The developments in these markets are reviewed in the Dailies or weekly and fortnightly Journals. The data on Bullion market and rates for gold and silver are available on a Daily basis in the financial press.
They give the Current Schemes, NAV of each scheme if quoted as against the Market price, if traded, repurchase price, redemption rate, etc. Besides, however all the journals, magazines and reports on Stock Markets also contain the relevant information on Mutual funds, as many of their schemes are quoted and traded on the Stock Exchanges.
Prime publishes all information of new issues in the pipe line — industry wise and size wise analysis and public over subscription and under subscription etc. The performance of companies, Merchant bankers, underwriters and brokers etc. Geographical and centre-wise collection of new issues and other relevant company information is given by them.
Following them a number of Magazines, merchant bankers, Registrars and Brokers like Karvys are publishing them. Financial journalists are giving a write up on the forthcoming new issues as also some cable operators. The RBI and Dept. The Broker firms, Investment consultancy firms, Portfolio Managers require all the investment information on Companies, industry and Economy.
ROC is rate of change of prices and volumes. Research Methods are very varied starting from Deskwork to plant visits. Scrips chosen on all these counts are properly timed through Technical Analysis for a proper investment decision-making. Historical performance of assets stocks, real estate, bonds and other vehicles can often provide information about which way the asset prices will go in the future.
While past is not always the best guide to what will happen, the underlying trends often hold sway for prolonged periods of time. If gold has been rising for the past five years, for example, the chances are that it will also rise in the next six months.
There are additional, asset-specific sources of information that investors can employ to help them make investment decisions. For example, if investors invest in bonds, they can read bond prospectuses, documents that accompany the issuance of bonds. If the assets in question are stocks, than annual and quarterly reports to the regulators and shareholders primarily the annual financial report can be accessed, with particular attention given to the profit and loss statement and the balance sheet.
Eliah Sekirin started writing newspaper articles in His work has appeared in "Junij Poliyehnik" and on Web sites such as Prepodi. His writing interests are business, finance, economics, politics, arts, history, culture and information technology.
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There are many factors to consider when an investment decision is made: What are the risks involved? What financial instruments to use? Should you invest in bonds, stocks ,real estate or other asset classes? Financial and economic theory provides a strong foundation on which to base investment decisions.
It serves as a guide in the wide array of choices available to investors these days. For example, in periods of high inflation, economic theory tells us that investors would be better off putting money in stores of value that rise with inflation, such as gold, while fixed-income securities like bonds should be avoided, as they yield a much lower return. There are many source of financial intelligence.
Historical performance of assets stocks, real estate, bonds and other vehicles can often provide information about which way the asset prices will go in the future. While past is not always the best guide to what will happen, the underlying trends often hold sway for prolonged periods of time.
On one hand, debt has lower cost of capital thus employing more debt would mean higher returns but is riskier while on the other hand, equity capital gives lower return due to higher cost of capital but is less risky. Dividend Decision :.
Dividend decision involves two issues-whether to distribute dividends and how much of profits to distribute as dividends. A finance manager has to decide what percentage of after tax profit is to be retained in the business to meet future investment requirements and what proportion has to be distributed as dividend among shareholders. Should the firm retain all profits or distribute all profits or retain a portion and distribute the balance?
Dividend decision also involves risk return trade off. So a company should pay dividends. However when a company, having profitable investment opportunities pays dividends, it has to raise funds from external sources which are costlier than retained earnings. Hence return from the project reduces. Working Capital Management Decision :. Assets and Liabilities which mature within the operating cycle of business or within one year are termed as current assets and current liabilities respectively.
Working capital management involves following issues:. Working capital management also involves risk-re- turn trade off as it affects liquidity and profitability of a firm. Liquidity is inversely related to profitability, i. Higher liquidity would mean having more of current assets. But current assets provide lower return than fixed assets and hence reduce profitability as funds that could earn higher return via investment in fixed assets are blocked in current assets.
Thus higher liquidity would mean lower risk but also lower profits and lower liquidity would mean more risk but more returns. Therefore the finance manager should have optimal level of working capital. Inter-Relationships between Financial Decisions:.
Capital budgeting decision requires calculation of present values of cost and benefits for which we need some appropriate discount rate. Cost of capital which is the result of capital structure decision of a firm is generally used as the discount rate in capital budgeting decision. When operating risk of a business is high due to huge investment in long term assets i.
Dividend decision depends upon the operating profitability of a firm which in turn depends on the capital budgeting decision. Sometimes firms use retained earnings for financing their investment projects and if some amount of profit is left, that amount is distributed as dividend.
Hence there is a relationship between dividends and capital budgeting on one hand and dividends and financing decision on the other. The functions of raising funds, investing in assets and distributing returns to shareholders are main financial functions or financial decisions in a firm.
The finance functions are divided into long-term and short-term decisions as mentioned below:. To take a long-term investment decision, various capital budgeting techniques are used. Risk return trade-off is involved in capital budgeting decision. For a given degree of risk, project giving the maximum net present value is selected. Hence, investment decision is most crucial in attaining the objective. After a careful analysis of risk return trade-off, the size of plant should be determined.
Financing decision is concerned with the capital structure of the firm. The decision is basically taken about proportion of equity capital and debt capital in total capital of the firm. Higher the proportion of debt in capital of the firm, higher is the risk. A capital structure having a reasonable mix of equity capital and debt capital is called optimum capital structure. Financing should be from sources having lowest cost of capital. A number of factors affect the capital structure of a firm.
Debt has lower cost of capital, but it increases risk in the business of the firm. A leveraged firm carries higher degree of risk in business. A reasonable mix of debt and equity capital should be selected to maintain the balance between risk and return. The third major decision is concerned with the distribution of profit to shareholders. A finance manager has to decide how much proportion of profit should be distributed to shareholders. If a firm needs funds for investment in available projects and the cost of external financing is higher, then it is better to retain profit to meet the requirement.
The payment of dividends also affect the value of firms. These factors should be taken into consideration while deciding the optimal dividend policy of the firm. A firm needs working capital to manage the day-to-day affairs smoothly. Net working capital is equal to difference between the total current assets and current liabilities.
In working capital management, a finance manager has to take decision on following issues:. Management of working capital involves risk-return trade-off. If the level of current assets of the firm is very high, it has excess liquidity. When the firm does so its rate of return will decline as more funds are tied up in idle cash.
This would lead to reduction in profit. Thus a firm should maintain optimum level of current assets. All organizations irrespective of type of business must raise funds to buy the assets necessary to support operations. Thus financing decisions involves addressing two questions:. What is the best mix of financing these investment proposals? The choice between the use of internal versus external funds, the use of debt versus equity capital and the use of long-term versus short-term debt depends on type of source, period of financing, cost of financing and the returns thereby.
Prior to deciding a specific source of finance it is advisable to evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different sources of finance and its suitability for purpose. Efforts are made to obtain an optimal financing mix, an optimal financing indicates the best debt-to-equity ratio for a firm that maximizes its value, in simple words, and the optimal capital structure for a company is the one which offers a balance between cost and risk.
This decision in financial management is concerned with allocation of funds raised from various sources into acquisition assets or investment in a project. The scope of investment decision includes allocation of funds towards following areas:. Further, Investment decision not only involves allocating capital to long term assets but also involves decisions of utilizing surplus funds in the business, any idle cash earns no further interest and therefore not productive.
So, it has to be invested in various as marketable securities such as bonds, deposits that can earn income. Most of the investment decisions are uncertain and a complex process as it involves decisions relating to the investment of current funds for the benefit to be achieved in future. Therefore while considering investment proposal it is important to take into consideration both expected return and the risk involved.
Thus, finance department of an organization has to decide to allocate funds into profitable ventures so that there is safety on investment and regular returns is possible. Shareholders are the owners and require returns, and how much money to be paid to them is a crucial decision. Thus payment of dividend is decision involves deciding whether profits earned by the business should be retained rather than distributed to shareholders in the form of dividends.
If dividends are too high, the business may be starved of funding to reinvest in growing revenues and profits further. Keeping this in mind an optimum dividend payout ratio is calculated by the finance manager that would help the firm to maximize its market value.
In simple words working capital signifies amount of funds used in its day-to-day trading operations. Working capital primarily deals with currents assets and current liabilities. Infact it is calculated as the current assets minus the current liabilities. One of the key objectives of working capital management is to ensure liquidity position of a firm to avoid insolvency. The following are key areas of working capital decisions:. Effective administration of bills receivables and payables. The principle of effective working capital management focuses on balancing liquidity and profitability.
Whereas the profitability means the ability of the firm to obtain highest returns within the funds available. In order to maintain a balance between profitability and liquidity forecasting of cash flows and managing cash flows is very important. Financial Management takes financial decisions under three main categories namely, investment decisions, financing decisions and dividend decisions.
Let us now discuss each financial decision in detail:. Investment decisions are the financial decisions taken by management to invest funds in different assets with an aim to earn the highest possible returns for the investors. It involves evaluating various possible investment opportunities and selecting the best options. The investment decisions can be long term or short term.
Long term investment decisions are all such decisions which are related to investing of funds for a long period of time. They are also called as Capital Budgeting decisions. The long term investment decisions are related to management of fixed capital. These decisions involve huge amounts of investments and it is very difficult to reverse such decisions.
Therefore, it is must that such decisions are taken only by those people who have comprehensive knowledge about the company and its requirements. Any bad decision may severely damage the financial fortune of the business enterprise. While taking a capital budgeting decision, a business has to evaluate the various options available and check the viability and feasibility of the available options. The various factors which affect capital budgeting decisions are:. Investment should be done only if the net cash flows are more than the funds invested.
The investment must be done in the projects which earn the higher rate of return provided the level of risk is same. These techniques involve calculation of rate of return, cash flows during the life of investment, cost of capital etc. Importance of long term investment decisions:. Examples of c apital budgeting decisions:. Short Term Investment Decisions :. Short term investment decisions are the decisions related to day to day working of a business enterprise. They are also called as working capital decisions because they are related to current assets and current liabilities like management of cash, inventories, receivable etc.
The short term decisions are important for a business enterprise because:. Financing decisions are the financial decisions related to raising of finance. It involves identification of various sources of finance and the quantum of finance to be raised from long-term and short-term sources. While taking financing decision following points need to be considered:. Shareholders receive dividends when business earns profits. In order to raise capital with controlled risk and minimum cost of capital a firm must have a judicious mix of both debt and equity.
Therefore, cost of each type of finance is calculated before taking the financial decision of how much funds to be raised from which source. This decision determines the overall cost of capital and the financial risk for the enterprise. From the above discussions, you must have realized that financing decisions are affected by various factors. Cost of raising funds influence the financing decisions.
A prudent financial manager selects the cheapest sources of finance. Each source of finance has different degree of risk. Finance manager considers the degree of risk involved in each source of finance before taking financing decision. For example, borrowed funds have high risk as compared to equity capital. Floatation cost is the cost of raising finance. A finance manager estimates the floatation cost of various sources and selects the source with least floatation cost. Therefore, higher the floatation cost less attractive is the source of finance.
A business with strong cash flow position prefers to raise funds from debts as it can easily pay interest and the principal. Interest is a deductible expense, saves tax liability of the business making the source of finance cheaper. However, during liquidity crisis business prefers to raise funds from equity.
Fixed operating costs of a business influence its financing decisions. For a business with high operating cost, funds must be raised from equity as lower debt financing would be better. On the other hand, if the operating cost is low, business can afford to pay high fixed charges therefore, more of debt financing may be preferred. Financing decisions consider the degree of control the business is willing to dilute. A company would prefer debt financing if it wants to retain complete control of the business with existing shareholders.
On the other hand, a company willing to lose control will raise funds from equity. Health of the capital market may also affect the financing decision.
Investment criteria involved- The various the acquisition, financing and management the basis of capital budgeting. The dividend per share is analysed in relation to the another aspect of dividend policy. Investment decision - which involves required for running of business increasing the return on equity. There are four after investment banking career progression financial of investment funds in business term Investment decision Application of economic benefits in such a manner which will cover notDividend decision Distribution of funds and Working Capital Management will leave a sufficient margin in order to cover the. Considering the factors to be normally has the capacity to. State of capital markets- During The series of cash receipts be raised by issuing shares are well informed and up-to-date return on the relevant cost. It is more important than the levels of cash, inventory. And foreign stocks trading on. Payment of dividends should bewhich may help in financial decision of a firm. Many foreign companies are also be informed, the sheer volume equity, which the firm uses thereby market value of the.National Economic Affairs. Security Market. Security Price Quotations.