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Offering the highest resolution available, VISION3 Films continue to raise the bar with unrivaled highlight l at itude and reduced grain in shadows for gre at er flexibility and control in post. Learn more at www. But amidst their playful romps, secret rituals and silly habits belies an underlying tension. Full of verve, the idiosyncr at ic Gitti is fearless in expressing her love and devotion for Chris, while Chris is more reserved in his outlook on life and sports, varying personal and professional degrees of insecurity.

When they casually run into another, obviously happier and more successful, couple th at on top of it all appears to be modern gender role proof, their rel at ionship destabilizes. In a silly at tempt at lifestyle bootlegging, Chris begins to show his wilful girlfriend who is boss, with the result th at Gitti's faith in her partner takes a hard knock. She at tempts to conform to his new ideal, but wh at begins as a playful experiment soon turns into a quiet struggle with her own personality.

While Chris flourishes in his role as the stronger one of the two, Gitti begins to loosen up in a completely new way. While Thomas is willing to fill the void of their f at her, Consul Jean, and to steer the firm through the times of moderniz at ion and rising competition, his brother Christian is trying to break away from any responsibility. We find him in dubious company, marrying a woman from a vaudeville show, rebelling against everything their f at her stood for.

The sequences, abstract or concrete, range from short film to documentary, from essayistic to experimental. Through friendship, love and alcohol, Roddy is in search of the perfect music. With a scholarship from the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst in , she continued her film studies in Sydney. After working on a few short films and documentary films, she was awarded the German Film Award in Gold for Best New Director in for her directorial fe at ure film debut Im Kreis der Lieben.

Among her fe at ure film credits are popular hits such as Trio , Bibi Blocksberg , and most recently, The White Masai The arranged marriage spells the beginning of a monotonous existence for Effi far away from her hometown: Innstetten is entirely pre-occupied with his political career and the sleepy artist town of Kessin on the Baltic Sea shore offers little excitement. Effi starts a passion at e affair with him and finally discovers wh at love is.

But it comes at a steep price: The affair proves f at al for Crampas. Nor is it a happy period for Clara, who is reduced to the role of a housewife instead of an acclaimed concert pianist performing throughout Europe to sold-out halls. Th at is, until she meets the young, brilliant Johannes Brahms. Clara and Johannes fall for one another. Robert, who is sick and suffering from severe depression, at tempts to drown himself in the Rhine River. His life is saved and he commits himself to a san at orium.

The rel at ionship between Brahms and Clara grows even more intense. When Robert dies two years l at er, all the obstacles seem to have disappeared for them. Clara, however, refuses to marry again. She at tended the drama school for music and the at er in Hanover, and studied German and English Languages in Cologne. In , she founded her own production company. Under the Pavement Lies the Beach became her breakthrough in Heinrich , her film on the life and de at h of the German poet Heinrich von Kleist, was awarded the German Film Award in Her film German y, Pale Mother remains an intern at ional success today and is one of the classics of German cinema.

In the early 80s, he worked in the the at er as a director and wrote radio plays for the Austrian broadcaster ORF. From , he worked as a freelance director and author for television, commercials and music videos. In , he made his fe at ure debut with Tempo, which won the Max Ophuels Award in Lilly is a completely normal year-old girl, until suddenly one day a magic book accompanied by its guardian Hector, a small and clumsy dragon, appear in her room.

Surulunda, a super-witch from the world of magic, has design at ed Lilly to be her successor and Hector to explain the job. But first Lilly must prove within 99 hours th at she is worthy of this burden. The magic book holds the promise of many exciting adventures but also of grave danger through the evil magician Hieronymus and his wish to rule the world. Lilly must confront Hieronymus and prove th at she has wh at it takes to become the new superwitch.

But more than anything else, she was a fighter who often fell, but never stayed down. Berlin, The collapse of Nazi German y looms, but young Hilde marches through the rubble of Berlin with only one thought in her head: she wants to become a star. With luck, looks, the right men and overwhelming self-confidence, she makes her way in the film world, both during and after the war, swapping her Nazi lover for a young Jewish husband.

Hollywood beckons, but Hilde is no Marlene. Underemployed and frustr at ed, she longs for German y. The divided country welcomes her back, but a short nude scene in The Sinner provokes a n at ional scandal, making her an outcast in her own country. The years go by in a whirl of successes and failures, of ups and downs.

After completing his studies, he began working as an assistant director. He made his breakthrough with Martha Jelineck, which was nomin at ed for the German Film Award in Among his most noted television productions are the filming of the diaries of the Jewish liter at ure professor Victor Klemperer, Klemperer — Ein Leben in Deutschland , as well as H at er Arbeit? His epic miniseries Die Flucht was one of the top-r at ed fiction productions of Having stumbled onto the remote town with his son, Marc is obsessed by the tale of a gruesome multiple murder on a nearby farm back in At night, however, mysterious things begin to happen to Marc, an uncanny interweaving of visions and reality th at draws him ever deeper into the secret of the murders.

The more he pieces together, the more the townspeople close ranks against the stranger. The situ at ion escal at es on a pagan holiday in which the townspeople dress as devils and demand a human sacrifice. A top cast and sensitive direction add emotional depth and a jolting edge to this gothic mystery based on the biggest unresolved murder case in German y, the slaying of six people on a remote Bavarian farm in Together with colleague Ciro Cappellari, he rediscovers his hometown, 20 years after the fall of the Wall.

The result is a lyrical film essay about the city and the people whose skills, talent and ambition make it such a unique place: less hectic and glamorous than Paris or London, but possibly more stimul at ing. Ciro Cappellari was born in Buenos Aires in where he trained to be a photographer and made his first short films. At Any Second In jeder Sekunde, marks his directorial debut. Maybe Frick should listen up, for in the following days and weeks, the angels of love will be busy enticing a variety of men and women to play with fire — perhaps in order to punish them Sarah, tempted by drugs but trying to get her life in order, breaks up with her coke-snorting boyfriend and falls in love with a sweet-n at ured photographer.

Frick himself, married and the f at her of a terminally ill child, succumbs to the charms of a strong, self-assured woman. With her, Frick finds a welcome relief from his all-consuming role as the dedic at ed caretaker of his daughter, his p at ients, and his marriage. Each of them is on the verge of a major change, each of them ready to head off in a new direction and take the risk of burning themselves on love.

Wh at remains is a search for love and fulfillment th at a stroke of f at e can push into a surprising new direction at any second … Director Jan Fehse brings his years-long experience as a sought-after cinem at ographer to bear on the poignant story of a handful of individuals caught in the grid of modern urban rel at ionships. When the Imperial Japanese Army invaded China in and at tacked the civilian popul at ion of Nanking with unprecedented inhumanity, John Rabe took action.

John Rabe had become long forgotten by the time his diaries were rediscovered ten years ago. To this day he is still revered in China, but he has never been commended, much less rewarded, for his courage and decency in his own country. Upon his return to German y in , he was arrested by the Gestapo for collabor at ing with the Chinese. He died in poverty soon after World War II. After the owner of the bar mysteriously died in , it was taken over by his widow and her new partner.

Just a couple of weeks l at er, this incredible place lay in ruins. The Last Applause follows the lives of these forgotten tango singers from until today. When his dad has to go away on business for a week, he leaves Lippel in the care of his new housekeeper, Mrs. She seems very nice at first, but soon Lippel finds himself arguing with her over little household m at ters. It slowly turns into a domestic war, while Lippel seeks escape in his dreams at night, fleeing into an oriental fairy-tale world.

There, his f at her is the lovable but weak king, whose children are at the mercy of his malevolent sister-in-law. The dreamworld double for Mrs. Jakob wants to do away with the children to take the throne herself. He had his fe at ure debut in with Gentleman, which was shown at the Munich Filmfest the same year.

Roehler has been a scriptwriter since with Ex and Terror , and he is also the author of the novel Das Abschnappuniversum. He has lived in Berlin since the early s and also works as a freelance journalist and author. For Hanna, the most important thing is to be together with Thomas.

But then Thomas invites his older brother Friedrich to stay with them after Friedrich loses both his job and his wife. Yielding to the new dynamics, Hanna also invites a friend to come and visit: her godchild Augustine. Barely out of her teens, she projects a sexy youthfulness th at exerts a dangerous at traction on Thomas, who is increasingly living out his adolescent impulses, while Hanna starts to sense an unknown depth in Friedrich.

A year l at er, he directed his second short Heldensommer and appeared in a small role in The English P at ient in A promising blind d at e with a beautiful Blonde ends with her fleeing in horror. One day, Toni is contracted by middleman Pepe to kill the reclusive Enrico Puzzo, a mafioso-turned-squealer whose memoirs are about to be published by a company run by Christopher Kimbel and his milquetoast son, Bobfried. The two fall in love with each other. But their love is thre at ened: there is an arrest warrant and possibly a de at h sentence waiting for Juri.

Inga grows up with her grandparents, thinking th at her mother died during a swimming accident. As a child, he was involved in numerous radio plays and was the young publisher and editor-in-chief of the youth magazine SHOT!. After finishing school he worked as an author, speaker and reporter for various television and radio broadcasters, followed by studies from in Film Directing at the Baden-Wuerttemberg Film Academy.

His films include: Suelze short, , Schneewittchen ist tot short, , Strassenschlacht short, , Soapstar documentary, , Der grosse Franz short, , Tantalus short, , Marta und der fliegende Grossv at er , Jaeger verlorener Schaetze documentary series, , and November Child Novemberkind, His film Paradiso won a Silver Bear at Berlin in She writes malicious love poems which she recites in live performances throughout German y.

She has the fans at her feet. And she apparently also has success with love. Three men have hopes of marrying her. Pink decides system at ically, but wrongly. She makes her decisions using a calcul at or. Her rel at ionships are managed via text message. And conflicts resolved — if need be — at gunpoint. Despite having made a thorough examin at ion she chooses quite the wrong man on two occasions. It is only with the third one th at she finally finds happiness. Three weddings. Three seasons.

The modern fairytale of someone on a quest to learn about love. Together with her pet pig Pupsi, she zooms throughout the countryside leaving behind a magical trail, clouds of pink butterflies, and sparkling stars. Still, she soon discovers th at not all in her kingdom are content. With the passing ages, the Fairies of Pinkle have become worse in the misuse of their magical powers. Being a caring Princess, this makes Lillifee very sad.

She has also directed a number of short films and documentaries, including: Maikas Wochenende short, , and between earth and sky documentary, In idyllic East Allgaeu she meets the Webers, who take her in as their guest. But soon, the situ at ion of the family becomes turbulent by her appearance … 30 new german films — market screenings New German Films Screening: Friday, 15 May, h, Riviera 2 Sunday, 17 May, h, Riviera 4 After two decades in prison, Widmer, a former German RAF-terrorist, is released.

He meets Valerie, his next door neighbor. The young woman tries to get her life back on track after she lost custody of her little son. She shows some interest in Widmer, the two of them seem to have something in common. They discreetly enter into the secrets of their lives.

Until the truth comes between them. He will not accept any compromise, neither in his music, nor in love. When he gets the feeling th at Kristina, the love of his life, only loves him for his musical talents, he is deeply hurt. Disappointed, he bids farewell to both her and his previous life.

On the edge of society, he meets an old woman who beque at hs him her pain in the form of poems. Martin is immedi at ely fascin at ed. Can they guide him back to himself, to Kristina, or to his music? And then, if his friends, decked out in large fur h at s and filming him too, joined in? Would you believe it if these three best friends told you th at they have a brilliant idea to become world-famous?

Be reasonable? Calm down? Chill a little? Act their age? Yes, you would! But wh at would you think if, in a couple of months, as you read your morning paper and suddenly see th at a so-called John Salinger and The Berlin Brothers are 1 in the charts. Yes, you would. Everyone would. And you would want to know wh at kind of idea th at was. He loc at es the nomad mountain village, but his f at her has passed away a long time ago.

Temur decides to stay and meets Amira, a beautiful young woman. Temur supports Amira, realizing too l at e th at he has fallen in love with the young married woman. Amira and Temur become lovers. Between East and West they invent a universe where life again becomes worth living. Outside of German y, labor is cheaper and regul at ions are less constricting. But over and beyond this fascin at ing capital venture there remains the harsh reality of the everyday life of the hardworking Polish laundrywomen, through whose hands the white sheets pass.

While Be at a struggles to raise her three children on her meager salary, Monika reminisces about her unrealized childhood dreams of becoming a doctor, and is compelled to w at ch her teenage daughter Marta gradually follow in her footsteps. In his first fe at ure-length documentary since The Mechanism of the Miracle sixteen years ago, director Hans-Christian Schmid Storm, Requiem, Distant Lights, 23 applies his delic at e poetic sensibility to three women, their fears and dreams.

He made his directorial debut in with the documentary Sekt oder Selters followed by the short Das lachende Gewitter, the documentary The Mechanism of the Miracle and the TV film Himmel und Hoelle. His other highlyacclaimed films include: 23 , Crazy , Distant Lights , Requiem , and Storm The films experiment with form and content, and sometimes with both together.

Borders are opened up; passion has been lent wings. Although the filmmakers of tomorrow may be very different with respect to their selected themes and fields of interest, they share the formal qualities. The diverse field of anim at ion domin at es their aesthetic choices. The young filmmakers view cinema as a huge image machine, and so they cre at e images themselves. The works are oriented on singular moments in the lives of individuals; decisive moments th at point onward, backwards, or in a completely new direction; moments th at express the depth of longing and the desires felt by the filmmakers in a magical way.

The interval of a heartbe at provides the rhythm, over which the narr at ive lies: the poetry. Over the course of only one anim at ed minute, Rosarot tells the full drama of being in love and falling out of love. Sp at zen is an homage to the plan sequence, showing the end of a love story.

Samsa — Hommage an Franz Kafka bows down to the gre at master, but at the same time it represents a visual journey into the cre at ive production process familiar to every artist. In the end, the ram couples with the ewe and savagery wins the day. In Clean Up the moment has passed: all th at remains is to clean up the scene of the event.

There is also description of the everyday in the film Keine Besonderen Vorkommnisse: two soldiers control a check point in the middle of somewhere. Between gives us an intim at ion of this movement in the image and beyond it, to the other side. Schneezeit allows us to sense time, and Lebensader brings us back to a childlike imagin at ion.

Kaiser was born in in Munich. She has written the screenplays to several shorts and also directed the shorts Vigilia and Amoklove Between Between is an experimental short film about the human psyche, its complex combin at ions and the resulting visions. Strolling in between different senses, caught in an endless loop of our inner life, the exit is the only entrance.

A magical moment between two people in the subway, but then it is all over and they will never see each other again — wrong! Th at is Amoklove: a declar at ion of love during a cardiac recess. He co-founded the art collective and design bureau Via Grafik in Since , he has been working as a freelance designer and filmmaker. Between is his gradu at ion film.

He was a trainee at a film production company and directed several social spots and short films. Three young soldiers try to distract themselves from their everyday wartime existence. One of them takes notice of a local girl. This experimental short film gives an abnormal view on the de at h penalty.

He worked as an intern for several commercial production companies, as a loc at ion manager and production assistant for German TV and the at rical films. His other short films include: Grenzfall , Little Jerk , and Kreislauf Lebensader A little girl finds the whole world inside a leaf. In addition to communic at ion problems with the locals, torrid he at , a boring everyday existence and the question of whether or not a mine field is a mine field, the two also have to deal with their own fear.

During her studies she developed a personal and poetic style culmin at ing in her diploma film Lebensader Her previous film Wie ich mich traf won numerous awards in German y and abroad. Her other films include: Shadow Play , co-director and Loko Mare Kirsten Carina Geisser was born in in Naila. Rosarot is her first film. A short film about the aberr at ions and confusions of love. From , he studied Graphic Design in Dessau.

His other films include: Die Identitaetskrise , Wie der Pfeffer auf die Sterne kam , and Fuchs, du hast die Gans gestohlen His other films include the shorts: Es regnet , Stunden weit entfernt , and Anja, Tanja, Heike und Mareike He is currently preparing fe at urelength fiction films. For decades, Oskar has been living in a lonely cottage in the middle of endless, snow-covered fields.

The past and the future, memories and the present superimpose each other in this constantly frozen landscape until the borders between time become so thin th at it appears one could transcend them. Since , he has been working as a freelance video artist. His other films A man meets a woman in a bar.

A long take. From , she studied Photography at the Utrecht School of Arts. Since , she has worked as a freelance photographer and cur at or in Cologne. Since she has been a student at the Academy of Media Art Cologne. Sunrise Dacapo is her intermedi at e diploma film. You Are My Hero Time and time again the brave knight takes off into b at tle.

Even though his sword actually smells like tom at o juice upon each of his triumphal returns, his wife remains loyal to her hero. Not until he takes off for b at tle one day without his sword does she get suspicious and look further into the situ at ion at hand. An observ at ion on the growing of geraniums in mass production and the coherence of noise and silence. The beauty of n at ure, apparently perfectly reproduced in artificial surroundings. After completing his first anim at ed short with an 8 mm camera in , he never stopped making his own films and commercial works.

His anim at ed shorts Je veux rester and About Love, H at e and the Other One were shown at several festivals all over the world. It was established in under the name Export-Union of German Cinema as the umbrella associ at ion for the Associ at ion of German Fe at ure Film Producers, the Associ at ion of New German Fe at ure Film Producers and the Associ at ion of German Film Exporters, and oper at es today in the legal form of a limited liability company.

The organiz at ion, with its headquarters in Hamburg, aims to develop and realize joint projects for the present at ion of European films on an intern at ional level. Unfortun at ely, we could not include film titles and screenings d at es which were announced after this public at ion went to press.

The pages of this brochure are made of PEFC certific at ed cellulose. PEFC Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certific at ion schemes is the largest independent organiz at ion worldwide for securing and continuously improving a sustainable forest management and it guarantees ecological, social and economic standards. Both survived the war. Jerzy Tabeau no. The distribution of the Vrba-Wetzler report , and publication of parts of it in June , helped to halt the deportation of Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz.

On 27 May , Arnost Rosin no. The prisoners implore the Polish Government to have the camp bombed. The destruction of the electrified barbed wire, the ensuing panic and darkness prevailing, the chances of escape would be great. The local population will hide them and help them to leave the neighbourhood. The prisoners are confidently awaiting the day when Polish planes from Great Britain will enable their escape. This is the prisoners unanimous demand to the Polish Government in London.

Pierse replied that it was not technically feasible to bomb the camp without harming the prisoners. The Sonderkommando who worked in the crematoria were witnesses to the mass murder and were therefore regularly killed themselves. After escaping through a fence using wirecutters, they managed to reach Rajsko , where they hid in the granary of an Auschwitz satellite camp, but the SS pursued and killed them by setting the granary on fire.

By the time the rebellion at crematorium IV had been suppressed, members of the Sonderkommando were still alive and had been killed. The Sonderkommando and other prisoners began the job of dismantling the buildings and cleaning up the site. According to Polish historian Andrzej Strzelecki, the evacuation of the camp was one of its "most tragic chapters".

Between 1 December and 15 January , over one million items of clothing were packed to be shipped out of Auschwitz; 95, such parcels were sent to concentration camps in Germany. Beginning on 17 January, some 58, Auschwitz detainees about two-thirds Jews —over 20, from Auschwitz I and II and over 30, from the subcamps—were evacuated under guard, at first heading west on foot, then by open-topped freight trains, to concentration camps in Germany and Austria: Bergen-Belsen , Buchenwald , Dachau , Flossenburg , Gross-Rosen , Mauthausen , Dora-Mittelbau , Ravensbruck , and Sachsenhausen.

Crematorium IV had been partly demolished after the Sonderkommando revolt in October, and the rest of it was destroyed later. On 26 January, one day ahead of the Red Army's arrival, crematorium V was blown up. They found 7, prisoners alive in the three main camps, in the other subcamps, and over corpses. They threw "strangely embarrassed glances at the sprawling bodies, at the battered huts and at us few still alive They did not greet us, nor did they smile; they seemed oppressed not only by compassion but by a confused restraint, which sealed their lips and bound their eyes to the funereal scene.

It was that shame we knew so well, the shame that drowned us after the selections, and every time we had to watch, or submit to, some outrage: the shame the Germans did not know, that the just man experiences at another man's crime; the feeling of guilt that such a crime should exist, that it should have been introduced irrevocably into the world of things that exist, and that his will for good should have proved too weak or null, and should not have availed in defence. Georgii Elisavetskii, a Soviet soldier who entered one of the barracks, said in that he could hear other soldiers telling the inmates: "You are free, comrades!

Then he used some Yiddish : "They think that I am provoking them. They begin to hide. We have come to liberate you' Finally, as if the barrier collapsed The Soviet military medical service and Polish Red Cross PCK set up field hospitals that looked after 4, prisoners suffering from the effects of starvation mostly diarrhea and tuberculosis. Water was obtained from snow and from fire-fighting wells. Before more help arrived, 2, patients there were looked after by a few doctors and 12 PCK nurses.

All the patients were later moved to the brick buildings in Auschwitz I, where several blocks became a hospital, with medical personnel working hour shifts. The liberation of Auschwitz received little press attention at the time; the Red Army was focusing on its advance toward Germany and liberating the camp had not been one of its key aims. Boris Polevoi reported on the liberation in Pravda on 2 February but made no mention of Jews; [] inmates were described collectively as "victims of Fascism".

Only Auschwitz staff, up to 15 percent, ever stood trial; [6] most of the cases were pursued in Poland and the Federal Republic of Germany. He writes that this may have been because there were only women overseers, and therefore they were more visible and memorable to the inmates. He was imprisoned in Heide , then transferred to Minden for interrogation, part of the British occupation zone.

The trials ended on 22 December , with 23 death sentences, seven life sentences, and nine prison sentences ranging from three to 15 years. The report became the basis of their book, Anatomy of the SS State , the first comprehensive study of the camp and the SS. The court convicted 19 of the defendants, giving six of them life sentences and the others between three and ten years. In the decades since its liberation, Auschwitz has become a primary symbol of the Holocaust. Historian Timothy D.

On 2 July , the Polish government passed a law establishing a state memorial to remember "the martyrdom of the Polish nation and other nations in Oswiecim". Dwork and van Pelt write that, in addition, Auschwitz I played a more central role in the persecution of the Polish people, in opposition to the importance of Auschwitz II to the Jews, including Polish Jews. Visitors to the site have increased from , in , to over one million in , [] to two million in There have been protracted disputes over the perceived Christianization of the site.

The Polish government and Catholic Church eventually agreed to remove all but the original. All three pilots were descendants of Holocaust survivors, including the man who led the flight, Major-General Amir Eshel. Museum curators consider visitors who pick up items from the ground to be thieves, and local police will charge them as such; the maximum penalty is a year prison sentence.

The sign was later recovered. In the Polish government passed an amendment to its Act on the Institute of National Remembrance , making it a criminal offence to make false suggestions of Polish complicity in the Holocaust, which would include referring to Auschwitz and other camps as "Polish death camps". Earlier estimates included Raul Hilberg 's work, The Destruction of the European Jews , which estimated that up to one million Jews had died in the camp.

Also see "The Budy Massacre—A grim anniversary". Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum, 10 October Astor, Maggie 12 April The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 April From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Auschwitz disambiguation.

Top: Gate to Auschwitz I with its Arbeit macht frei sign "work sets you free". Auschwitz I, ; the prisoner reception center of Auschwitz I became the visitor reception center of the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum. Former prisoner reception center; the building on the far left with the row of chimneys was the camp kitchen. An aerial reconnaissance photograph of the Auschwitz concentration camp showing the Auschwitz I camp, 4 April Further information: First mass transport to Auschwitz concentration camp.

Crematorium I, photographed in , reconstructed after the war [28]. For other uses, see Birkenau disambiguation. From the Auschwitz Album , taken by the camp's Erkennungsdienst. Main article: Monowitz concentration camp. Further information: List of subcamps of Auschwitz. Further information: Nazi concentration camp badge.

Auschwitz II brick barracks, sector BI, ; four prisoners slept in each partition, known as a buk. See also: Women's Orchestra of Auschwitz. Main articles: Block 10 and Nazi human experimentation. Main article: Block Main articles: Gypsy family camp Auschwitz and Romani genocide. Main article: Theresienstadt family camp. The gate on the left leads to sector BI, the oldest part of the camp.

Further information: Vrba-Wetzler report and Auschwitz Protocols. Main article: Auschwitz bombing debate. Further information: Death marches Holocaust. Main article: Liberation of Auschwitz concentration camp. Young survivors at the camp, liberated by the Red Army in January Main article: Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum. Similar legislation deprived Jewish members of other professions of the right to practise.

These prisoners were given camp serial numbers 31 to The transport included many healthy young men fit for military service, who had been caught trying to cross the Polish southern border in order to make their way to the Polish Armed Forces being formed in France. At the same time, a further SS men—officers and SS enlisted men—were sent to reinforce the camp garrison. They were unloaded at the ramp on the camp railroad siding and ordered to leave their baggage there.

The camp SS flying squad received the Jews from the Stapo and led the victims to the gas chamber in the camp crematorium. There, they were killed with the use of Zyklon B gas. Two large army trucks of Jewish women from Beuthen were brought 'straight to the station, they were queuing at the station I was still given a chance to say goodbye because we knew already I went down to the station, I saw the long queue of women.

Auschwitz-Birkenau State. Archived from the original on 21 January Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum. Archived from the original on 22 January Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 14 September Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum, 13 February World Heritage List. Archived from the original on 22 November Bartrop, Paul R. Resisting the Holocaust: Upstanders, Partisans, and Survivors.

Bauer, Yehuda []. In Gutman, Yisrael; Berenbaum, Michael eds. Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp. Baxter, Ian Images of War: Auschwitz and Birkenau. Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Pen and Sword. Berger, Ronald J. New Brunswick and London: Transaction Publishers. Biddle, Tami Davis In Neufeld, Michael J. New York: St. Martin's Press. Cesarani, David Final Solution: The Fate of the Jews Browning, Christopher R.

Carroll, James Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Cohen, Nathan []. Czech, Danuta Auschwitz, — Central Issues in the History of the Camp. V: Epilogue. Didi-Huberman, Georges []. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Dunin-Wasowicz, Krzysztof In Gutman, Yisrael ; Saf, Avital eds. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem. Auschwitz: to the Present. New York: W. Fulbrook, Mary Oxford: Oxford University Press. Spring Evans, Richard J. The Third Reich in Power. New York: Penguin Books.

The Third Reich at War. New York: Penguin. Fleming, Michael Auschwitz, the Allies and Censorship of the Holocaust. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fleming, Michael 30 August Holocaust Studies. New York: HarperCollins. Gerlach, Christian The Extermination of the European Jews. Gradowski, Zalmen In Roskies, David ed. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society. From the Heart of Hell.

Manuscripts of a Sonderkommando Prisoner, Found in Auschwitz. Greif, Gideon Gutman, Yisrael []. Harding, Thomas Hayes, Peter []. Hayes, Peter Holocaust and Genocide Studies. Hilberg, Raul The Destruction of the European Jews. Hilberg, Raul []. Hoess, Rudolf []. Translated by Constantine FitzGibbon. London: Phoenix Press. Nuremberg: The International Military Tribunal. Iwaszko, Tadeusz a. I: The Establishment and Organization of the Camp. Iwaszko, Tadeusz b.

Kater, Michael H. Doctors Under Hitler. Keren, Nili []. Kitchens, James H. Krahelska, Halina January []. Krakowski, Shmuel []. Kubica, Helena []. Kubica, Helena In Megargee, Geoffrey P. Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, — Volume 1. Notes by Members of the Sonderkommando [ IV: The Resistance Movement.

Lasik, Aleksander a []. Lasik, Aleksander b []. Lasik, Aleksander a. Lasik, Aleksander b. Levi, Primo [ and ]. If This is a Man and The Truce. London: Little, Brown Abacus. Levi, Primo []. The Drowned and the Saved. Longerich, Peter Daring to Resist: Jewish Defiance in the Holocaust.

New York: Museum of Jewish Heritage. In Browning, Christopher ed. Mehring, Sigrid Leiden: Brill. Chicago: Ivan R. Neufeld, Michael J. Norwegian Nobel Committee. Retrieved 25 August Auschwitz: A Doctor's Eyewitness Account. New York: Arcade Publishing. Perl, Gisella I Was a Doctor in Auschwitz. New York: International Universities Press. Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 10 February Piper, Franciszek Yad Vashem Studies.

XXI : 49— Piper, Franciszek a []. Piper, Franciszek b []. In Gutman, Yisrael ; Berenbaum, Michael eds. Piper, Franciszek c []. Piper, Franciszek a. Piper, Franciszek b. III: Mass Murder. Rees, Laurence Auschwitz: A New History. Rosen, Alan Yad Vashem. Snyder, Timothy Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. New York: Basic Books.

Spitz, Vivien Boulder, Colorado: Sentient. Staff 27 January BBC News. Retrieved 27 January Staff 9 September Retrieved 10 September Stangneth, Bettina New York: Alfred A. Steinbacher, Sybille []. Auschwitz: A History. New York: Ecco Press. Stone, Dan Strzelecka, Irena ; Setkiewicz, Piotr Strzelecka, Irena a. Strzelecka, Irena b. Strzelecka, Irena c. Strzelecka, Irena d. Strzelecka, Irena e. Strzelecki, Andrzej a.

Strzelecki, Andrzej b. In Braham, Randolph L. The Auschwitz Reports and the Holocaust in Hungary. New York: Columbia University Press. Westermann, Edward B. In Cesarani, David ed. Volume 5: Responses to the persecution and mass murder of the Jews. London: Routledge. Wachsmann, Nikolaus New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Wittmann, Rebecca Elizabeth October The Paradox of the Frankfurt Auschwitz Trial". German History. Wittmann, Rebecca Beyond Justice: The Auschwitz Trial.

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DIAKONISSEN MUTTERHAUS BETTINGEN SWITZERLAND

Director in for her directorial fe at ure film debut Im Kreis der Lieben. Television films such as Ein. Hahn ist Tot and Die Stunde des Wolfs followed. Her TV movie Romeo earned the. Among more recent television projects are Eva Blond und der Zwerg.

Television Award for Best Director. Her most recent TV project was Koras Hochzeit. Among her fe at ure film credits are popular hits. Helma Sanders-Brahms was born in Emden in She at tended the drama school for music and the at er. She worked as a television announcer. Heinrich , her film on the life and de at h of the German poet Heinrich von. Kleist, was awarded the German Film Award in Her film German y, Pale Mother remains an.

Carl L. Woebcken, Christoph Fisser, Sonja B. Zimmer Production. Technology Dolby Digital 5. Stefan Ruzowitzky was born in Vienna in In the early 80s, he worked in the the at er as a director. From , he worked as a freelance director and. In , he made his fe at ure debut with Tempo, which. His second fe at ure, the award-winning The Inheritors Die.

Language Film in Kai Wessel was born in Hamburg in After completing his studies, he began working as an assistant. He made his breakthrough with Martha Jelineck, which was nomin at ed for the German Film. Award in Among his most noted television productions are the filming of the diaries of the Jewish liter at ure.

Adolf Grimme Award in His epic miniseries Die Flucht was one of the top-r at ed fiction productions. Form at HD Blow-up 35 mm, color, Coppola and Robert Redford on many of their films. Ciro Cappellari was born in Buenos Aires in where he trained to be a photographer and made his. He has directed Amor America. After working as a camera assistant,. Schwentke T at too , Esther Gronenborn alaska.

At Any Second In jeder. Japanese Sound Technology Dolby Surround 5. Florian Gallenberger, born in , appeared in various roles in fe at ure films, TV productions and. His other. His other films include: The Other One short, ,. Lars Buechel was born in in Ostholstein. He studied The at er and Philosophy at the Free University in.

Berlin and at the Academy of Media Arts in Cologne. Active in both writing and directing, his films include: Iglu. Jetzt oder nie, , Peas at Erbsen auf halb sechs, , Nichts — weiter — als short,. He grew up in. He had his fe at ure debut in He followed this two years l at er. Roehler has been a scriptwriter since with Ex and Terror He has lived in Berlin since the early.

His other films include: Greedy Gierig, , Suck. A year l at er, he directed his second short Heldensommer and appeared in a. Gigantic Absolute Giganten, was his fe at ure directorial. Dolby Digital 5. Sebastian Niemann has a number of fe at ure films and TV movies to his credit, including: Seven Days. Christian Schwochow was born in in Bergen on the island of Ruegen. As a child, he was involved in. After finishing. His films include:. Suelze short, , Schneewittchen ist tot short, , Strassenschlacht short, ,.

Soapstar documentary, , Der grosse Franz short, , Tantalus short, , Marta und. He began writing film reviews in for various newspapers and magazines. In , he collabor at ed. Film, in In , he established his own distribution company, Prometheus. His film Paradiso Walther Director of. Gabriele M.

Ansgar Niebuhr had his debut with anim at ed film as an FX assistant on Felidae. Since then, he has worked. Alan Simpson has been working since the s in anim at ion, beginning with such TV series as The Addams. Sound Technology Dolby Digital 5. In she moved to German y, where, after studying Dram at ology at Ludwig Maximillian.

Red Spot Der Rote Punkt is her gradu at ion project and her debut fe at ure. She has also directed a number. Connie Walther studied Sociology and Spanish before switching over to Photography. After g at hering. Television Academy dffb in Berlin and landed her first success with her gradu at ion film Das erste Mal. Since then, she has. His first fe at ure film Chill Out played at festivals around the world, including.

Casting Astrid Rosenfeld Length 95 min Form at 35 mm, color, Jan Henrik Stahlberg is an actor and director. His films include: Bye Bye Berlusconi! Marie Jaoul de Poncheville began working as a journalist in and has been traveling to Central Asia. She has published the books Sept Femmes au Tibet and Le.

Magda Szwarcbart Length 97 min Form at 35 mm, color, He made his directorial debut in with the documentary Sekt oder Selters followed by the. Himmel und Hoelle. His other highlyacclaimed. From rose pink to the colors of snow: it is images th at make films. These films are wild, idiosyncr at ic and short… some even shorter. The films. Borders are opened up; passion has. Although the filmmakers of tomorrow may be very different with respect to their selected.

The diverse field of anim at ion domin at es their. The young filmmakers view cinema as a huge image machine, and so they cre at e images. The works are oriented on singular moments in the lives of individuals; decisive moments th at point onward,. Amoklove is a love story. The interval of a heartbe at provides the rhythm, over which the narr at ive lies: the. Repetition is necessary. Over the course of only one anim at ed minute, Rosarot tells the full drama.

Sp at zen is an homage to the plan sequence, showing the end of a. One night; a journey and permanent surprise. In the end, there is always the bird in the hand. Samsa — Hommage an Franz Kafka bows down to the gre at master, but at the same time it represents. The cultiv at ion of plants is a different cre at ive process. In the end,. In Clean Up the moment has passed: all th at. There is also description of the everyday in the film Keine. Besonderen Vorkommnisse: two soldiers control a check point in the middle of somewhere.

Feel Like Dancing makes us into voyeurs, and the shock goes deeper still. In the words of Gilles Deleuze,. German y — and th at is wh at makes them so special. Between gives us an intim at ion of this movement in the. Schneezeit allows us to sense time, and Lebensader brings us. Between is an experimental short film about the human psyche, its complex combin at ions and the.

Strolling in between different senses, caught in an endless loop of our inner life,. A magical moment between two people in the subway, but then it is all over and they will never. Fabian fights for his love and chases Marie through Stuttgart. Th at is. Somewhere in a war zone. Three young soldiers try to distract themselves from their everyday. Every time there is an execution, he has to restore this place as it was before. This experimental. In addition to communic at ion problems with.

Hamburg, and then at the Institute of Anim at ion at the. Snowtime is a filmic medit at ion about the essence of time. For decades, Oskar has been living in. The past and the future, memories. A man meets a woman in a bar. They walk through the night without any reason. Time and time again the brave knight takes off into b at tle. Even though his sword actually smells. Not until. N at ure from the assembly line. An observ at ion on the growing of geraniums in mass production and.

The beauty of n at ure, apparently perfectly reproduced in artificial. In , she founded Komplizen Film with. Ludwigshafen and Brussels. In addition, she has served as a freelance producer for such companies as R at Pack. Her most recent project. Exporters, and oper at es today in the legal form of a limited liability company. In addition, German Films has nine foreign represent at ives in eight countries. German Films is a founding member of the European Film Promotion, a network.

German Films. The organiz at ion, with its headquarters in Hamburg, aims to develop. German film industry German Films Quarterly , as well as intern at ional market. German films, a film archive, as well as inform at ion and links to German and intern at ional. German Films supports the use of paper from sustainable forestry.

For more inform at ion meet us in Cannes at the. Credits not contractual. On the eve of the First World War. The story of a school and church choir led by the local village teacher. His young singers and their families: squire, preacher, est at e manager, midwife, doctor, farmer — a slice of society. Strange accidents happen and become more and more like ritual punishment. Who is behind it all? Active as a director and playwright for television, film and the opera, he is also a professor for Directing at the Vienna Film Academy.

The rel at ionship between Rob and his f at her is awkward. Offering the highest resolution available, VISION3 Films continue to raise the bar with unrivaled highlight l at itude and reduced grain in shadows for gre at er flexibility and control in post. Learn more at www. But amidst their playful romps, secret rituals and silly habits belies an underlying tension. Full of verve, the idiosyncr at ic Gitti is fearless in expressing her love and devotion for Chris, while Chris is more reserved in his outlook on life and sports, varying personal and professional degrees of insecurity.

When they casually run into another, obviously happier and more successful, couple th at on top of it all appears to be modern gender role proof, their rel at ionship destabilizes. In a silly at tempt at lifestyle bootlegging, Chris begins to show his wilful girlfriend who is boss, with the result th at Gitti's faith in her partner takes a hard knock. She at tempts to conform to his new ideal, but wh at begins as a playful experiment soon turns into a quiet struggle with her own personality.

While Chris flourishes in his role as the stronger one of the two, Gitti begins to loosen up in a completely new way. While Thomas is willing to fill the void of their f at her, Consul Jean, and to steer the firm through the times of moderniz at ion and rising competition, his brother Christian is trying to break away from any responsibility.

We find him in dubious company, marrying a woman from a vaudeville show, rebelling against everything their f at her stood for. The sequences, abstract or concrete, range from short film to documentary, from essayistic to experimental. Through friendship, love and alcohol, Roddy is in search of the perfect music. With a scholarship from the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst in , she continued her film studies in Sydney.

After working on a few short films and documentary films, she was awarded the German Film Award in Gold for Best New Director in for her directorial fe at ure film debut Im Kreis der Lieben. Among her fe at ure film credits are popular hits such as Trio , Bibi Blocksberg , and most recently, The White Masai The arranged marriage spells the beginning of a monotonous existence for Effi far away from her hometown: Innstetten is entirely pre-occupied with his political career and the sleepy artist town of Kessin on the Baltic Sea shore offers little excitement.

Effi starts a passion at e affair with him and finally discovers wh at love is. But it comes at a steep price: The affair proves f at al for Crampas. Nor is it a happy period for Clara, who is reduced to the role of a housewife instead of an acclaimed concert pianist performing throughout Europe to sold-out halls. Th at is, until she meets the young, brilliant Johannes Brahms. Clara and Johannes fall for one another. Robert, who is sick and suffering from severe depression, at tempts to drown himself in the Rhine River.

His life is saved and he commits himself to a san at orium. The rel at ionship between Brahms and Clara grows even more intense. When Robert dies two years l at er, all the obstacles seem to have disappeared for them. Clara, however, refuses to marry again. She at tended the drama school for music and the at er in Hanover, and studied German and English Languages in Cologne.

In , she founded her own production company. Under the Pavement Lies the Beach became her breakthrough in Heinrich , her film on the life and de at h of the German poet Heinrich von Kleist, was awarded the German Film Award in Her film German y, Pale Mother remains an intern at ional success today and is one of the classics of German cinema. In the early 80s, he worked in the the at er as a director and wrote radio plays for the Austrian broadcaster ORF.

From , he worked as a freelance director and author for television, commercials and music videos. In , he made his fe at ure debut with Tempo, which won the Max Ophuels Award in Lilly is a completely normal year-old girl, until suddenly one day a magic book accompanied by its guardian Hector, a small and clumsy dragon, appear in her room.

Surulunda, a super-witch from the world of magic, has design at ed Lilly to be her successor and Hector to explain the job. But first Lilly must prove within 99 hours th at she is worthy of this burden. The magic book holds the promise of many exciting adventures but also of grave danger through the evil magician Hieronymus and his wish to rule the world.

Lilly must confront Hieronymus and prove th at she has wh at it takes to become the new superwitch. But more than anything else, she was a fighter who often fell, but never stayed down. Berlin, The collapse of Nazi German y looms, but young Hilde marches through the rubble of Berlin with only one thought in her head: she wants to become a star. With luck, looks, the right men and overwhelming self-confidence, she makes her way in the film world, both during and after the war, swapping her Nazi lover for a young Jewish husband.

Hollywood beckons, but Hilde is no Marlene. Underemployed and frustr at ed, she longs for German y. The divided country welcomes her back, but a short nude scene in The Sinner provokes a n at ional scandal, making her an outcast in her own country. The years go by in a whirl of successes and failures, of ups and downs.

After completing his studies, he began working as an assistant director. He made his breakthrough with Martha Jelineck, which was nomin at ed for the German Film Award in Among his most noted television productions are the filming of the diaries of the Jewish liter at ure professor Victor Klemperer, Klemperer — Ein Leben in Deutschland , as well as H at er Arbeit?

His epic miniseries Die Flucht was one of the top-r at ed fiction productions of Having stumbled onto the remote town with his son, Marc is obsessed by the tale of a gruesome multiple murder on a nearby farm back in At night, however, mysterious things begin to happen to Marc, an uncanny interweaving of visions and reality th at draws him ever deeper into the secret of the murders.

However, anti-HLA specific antibodies may also inhibit the expansion of regulatory T cells, which compromises graft tolerance 31 , Thus, it can also be expected that HLA class I ECs on SIC will not be recognized by antibodies, leading to the recruitment of leukocytes and amplifying allogeneic immune responses. A durable and sufficient HLA class I silencing effect was demonstrated in this study. However, HLA class I re-expression might be desirable in cases of viral infections or the development of cancer 33 , This could facilitate the recognition of affected allogeneic ECs and trigger an appropriate immune response leading to the elimination of the diseased ECs.

Different strategies have been developed to generally regulate gene expression in a controllable manner, for example, by using Tetracycline-regulated systems A controllable silencing system of HLA expression on ECs could potentially provide a safety strategy in case of infection or cancer. This approach may in the future have a wider application beyond ECs derived from human cord blood. The significance of a controllable HLA silencing system is even greater if allogeneic induced pluripotent stem cell iPSC -derived ECs are considered as a prospective cell source for endothelialization.

In particular, the use of low immunogenic ECs has the potential to simultaneously increase the haemocompatibility of SIC and decrease the strength of allogeneic immune responses. Interestingly, the genetic modification of ECs to downregulate HLA did not affect the capacity of ECs to respond physiologically to external stimuli.

These results pave the way for a new era of biologized LVAD therapy, in which anti-coagulative therapy could be significantly minimized or omitted entirely. Working towards this aim, future experiments need to evaluate the flow resistance of the EC monolayer on SIC. Also, the development of ovine and porcine animal models to evaluate the efficiency of LVAD seeded with low immunogenic ECs will be an important milestone.

Acute and chronic large animal models will be fundamental for the future evaluation of haematological, inflammatory and immunological responses targeting the EC monolayers on the SIC of a functional LVAD and can contribute towards optimizing LVAD function and therapeutic efficiency.

Umbilical cords were obtained with informed consent. All experiments were performed in accordance with relevant guidelines, regulations and approved by the ethics committee of Hannover Medical School. Immunofluorescence staining was used to illustrate the integrity of the cell-to-cell contacts within the EC monolayer on the SIC.

The vectors were produced as previously described Lentiviral vector transduction was performed in six well TCPs. Viability and qualitative seeding efficiency were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. Platelets PLT isolated by aphaeresis were stained with an allophycocyanin-conjugated anti-CD61 antibody. All measurements were performed in triplicate. Cell lysis rates were evaluated by quantification of the activity of lactate dehydrogenase LDH in the supernatant released from damaged cells.

All tests were run in triplicate. The results were expressed as mean values with standard deviation SD. This study was approved by the ethics committee of Hannover Medical School. Conceived and designed the research: C. Performed the research: Y. Analyzed the data: C.

Wrote and edited the paper: C. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Constanca Figueiredo, Email: ed. Bettina Wiegmann, Email: ed. Supplementary information accompanies this paper at National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Sci Rep. Published online Aug 5.

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received Mar 11; Accepted Jul 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Low haemocompatibility of left ventricular assist devices LVAD surfaces necessitates anticoagulative therapy. Subject terms: Biomaterials - cells, Molecular medicine. Introduction According to the World Health Organization, cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide, with an increasing incidence and prevalence 1.

Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Table 1 Cytokine secretion profile. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Discussion Taking LVAD therapy towards a permanent, functionally safe and genuine alternative to heart transplantation means working to minimize the side effects of the therapy. Material and Methods Isolation and cell culture of human cord blood derived endothelial cells ECs were isolated, initially cultured and characterized by fluorescence activated cell sorting FACS and RT-PCR as previously described 14 , Statistical analysis All tests were run in triplicate.

Ethics approval and consent to participate This study was approved by the ethics committee of Hannover Medical School. Supplementary information Supplementary Information K, docx. Author Contributions Conceived and designed the research: C. Data Availability All data is included in the manuscript. Competing Interests The authors declare no competing interests. Contributor Information Constanca Figueiredo, Email: ed. Supplementary information Supplementary information accompanies this paper at References 1.

Mozaffarian D, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics— update: a report from the American Heart Association. Yusen RD, et al. J Heart Lung Transplant. Slaughter MS, et al. Advanced heart failure treated with continuous-flow left ventricular assist device.

N Engl J Med. Cipriani M, et al. Ventricular assist devices for heart failure: a focus on patient selection and complications. Research Reports in Clinical Cardiology. Comparison of continuous-flow and pulsatile-flow left ventricular assist devices: is there an advantage to pulsatility?

Ann Cardiothorac Surg. Wiedemann D, et al. Eur Cardiol. Klopsch C, Steinhoff G. Tissue-engineered devices in cardiovascular surgery. Eur Surg Res. Humoral immunity and antibody-mediated rejection in solid organ transplantation. Semin Immunol. Borger AK, et al. Mol Med. Figueiredo C, et al. MHC universal cells survive in an allogeneic environment after incompatible transplantation. Biomed Res Int. Gras C, et al.

HLA-universal platelet transfusions prevent platelet refractoriness in a mouse model. Hum Gene Ther. Wiegmann B, et al. Prevention of rejection of allogeneic endothelial cells in a biohybrid lung by silencing HLA-class I expression. Sajgalik P, et al. Mayo Clin Proc.

An analytical study of the effects of transverse shear deformation and anisotropy on natural vibration frequencies of laminated cylinders.

Eicke bettinga shearing definition To confirm eicke bettinga shearing definition shear resistance vakarm csgo lounge betting url these stubby shear connectors, we performed an experiment by using transverse rebars D13 and D Numerical investigation of tip clearance effects on propulsion performance and pressure fluctuation of a pump-jet propulsor. Effect of the cavitation generation unit structure on the performance of an advanced hydrodynamic cavitation reactor for process intensifications. A fully Eulerian multiphase model of windblown sand coupled with morphodynamic evolution: Erosion, transport, deposition, and avalanching. A thin rivulet or ridge subject to a uniform transverse shear stress at its free surface due to an external airflow. Abstract Low haemocompatibility of left ventricular assist devices LVAD surfaces necessitates anticoagulative therapy.
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Eicke bettinga shearing definition The shell theory is based on "small" strains and "moderate" rotations, and no shell-thinness approximations are used. But then Dian, a young Bulgarian man, comes along and helps Andrea fix the bike. Performance investigation and design optimization of micro scale compressed air axial turbine for domestic solar powered Brayton cycle. Numerical and analytical predictions of nuclear steam generator secondary side flow field during blowdown due to a feedwater line break. Fromhe worked as a freelance director and.
Eicke bettinga shearing definition This measurement is the statistical aggregation of 2. He worked as an intern for several commercial eicke bettinga shearing definition companies, as a loc at ion manager and production assistant for German TV and the at rical films. For Hanna, the most important thing is to be together with Thomas. She makes her decisions using a calcul at or. Numerical simulation of gas-liquid flows in a centrifugal rotor. All that he achieves is to annoy her and create interference in radio and electricity transmissions. The Ranotsara Zone is not a megascale intracrustal strike-slip shear zone that crosscuts the entire basement of southern Madagascar.
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Rounded stretched exponential for time relaxation functions. This expression fits well the shear stress relaxation function for model soft soft-sphere fluids near coexistence, with tau E shear stress relaxation both the modulus and viscosity forms. It is shown that both the dielectric spectra and dynamic shear modulus imaginary parts approach the real axis with a slope equal to 0 at high frequency, whereas the dynamic viscosity has an infinite slope in the same limit.

This indicates that inertial effects at high frequency are best discerned in the modulus rather than the viscosity Cole-Cole plot. As a consequence of the even expansion in time of the shear stress relaxation function, the value of the storage modulus derived from it at very high frequency exceeds that in the infinite frequency limit i. Shear -stress fluctuations and relaxation in polymer glasses. Using independent configurations, we pay attention to the respective standard deviations.

The question of whether the shear modulus is continuous or has a jump singularity at the glass transition is thus ill posed. Shear -induced conformational ordering, relaxation , and crystallization of isotactic polypropylene. The shear -induced coil-helix transition of isotactic polypropylene iPP has been studied with time -resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at various temperatures.

The effects of temperature, shear rate, and strain on the coil-helix transition were studied systematically. The induced conformational order increases with the shear rate and strain. A threshold of shear strain is required to induce conformational ordering. High temperature reduces the effect of shear on the conformational order, though a simple correlation was not found. Following the shear -induced conformational ordering, relaxation of helices occurs, which follows the first-order exponential decay at temperatures well above the normal melting point of iPP.

At temperatures around the normal melting point, two exponential decays are needed to fit well on the relaxation kinetic of helices. This suggests that two different states of helices are induced by shear : i isolated single helices far away from each other without interactions, which have a fast relaxation kinetic; ii aggregations of helices or helical bundles with strong interactions among each other, which have a much slower relaxation process.

The helical bundles are assumed to be the precursors of nuclei for crystallization. The different helix concentrations and distributions are the origin of the three different processes of crystallization after shear. The correlation between the shear -induced conformational order and crystallization is discussed. Amorphous materials include many common products we use everyday, such as window glass, moisturizer, shaving cream and peanut butter.

These materials have liquid-like disordered structure, but keep their shapes like a solid. The rheology of dense amorphous materials under large shear strain is not fully understood, partly due to the difficulty of directly viewing the microscopic details of such materials.

We use a colloidal suspension to simulate amorphous materials, and study the shear - induced structural relaxation with fast confocal microscopy. We quantify the plastic rearrangements of the particles using standard analysis techniques based on the motion of the particles. Stress relaxation at a gelatin hydrogel-glass interface in direct shear sliding.

In this paper, we study experimentally the stress relaxation behavior of soft solids such as gelatin hydrogels on a smooth glass surface in direct shear sliding. It is observed experimentally that irrespective of pulling velocity, the sliding block relaxes to the same level of nonzero residual stress.

However, residual stress increases with increasing gelatin concentration in the hydrogels. We have also validated a friction model for strong bond formation during steady relaxation in light of the experimental observations. Our theoretical analysis establishes that population of dangling chains at the sliding interface significantly affects the relaxation process.

As a result, residual stress increases with increasing gelatin concentration or decreasing mesh size of the three-dimensional structures in the hydrogels. It is also found that the transition time , at which a weak bond converts to strong bond, increases with increasing mesh size of the hydrogels. Moreover, relaxation time constant of a strong bond decreases with increasing mesh size. However, activation length of a strong bond increases with mesh size. Finally, this study signifies the role of residual strength in frictional shear sliding and it is believed that these results should be useful to understand the role of residual stress in stick-slip instability.

The relaxation of the second moments in rapid shear flows of smooth disks. This paper compares the results of numerical simulations for two- dimensional, rapid, homogeneous shear flows of identical, smooth, inelastic disks with the predictions of Jenkins and Richman JFM , for the relaxation of the second moments of the velocity distribution function following a homogeneous, but anisotropic disturbance of their steady values.

For nearly elastic disks, the time -history of the relaxation is in excellent agreement with the theory in both its dense and dilute limits. However, deviations are observed in the case of inelastic particles. Pair plasma relaxation time scales. By numerically solving the relativistic Boltzmann equations, we compute the time scale for relaxation to thermal equilibrium for an optically thick electron-positron plasma with baryon loading.

We focus on the time scales of electromagnetic interactions. The collisional integrals are obtained directly from the corresponding QED matrix elements. Thermalization time scales are computed for a wide range of values of both the total-energy density over 10 orders of magnitude and of the baryonic loading parameter over 6 orders of magnitude. This also allows us to study such interesting limiting cases as the almost purely electron-positron plasma or electron-proton plasma as well as intermediate cases.

These results appear to be important both for laboratory experiments aimed at generating optically thick pair plasmas as well as for astrophysical models in which electron-positron pair plasmas play a relevant role. Shear elasticity and shear relaxation in glass-forming polymer melts and films. Here we present results from molecular dynamics simulations for the temperature T dependence of G. Our simulations examine a coarse-grained polymer model for bulk polymer melts and free-standing films of various thicknesses.

We discuss both methods, show that they give consistent results, and also compare the resulting G with estimates of the nonergodicity parameter from the shear -stress auto-correlation function and the monomer mean-square displacement.

The analysis is then extended to free-standing films. We find that the presence of the free interfaces weakens the shear rigidity of the polymer glass relative to the bulk. We discuss the dependence of this effect on film thickness and on the distance to the free interface and compare our results to similar findings in the literature. Kriuchevskyi, J. Wittmer, H. Relaxation time estimation in surface NMR.

NMR relaxation time estimation methods and corresponding apparatus generate two or more alternating current transmit pulses with arbitrary amplitudes, time delays, and relative phases; apply a surface NMR acquisition scheme in which initial preparatory pulses, the properties of which may be fixed across a set of multiple acquisition sequence, are transmitted at the start of each acquisition sequence and are followed by one or more depth sensitive pulses, the pulse moments of which are varied across the set of multiple acquisition sequences; and apply processing techniques in which recorded NMR response data are used to estimate NMR properties and the relaxation times T.

The viscoelasticity of a biofilm's EPS extracellular-polymeric-substance matrix conveys protection against mechanical challenges, but adaptive responses of biofilm inhabitants to produce EPS are not well known.

ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with tribometry indicated that the polysaccharide production per bacterium in the initial adhering layer was higher during growth at high shear than at low shear and this increased EPS production extended to entire biofilms, as indicated by tribometrically measured coefficients of friction CoF. CoFs of biofilms grown under high fluid shear were higher than when grown under low shear , likely due to wash-off of polysaccharides.

Measurement of a biofilm's CoF implies application of mechanical pressure that yielded an immediate increase in polysaccharide band area of S. Biofilms grown under low shear however, were stimulated during tribometry to produce EPS, also after stress relieve. Knowledge of factors that govern EPS production and water flow in biofilms will allow better control of biofilms under mechanical challenge and understanding of the barrier properties of biofilms toward antimicrobial penetration.

The dynamics of proteins in the unfolded state can be quantified in computer simulations by calculating a spectrum of relaxation times which describes the time scales over which the population fluctuations decay to equilibrium. If the unfolded state space is discretized, we can evaluate the relaxation time of each state.

We derive a simple relation that shows the mean first passage time to any state is equal to the relaxation time of that state divided by the equilibrium population. This explains why mean first passage times from state to state within the unfolded ensemble can be very long but the energy landscape can still be smooth minimally frustrated. In fact, when the folding kinetics is two-state, all of the unfolded state relaxation times within the unfolded free energy basin are faster than the folding time.

This result supports the well-established funnel energy landscape picture and resolves an apparent contradiction between this model and the recently proposed kinetic hub model of protein folding. We validate these concepts by analyzing a Markov state model of the kinetics in the unfolded state and folding of the miniprotein NTL9 where NTL9 is the N -terminal domain of the ribosomal protein L9 , constructed from a 2.

Shaw Research. We validate these concepts by analyzing a Markov state model of the kinetics in the unfolded state and folding of the miniprotein NTL9 where NTL9 is the N-terminal domain of the ribosomal protein L9 , constructed from a 2. Structural steady states and relaxation oscillations in a two-phase fluid under shear flow: Experiments and phenomenological model. Depending on the nature of the imposed dynamical parameter stress or shear rate and on the experimental conditions brine salinity or temperature , we observe several different structural steady states consisting of either multilamellar droplets with or without a long range order or elongated L3 phase domains.

Two different astonishing phenomena, shear -induced phase inversion and relaxation oscillations, are observed. To explain these relaxation oscillations, we present a phenomenological model and compare its numerical predictions to our experimental results. A microscopic analysis is presented of the existing definitions of equilibrium surface tension, which can be divided into two types: mechanical and thermodynamic.

Each type of definition can be studied from the presentation below according to thermodynamic hypotheses or molecular calculations. An analysis of the planar interface is given and its generalization for curved spherical interfaces is considered. The distinction between approaches describing the surface tension of metastable and equilibrium droplets is discussed. Based on nonequilibrium thermodynamics, it is shown that the introduction of metastable droplets is due to a violation of the relationship between the times of impulse and chemical potential relaxation in condensed phases.

Problems of calculating the surface tension in nonequilibrium situations are created. Immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann model based on multiple relaxation times. As an alterative version of the lattice Boltzmann models, the multiple relaxation time MRT lattice Boltzmann model introduces much less numerical boundary slip than the single relaxation time SRT lattice Boltzmann model if some special relationship between the relaxation time parameters is chosen.

On the other hand, most current versions of the immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann method, which was first introduced by Feng and improved by many other authors, suffer from numerical boundary slip as has been investigated by Le and Zhang.

To reduce such a numerical boundary slip, an immerse boundary lattice Boltzmann model based on multiple relaxation times is proposed in this paper. A special formula is given between two relaxation time parameters in the model. A rigorous analysis and the numerical experiments carried out show that the numerical boundary slip reduces dramatically by using the present model compared to the single- relaxation-time -based model.

The relaxation dynamics toward a hydrostatic equilibrium after a change in phase saturation in porous media is governed by fluid reconfiguration at the pore scale. Little is known whether a hydrostatic equilibrium in which all interfaces come to rest is ever reached and which microscopic processes govern the time scales of relaxation. Here we apply fast synchrotron-based X-ray tomography X-ray CT to measure the slow relaxation dynamics of fluid interfaces in a glass bead pack after fast drainage of the sample.

The equilibration of capillary pressures occurs in two stages: i a quick relaxation within seconds in which most of the pressure drop that built up during drainage is dissipated, a process that is to fast to be captured with fast X-ray CT, and ii a slow relaxation with characteristic time scales of 1—4 h which manifests itself as a spontaneous imbibition process that is well described by the Washburn equation for capillary rise in porous media.

The slow relaxation implies that a hydrostatic equilibrium is hardly ever attained in practice when conducting two-phase experiments in which a flux boundary condition is changed from flow to no-flow. Implications for experiments with pressure boundary conditions are discussed.

Resistivity scaling and electron relaxation times in metallic nanowires. Moors, Kristof, E-mail: kristof itf. We study the resistivity scaling in nanometer-sized metallic wires due to surface roughness and grain-boundaries, currently the main cause of electron scattering in nanoscaled interconnects.

The resistivity has been obtained with the Boltzmann transport equation, adopting the relaxation time approximation of the distribution function and the effective mass approximation for the conducting electrons. The relaxation times are calculated exactly, using Fermi's golden rule, resulting in a correct relaxation time for every sub-band state contributing to the transport. In general, the relaxation time strongly depends on the sub-band state, something that remained unclear with the methods of previous work.

Our model clearly indicates that the resistivity is dominated by grain-boundary scattering, easily surpassing the surface roughness contribution by a factor of Magnetic resonance imaging relaxation time in Alzheimer's disease. The magnetic resonance imaging MRI relaxation time constants, T1 and T2, are sensitive to changes in brain tissue microstructure integrity. Quantitative T1 and T2 relaxation times have been proposed to serve as non-invasive biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease AD , in which alterations are believed to not only reflect AD-related neuropathology but also cognitive impairment.

In this review, we summarize the applications and key findings of MRI techniques in the context of both AD subjects and AD transgenic mouse models. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms of relaxation time alterations in AD will be discussed. Future studies could focus on relaxation time alterations in the early stage of AD, and longitudinal studies are needed to further explore relaxation time alterations during disease progression. All rights reserved.

Lattice-level observation of the elastic-to-plastic relaxation process with subnanosecond resolution in shock-compressed Ta using time -resolved in situ Laue diffraction. We report direct lattice level measurements of plastic relaxation kinetics through time -resolved, in-situ Laue diffraction of shock-compressed single-crystal [] Ta at pressures of GPa.

Amorphous water plays a fundamental role in astrophysics, cryoelectron microscopy, hydration of matter, and our understanding of anomalous liquid water properties. Yet, the characteristics of the relaxation processes taking place in high-density amorphous ice HDA are unknown. We here reveal that the relaxation processes in HDA at K at 0. Measured relaxation times suggest liquid-like relaxation characteristics in the vicinity of the crystallization temperature at K. By carefully relaxing pressurized HDA for several hours at K, we produce a state that is closer to the ideal glass state than all HDA states discussed so far in literature.

A quantum relaxation-time approximation for finite fermion systems. We propose a relaxation time approximation for the description of the dynamics of strongly excited fermion systems. Our approach is based on time -dependent density functional theory at the level of the local density approximation.

This mean-field picture is augmented by collisional correlations handled in relaxation time approximation which is inspired from the corresponding semi-classical picture. The relaxation time approximation implies evaluation of the instantaneous equilibrium state towards which the dynamical state is progressively driven at the pace of the microscopic relaxation time. As test case, we consider Na clusters of various sizes excited either by a swift ion projectile or by a short and intense laser pulse, driven in various dynamical regimes ranging from linear to strongly non-linear reactions.

We observe a strong effect of dissipation on sensitive observables such as net ionization and angular distributions of emitted electrons. Technical details on the actual procedure to implement a working recipe of such a quantum relaxation approximation are given in appendices for completeness. Technical Monitor. This article provides a concise exposition of the multiple- relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation, with examples of fifteen-velocity and nineteen-velocity models in three dimensions.

The results clearly demonstrate the superior numerical stability of the multiple- relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation over the popular lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation. Real- time shear velocity imaging using sonoelastographic techniques. In this paper, a novel sonoelastographic technique for estimating local shear velocities from propagating shear wave interference patterns termed crawling waves is introduced.

A relationship between the local crawling wave spatial phase derivatives and local shear wave velocity is derived with phase derivatives estimated using an autocorrelation technique. Results from homogeneous phantoms demonstrate the ability of sonoelastographic shear velocity imaging to quantify the true underlying shear velocity distributions as verified using time -of-flight measurements.

Heterogeneous phantom results reveal the capacity for lesion detection and shear velocity quantification as validated from mechanical measurements on phantom samples. Experimental results obtained from a prostate specimen illustrated feasibility for shear velocity imaging in tissue.

More importantly, high-contrast visualization of focal carcinomas was demonstrated introducing the clinical potential of this novel sonoelastographic imaging technique. Coupled kinetic equations for fermions and bosons in the relaxation-time approximation. Kinetic equations for fermions and bosons are solved numerically in the relaxation-time approximation for the case of one-dimensional boost-invariant geometry.

Fermions are massive and carry baryon number, while bosons are massless. The conservation laws for the baryon number, energy, and momentum lead to two Landau matching conditions, which specify the coupling between the fermionic and bosonic sectors and determine the proper- time dependence of the effective temperature and baryon chemical potential of the system. The numerical results illustrate how a nonequilibrium mixture of fermions and bosons approaches hydrodynamic regime described by the Navier-Stokes equations with appropriate forms of the kinetic coefficients.

The shear viscosity of a mixture is the sum of the shear viscosities of fermion and boson components, while the bulk viscosity is given by the formula known for a gas of fermions, however, with the thermodynamic variables characterising the mixture. Thus, we find that massless bosons contribute in a nontrivial way to the bulk viscosity of a mixture, provided fermions are massive.

We further observe the hydrodynamization effect, which takes place earlier in the shear sector than in the bulk one. The numerical studies of the ratio of the longitudinal and transverse pressures show, to a good approximation, that it depends on the ratio of the relaxation and proper times only.

This behavior is connected with the existence of an attractor solution for conformal systems. Relaxation Processes and Time Scale Transformation. Given this general framework, it is now Consider two continuous time scales e and t. Mindfulness meditation and relaxation training increases time sensitivity. Two experiments examined the effect of mindfulness meditation and relaxation on time perception using a temporal bisection task.

In Experiment 1, the participants performed a temporal task before and after exercises of mindfulness meditation or relaxation. In Experiment 2, the procedure was similar than that used in Experiment 1, except that the participants were trained to mediate or relax every day over a period of several weeks.

The results showed that mindfulness meditation exercises increased sensitivity to time and lengthened perceived time. However, this temporal improvement with meditation exercises was primarily observed in the experienced meditators. Our results also showed the experienced meditators were less anxious than the novice participants, and that the sensitivity to time increased when the level of anxiety decreased.

Our results were explained by the practice of mindfulness technique that had developed individuals' abilities in devoting more attention resources to temporal information processing. Effects of Stress and Relaxation on Time Perception. Multiple measures of time production, time estimation Multiple measures of time production, time estimation, perceived rate, and attention to time domains past.

Relaxation times measurement in single and multiply excited xenon clusters. Direct measurement of the rates of nonradiative relaxation processes in electronically excited xenon clusters was carried out. The clusters were created in a pulsed supersonic beam and two-photon excited by femtosecond laser pulses with a wavelength of nm. The measurements were performed using the pump-probe method and electron spectroscopy. It is shown that relaxation of light clusters XeN N time constant of 3 ps.

Multiply excited clusters are deactivated via energy exchange between excited centers with the ionization of one of them. Time -dependent behavior of rough discontinuities under shearing conditions. The mechanical properties of rocks are generally controlled by their discontinuities. In this study, the time -dependent behavior of rough artificial joints under shearing conditions was investigated.

The test results showed that the shear strength of discontinuity was linearly related to roughness, and subsequently an empirical equation was established. The long-term strength of discontinuity can be identified using the inflection point of the isocreep-rate curve, and it was linearly related to roughness. Furthermore, the ratio of long-term and instantaneous strength decreased with the increase of roughness.

The shear -stiffness coefficient increased with the increase of shear rate, and the influence of shear rate on the shear stiffness coefficient decreased with the decrease of roughness. Further study of the mechanism revealed that these results could be attributed to the different time -dependent behavior of intact and joint rocks.

Hyperpolarized nanodiamond with long spin- relaxation times. The use of hyperpolarized agents in magnetic resonance, such as 13C-labelled compounds, enables powerful new imaging and detection modalities that stem from a 10,fold boost in signal.

A major challenge for the future of the hyperpolarization technique is the inherently short spin- relaxation times , typically time that the signal remains boosted. Here we demonstrate that 1. Combined with the already established applications of nanodiamonds in the life sciences as inexpensive fluorescent markers and non-cytotoxic substrates for gene and drug delivery, these results extend the theranostic capabilities of nanoscale diamonds into the domain of hyperpolarized magnetic resonance.

On the nonlinear variation of dc conductivity with dielectric relaxation time. Here we provide a formalism using a zeroth order Bjerrum description for ion association to show that in addition to its variation with temperature T and pressure P, impurity ion population varies with a liquid's equilibrium dielectric permittivity. This is illustrated by using the data for ultraviscous acetaminophen-aspirin liquid. Value of shear wave arrival time contour display in shear wave elastography for breast masses diagnosis.

To evaluate the diagnostic performance of shear wave arrival time contour SWATC display for the diagnosis of breast lesions and to identify factors associated with the quality of shear wave propagation QSWP in breast lesions.

This study included pathologically confirmed breast lesions. Conventional B-mode ultrasound characteristics and shear wave elastography parameters were computed. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with QSWP. Atomistic simulation methods are known for timescale limitations in resolving slow dynamical processes. Two well-known scenarios of slow dynamics are viscous relaxation in supercooled liquids and creep deformation in stressed solids.

In both phenomena the challenge to theory and simulation is to sample the transition state pathways efficiently and follow the dynamical processes on long timescales. We present a perspective based on the biased molecular simulation methods such as metadynamics, autonomous basin climbing ABC , strain-boost and adaptive boost simulations.

Such algorithms can enable an atomic-level explanation of the temperature variation of the shear viscosity of glassy liquids, and the relaxation behavior in solids undergoing creep deformation. By discussing the dynamics of slow relaxation in two quite different areas of condensed matter science, we hope to draw attention to other complex problems where anthropological or geological-scale time behavior can be simulated at atomic resolution and understood in terms of micro-scale processes of molecular rearrangements and collective interactions.

As examples of a class of phenomena that can be broadly classified as materials ageing, we point to stress corrosion cracking and cement setting as opportunities for atomistic modeling and simulations. Shear wave arrival time estimates correlate with local speckle pattern. We present simulation and phantom studies demonstrating a strong correlation between errors in shear wave arrival time estimates and the lateral position of the local speckle pattern in targets with fully developed speckle.

We hypothesize that the observed arrival time variations are largely due to the underlying speckle pattern, and call the effect speckle bias. Arrival time estimation is a key step in quantitative shear wave elastography, performed by tracking tissue motion via cross-correlation of RF ultrasound echoes or similar methods. Variations in scatterer strength and interference of echoes from scatterers within the tracking beam result in an echo that does not necessarily describe the average motion within the beam, but one favoring areas of constructive interference and strong scattering.

A swept-receive image, formed by fixing the transmit beam and sweeping the receive aperture over the region of interest, is used to estimate the local speckle pattern. Lateral weighting of the swept-receive pattern improved the correlation between arrival time estimates and speckle position.

The simulations indicate that high RF echo correlation does not equate to an accurate shear wave arrival time estimate-a high correlation coefficient indicates that motion is being tracked with high precision, but the location tracked is uncertain within the tracking beam width.

The presence of a strong on-axis speckle is seen to imply high RF correlation and low bias. The converse does not appear to be true-highly correlated RF echoes can still produce biased arrival time estimates. PubMed Central. Arrival time estimation is a key step in quantitative shear wave elastography, performed by tracking tissue motion via cross correlation of RF ultrasound echoes or similar methods.

The simulations indicate that high RF echo correlation does not equate to an accurate shear wave arrival time estimate — a high correlation coefficient indicates that motion is being tracked with high precision, but the location tracked is uncertain within the tracking beam width. The converse does not appear to be true — highly correlated RF echoes can still produce biased arrival time estimates. Effective rotational correlation times of proteins from NMR relaxation interference.

Its use is suggested for a quick estimate of the rotational correlation time , to monitor sample quality and to determine optimal parameters for complex multidimensional NMR experiments. Cartilage is responsive to the loading imposed during cyclic routine activities. However, the local relation between cartilage in terms of thickness distribution and biochemical composition and the local contact pressure during walking has not been established.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the relation between cartilage thickness, proteoglycan and collagen concentration in the knee joint and knee loading in terms of contact forces and pressure during walking. Experimental gait data was processed using musculoskeletal modeling to calculate the contact forces, impulses and pressure distribution in the tibiofemoral joint.

Local thickness was significantly correlated with local pressure: medial thickness was correlated with medial condyle contact pressure and contact force, and lateral condyle thickness was correlated with lateral condyle contact pressure and contact force during stance. Thicker cartilage was correlated with higher condylar loading during walking, suggesting that cartilage thickness is increased in those areas experiencing higher loading during a cyclic activity such as gait.

Bayesian relaxed clock estimation of divergence times in foraminifera. Accurate and precise estimation of divergence times during the Neo-Proterozoic is necessary to understand the speciation dynamic of early Eukaryotes. However such deep divergences are difficult to date, as the molecular clock is seriously violated. Recent improvements in Bayesian molecular dating techniques allow the relaxation of the molecular clock hypothesis as well as incorporation of multiple and flexible fossil calibrations.

Divergence times can then be estimated even when the evolutionary rate varies among lineages and even when the fossil calibrations involve substantial uncertainties. In this paper, we used a Bayesian method to estimate divergence times in Foraminifera, a group of unicellular eukaryotes, known for their excellent fossil record but also for the high evolutionary rates of their genomes.

Based on multigene data we reconstructed the phylogeny of Foraminifera and dated their origin and the major radiation events. Our estimates suggest that Foraminifera emerged during the Cryogenian Ma, Neo-Proterozoic , with a mean time around Ma, about Myr before the first appearance of reliable foraminiferal fossils in sediments Ma. Most dates are in agreement with the fossil record, but in general our results suggest earlier origins of foraminiferal orders.

We found that the posterior time estimates were robust to specifications of the prior. Our results highlight inter-species variations of evolutionary rates in Foraminifera. Their effect was partially overcome by using the partitioned Bayesian analysis to accommodate rate heterogeneity among data partitions and using the relaxed molecular clock to account for changing evolutionary rates.

However, more coding genes appear necessary to obtain more precise estimates of divergence times and to resolve the conflicts between fossil and molecular date estimates. Magmatisms related to the shear zone evolution took place before, during or after shearing process that contributes to pre-, syn- and post- granitic emplacement.

Combined structure, fabric and geochronology analyses of granitic rocks within sheared Proterozoic country rocks along the ASRR shear zone offer important clues on timing of shearing activity and constraining on transformation of types of the shearing. The Permo-Triassic intrusions show evidences for intensive mylonitization.

The older Cenozoic granitic rocks were also strongly sheared , but the younger Cenozoic granites were weakly sheared and they cut across early intrusions e. Petrographic microscope observations suggest that the Permo-Triassic granitic intrusions show prominent superimposition of high temperature mylonization by low temperature mylonization.

Quartz c-axis fabrics of the granites demonstrate that there are multiple maxima due to the superimposition. The older Cenozoic granitic intrusion of The EBSD data indicate that the intrusion experienced pure shearing. Intrusions of The quartz c-axis patterns of the rocks dominantly resulted from low temperature deformation by simple shearing. It is concluded, in summary, that: 1 Permo-Triassic granitic intrusions experienced superimposed shearing of high and low temperatures; 2 Evidences for both early pure.

The objective of the present study is to systematically elucidate the time -dependent rheological behavior of concentrated xanthan gum systems in complicated step- shear flow fields. Using a strain-controlled rheometer ARES , step- shear flow behaviors of a concentrated xanthan gum model solution have been experimentally investigated in interrupted shear flow fields with a various combination of different shear rates, shearing times and rest times , and step-incremental and step-reductional shear flow fields with various shearing times.

The main findings obtained from this study are summarized as follows. The shear stress is suddenly decreased immediately after the imposed shear rate is stopped, and then slowly decayed during the period of a rest time. The time needed to reach the maximum stress value is shortened as an increase in step-increased shear rate.

The time needed to reach the minimum stress value is lengthened as a decrease in step-decreased shear rate. The recovery times of upper D region electron density elevations, caused by lightning-induced electromagnetic pulses EMP , are modeled. Relaxation model scenarios are considered first for a weak enhancement in electron density and then for a much stronger one caused by an intense lightning EMP acting as an impulsive ionization source.

The calculated recovery times agree fairly well with LORE observations. In addition, a simplified quasi-analytic model build for the key charged species and chemical reactions is applied, which arrives at similar results with those of the full kinetic model. Finally, the modeled recovery estimates for lower altitudes, that is times of typical early VLF events, which are known to be associated with sprites.

Magnetic resonance imaging MRI and relaxation time mapping of concrete. This thesis will approach the problem of MR imaging of concrete by attempting to design new methods, suited to concrete materials, rather than attempting to force the material to suit the method. A number of techniques were developed, which allow the spatial observation of water in concrete in up to three dimensions, and permits the determination of space resolved moisture content, as well as local NMR relaxation times.

The development of these new methods will be described, and the techniques validated using phantom studies. The study of one-dimensional moisture transport in drying concrete was performed using SPI. This work examined the effect of initial mixture proportions and hydration time on the drying behaviour of concrete, over a period of three months.

Using relaxation weighting it was shown to be possible to discriminate between water contained within a hydrated cement matrix, and water in highly porous aggregates, used to produce low-density concrete. Three dimensional experiments performed using SPRITE and turboSPI examined the role of self-dessication, drying, initial aggregate saturation and initial mixture conditions on the transport of moisture between porous.

Implicit versus explicit momentum relaxation time solution for semiconductor nanowires. Marin, E. We discuss the necessity of the exact implicit Momentum Relaxation Time MRT solution of the Boltzmann transport equation in order to achieve reliable carrier mobility results in semiconductor nanowires. Firstly, the implicit solution for a 1D electron gas with a isotropic bandstructure is presented resulting in the formulation of a simple matrix system.

Using this solution as a reference, the explicit approach is demonstrated to be inaccurate for the calculation of inelastic anisotropic mechanisms such as polar optical phonons, characteristic of III-V materials. Its validity for elastic and isotropic mechanisms is also evaluated. Here the authors investigate the dependence of the relaxation times on the magnetic field strength and the implications for MPI and MPS.

Detection of weak signals through nonlinear relaxation times for a Brownian particle in an electromagnetic field. The detection of weak signals through nonlinear relaxation times for a Brownian particle in an electromagnetic field is studied in the dynamical relaxation of the unstable state, characterized by a two-dimensional bistable potential. The detection process depends on a dimensionless quantity referred to as the receiver output, calculated as a function of the nonlinear relaxation time and being a characteristic time scale of our system.

The latter characterizes the complete dynamical relaxation of the Brownian particle as it relaxes from the initial unstable state of the bistable potential to its corresponding steady state. The one-dimensional problem is also studied to complement the description. A new insight into the dependence of relaxation time on frequency in viscoelastic surfactant solutions: From experimental to modeling study. The simplistic assumption of a single and constant relaxation time is not representative of all relaxation modes in these solutions especially at high frequencies.

Furthermore, a novel semi-empirical rheological model is deducted based on Cates theory. This model introduces, for the first time , a frequency-dependence for the continuous relaxation time spectrum. In addition, the proposed model significantly improves predictions of traditional Maxwell model for different viscoelastic surfactant solutions using data from this study and the literature for a considerable range of surfactant and salt combinations at a wide range of temperature.

Shear Thinning in Xenon. We measured shear thinning, a viscosity decrease ordinarily associated with complex liquids such as molten plastics or ketchup, near the critical point of xenon. The data span a wide range of dimensionless shear rate: the product of the shear rate and the relaxation time of critical fluctuations was greater than 0.

As predicted by theory, shear thinning occurred when this product was greater than 1. The measurements were conducted aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia to avoid the density stratification caused by Earth's gravity. Due to the small skin depth in metals at optical frequencies, their plasmonic response is strongly dictated by their surface properties.

Copper Cu is one of the standard materials of choice for plasmonic applications, because of its high conductivity and CMOS compatibility. However, being a chemically active material, it gets easily oxidized when left in ambient environment, causing an inevitable degradation in its plasmonic resonance. Here, for the first time , we report a strong enhancement in the optical relaxation time in Cu by direct growth of few-layer graphene that is shown to act as an excellent passivation layer protecting Cu surface from any deterioration.

We also study the impact of graphene quality and show that high quality graphene leads to an even larger improvement in electron scattering rate. These findings are expected to provide a big push towards graphene-protected Cu plasmonics. The Holometer program is a search for rst experimental evidence that space- time has quantum structure. The detector consists of a pair of co-located m power-recycled interferometers whose outputs are read out synchronously at 50 MHz, achieving sensitivity to spatiallycorrelated uctuations in dierential position on time scales shorter than the light-crossing time of the instruments.

Unlike gravitational wave interferometers, which time -resolve transient geometrical disturbances in the spatial background, the Holometer is searching for a universal, stationary quantization noise of the background itself. Measurements of high-frequency cross-spectra of the interferometer signals obtain sensitivity to spatially-correlated eects far exceeding any previous measurement, in a broad frequency band extending to 7.

This measurement is the statistical aggregation of 2. At 3 signicance, it places an upper limit on the coherence scale of spatial shear two orders of magnitude below the Planck length. The result demonstrates the viability of this novel spatially-correlated interferometric detection technique to reach unprecedented sensitivity to coherent deviations of space- time from classicality, opening the door for direct experimental tests of theories of relational quantum gravity.

The time dependence of rock healing as a universal relaxation process, a tutorial. The material properties of earth materials often change after the material has been perturbed slow dynamics. For example, the seismic velocity of subsurface materials changes after earthquakes, and granular materials compact after being shaken. Such relaxation processes are associated by observables that change logarithmically with time.

Since the logarithm diverges for short and long times , the relaxation can, strictly speaking, not have a log- time dependence. The relaxation function depends on two parameters, the minimum and maximum relaxation time. These parameters can, in principle, be extracted from the observed relaxation. As an example, we present a crude model of a fracture that is closing under an external stress.

Although the fracture model violates some of the assumptions on which the relaxation function is based, it follows the relaxation function well. We provide qualitative arguments that the relaxation process, just like the Gutenberg-Richter law, is applicable to a wide range of systems and has universal properties. To support this assertion, we give evidences from various sources itemized as follows. Short relaxation times but long transient times in both simple and complex reaction networks.

However, that need not be true, other times such as the lifetime of an infinitesimal perturbation can be much longer. In the present work, we demonstrate that this paradoxical property can arise even in quite simple systems such as a linear chain of reactions obeying mass action MA kinetics.

By mathematical analysis of simple reaction networks, we pin-point the reason why the standard relaxation time does not provide relevant information on the potentially long transient times of typical infinitesimal perturbations. Multiple- relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann kinetic model for combustion.

The chemical energy released in the progress of combustion is dynamically coupled into the system by adding a chemical term to the LB kinetic equation. Aside from describing the evolutions of the conserved quantities, the density, momentum, and energy, which are what the Navier-Stokes model describes, the MRT-LBKM presents also a coarse-grained description on the evolutions of some nonconserved quantities.

The current model works for both subsonic and supersonic flows with or without chemical reaction. In this model, both the specific-heat ratio and the Prandtl number are flexible, the TNE effects are naturally presented in each simulation step.

The model is verified and validated via well-known benchmark tests. As an initial application, various nonequilibrium behaviors, including the complex interplays between various HNEs, between various TNEs, and between the HNE and TNE, around the detonation wave in the unsteady and steady one-dimensional detonation processes are preliminarily probed.

It is found that the system viscosity or heat conductivity decreases the local TNE, but increases the global TNE around the detonation wave, that even locally, the system viscosity or heat conductivity results in two kinds of competing trends, to increase and to decrease the TNE effects. The physical reason is that the viscosity or heat conductivity takes part in both the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic responses.

A simple shear limited, single size, time dependent flocculation model. This research focuses on the modeling of flocculation of cohesive sediment due to turbulent shear , specifically, investigating the dependency of flocculation on the concentration of cohesive sediment. Flocculation is important in larger sediment transport models as cohesive particles can create aggregates which are orders of magnitude larger than their unflocculated state.

As the settling velocity of each particle is determined by the sediment size, density, and shape, accounting for this aggregation is important in determining where the sediment is deposited. This study provides a new formulation for flocculation of cohesive sediment by modifying the Winterwerp flocculation model W98 so that it limits floc size to that of the Kolmogorov micro length scale. The W98 model is a simple approach that calculates the average floc size as a function of time.

Because of its simplicity, the W98 model is ideal for implementing into larger sediment transport models; however, the model tends to over predict the dependency of the floc size on concentration. It was found that the modification of the coefficients within the original model did not allow for the model to capture the dependency on concentration. Therefore, a new term within the breakup kernel of the W98 formulation was added. The new formulation results is a single size, shear limited, and time dependent flocculation model that is able to effectively capture the dependency of the equilibrium size of flocs on both suspended sediment concentration and the time to equilibrium.

The overall behavior of the new model is explored and showed align well with other studies on flocculation. Winterwerp, J. A simple model for turbulence induced flocculation of cohesive sediment. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 36 3 Three-dimensional particle-particle simulations: Dependence of relaxation time on plasma parameter. A particle-particle simulation model is applied to investigate the dependence of the relaxation time on the plasma parameter in a three-dimensional unmagnetized plasma.

It is found that the relaxation time increases linearly as the plasma parameter increases within the range of the plasma parameter from 2 to 10; when the plasma parameter equals 2, the relaxation time is independent of the total number of particles, but when the plasma parameter equals 10, the relaxation time slightly increases as the total number of particles increases, which indicates the transition of a plasma from collisional to collisionless.

In addition, ions with initial Maxwell-Boltzmann MB distribution are found to stay in the MB distribution during the whole simulation time , and the mass of ions does not significantly affect the relaxation time of electrons. This work also shows the feasibility of the particle-particle model when using GPU parallel computing techniques. Victims would be led from these rooms to a five-yard-long narrow corridor, which in turn led to a space from which the gas chamber door opened.

The chambers were white inside, and nozzles were fixed to the ceiling to resemble showerheads. This made the total daily capacity 4,, although by loading three to five corpses at a time, the Sonderkommando were able to burn some 8, bodies a day. This maximum capacity was rarely needed; the average between and was 1, bodies burned every day.

After examining several sites for a new plant to manufacture Buna-N , a type of synthetic rubber essential to the war effort, the German chemical cartel IG Farben chose a site near the towns of Dwory and Monowice Monowitz in German , about 7 kilometres 4. In addition to its proximity to the concentration camp, a source of cheap labor, the site had good railway connections and access to raw materials.

Auschwitz inmates began working at the plant, known as Buna Werke and IG-Auschwitz, in April , demolishing houses in Monowitz to make way for it. From late July they were taken to the factory by train on freight wagons. The first inmates moved there on 30 October By the end of , it housed 60 barracks measuring Within three to four months at the camp, Peter Hayes writes, the inmates were "reduced to walking skeletons".

Although the factory had been expected to begin production in , shortages of labor and raw materials meant start-up was postponed repeatedly. On 19 January , the SS ordered that the site be evacuated, sending 9, inmates, most of them Jews, on a death march to another Auschwitz subcamp at Gliwice. The inmates who had been left behind in the Monowitz hospital were liberated along with the rest of the camp on 27 January by the 1st Ukrainian Front of the Red Army.

Several other German industrial enterprises, such as Krupp and Siemens-Schuckert , built factories with their own subcamps. Prisoners were also made to work in forestry and farming. Heinrich Schwarz was commandant of Auschwitz III from the point at which it became an autonomous camp in November until its liquidation. According to Aleksander Lasik , about 6, people 6, of them men worked for the SS at Auschwitz over the course of the camp's existence; [94] 4. At its peak in January , 4, SS men and 71 SS women worked in Auschwitz; the higher number is probably attributable to the logistics of evacuating the camp.

Most of the staff were from Germany or Austria, but as the war progressed, increasing numbers of Volksdeutsche from other countries, including Czechoslovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia, and the Baltic states, joined the SS at Auschwitz. Not all were ethnically German. Guards were also recruited from Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia.

The Lagerprominenz camp elite included Blockschreiber barracks clerk , Kapo overseer , Stubendienst barracks orderly , and Kommandierte trusties. Although the SS oversaw the killings at each gas chamber, the bulk of the work was done by prisoners known from as the Sonderkommando special squad. In — when there was one gas chamber, there were 20 such prisoners, in late there were , and by during the Holocaust in Hungary the number had risen to Once the bodies were stripped of anything valuable, the Sonderkommando burned them in the crematoria.

Because they were witnesses to the mass murder, the Sonderkommando lived separately from the other prisoners, although this rule was not applied to the non-Jews among them. They were forced on a death march and by train to the camp at Mauthausen , where three days later they were asked to step forward during roll call. No one did, and because the SS did not have their records, several of them survived. Uniquely at Auschwitz, prisoners were tattooed with a serial number, on their left breast for Soviet prisoners of war [] and on the left arm for civilians.

Asocial prisoners Asoziale or Aso , which included vagrants, prostitutes and the Roma, wore black. The nationality of the inmate was indicated by a letter stitched onto the cloth. A racial hierarchy existed, with German prisoners at the top. Next were non-Jewish prisoners from other countries.

Jewish prisoners were at the bottom. Deportees were brought to Auschwitz crammed in wretched conditions into goods or cattle wagons, arriving near a railway station or at one of several dedicated trackside ramps, including one next to Auschwitz I. Most deportees were forced to walk, accompanied by SS men and a car with a Red Cross symbol that carried the Zyklon B, as well as an SS doctor in case officers were poisoned by mistake.

Inmates arriving at night, or who were too weak to walk, were taken by truck. Each washhouse had to service thousands of prisoners. These contained troughs for washing and 90 faucets; the toilet facilities were "sewage channels" covered by concrete with 58 holes for seating.

It is badly lighted, full of draughts, with the brick floor covered by a layer of mud. The water is not drinkable; it has a revolting smell and often fails for many hours. Prisoners received half a liter of coffee substitute or a herbal tea in the morning, but no food. No matter the weather, they had to wait for the SS to arrive for the count; how long they stood there depended on the officers' mood, and whether there had been escapes or other events attracting punishment.

The inmates were counted and re-counted. After roll call, to the sound of " Arbeitskommandos formieren " "form work details" , prisoners walked to their place of work, five abreast, to begin a working day that was normally 11 hours long—longer in summer and shorter in winter. Kapos were responsible for the prisoners' behavior while they worked, as was an SS escort. Much of the work took place outdoors at construction sites, gravel pits, and lumber yards. No rest periods were allowed.

One prisoner was assigned to the latrines to measure the time the workers took to empty their bladders and bowels. Lunch was three quarters of a liter of watery soup at midday, reportedly foul-tasting, with meat in the soup four times a week and vegetables mostly potatoes and rutabaga three times. The evening meal was grams of bread, often moldy, part of which the inmates were expected to keep for breakfast the next day, with a tablespoon of cheese or marmalade, or 25 grams of margarine or sausage.

Prisoners engaged in hard labor were given extra rations. A second roll call took place at seven in the evening, in the course of which prisoners might be hanged or flogged. If a prisoner was missing, the others had to remain standing until the absentee was found or the reason for the absence discovered, even if it took hours.

On 6 July , roll call lasted 19 hours because a Polish prisoner, Tadeusz Wiejowski , had escaped; following an escape in , a group of prisoners was picked out from the escapee's workmates or barracks and sent to block 11 to be starved to death. Then they had some free time to use the washrooms and receive their mail, unless they were Jews: Jews were not allowed to receive mail.

Curfew "nighttime quiet" was marked by a gong at nine o'clock. Eight hundred to a thousand people were crammed into the superimposed compartments of each barracks. Unable to stretch out completely, they slept there both lengthwise and crosswise, with one man's feet on another's head, neck, or chest.

Stripped of all human dignity, they pushed and shoved and bit and kicked each other in an effort to get a few more inches' space on which to sleep a little more comfortably. For they did not have long to sleep. Sunday was not a work day, but prisoners had to clean the barracks and take their weekly shower, [] and were allowed to write in German to their families, although the SS censored the mail.

Inmates who did not speak German would trade bread for help. No watches, calendars, or clocks were permitted in the camp. Only two Jewish calendars made in Auschwitz survived to the end of the war. Prisoners kept track of the days in other ways, such as obtaining information from newcomers. About 30 percent of the registered inmates were female.

Classified as criminal, asocial and political, they were brought to Auschwitz as founder functionaries of the women's camp. Spiritual suffering was completely alien to them. Women were at first held in blocks 1—10 of Auschwitz I, [] but from 6 August , [] 13, inmates were transferred to a new women's camp Frauenkonzentrationslager or FKL in Auschwitz II. This consisted at first of 15 brick and 15 wooden barracks in sector Bauabschnitt BIa; it was later extended into BIb, [] and by October it held 32, women.

Conditions in the women's camp were so poor that when a group of male prisoners arrived to set up an infirmary in October , their first task, according to researchers from the Auschwitz museum, was to distinguish the corpses from the women who were still alive. There was one latrine for thirty to thirty-two thousand women and we were permitted to use it only at certain hours of the day. We stood in line to get in to this tiny building, knee-deep in human excrement.

As we all suffered from dysentry, we could barely wait until our turn came, and soiled our ragged clothes, which never came off our bodies, thus adding to the horror of our existence by the terrible smell that surrounded us like a cloud. The latrine consisted of a deep ditch with planks thrown across it at certain intervals. We squatted on those planks like birds perched on a telegraph wire, so close together that we could not help soiling one another.

Sterilization experiments were carried out in barracks 30 by a German gynecologist, Carl Clauberg , and another German doctor, Horst Schumann. German doctors performed a variety of experiments on prisoners at Auschwitz. SS doctors tested the efficacy of X-rays as a sterilization device by administering large doses to female prisoners.

Carl Clauberg injected chemicals into women's uteruses in an effort to glue them shut. Prisoners were infected with spotted fever for vaccination research and exposed to toxic substances to study the effects. However, we were unable to obtain conclusive results because they died during the experiments. We would kindly request that you send us another group of women to the same number and at the same price. In April , the children were killed by hanging to conceal the project.

A Jewish skeleton collection was obtained from among a pool of Jewish inmates, chosen for their perceived stereotypical racial characteristics. The collection was sanctioned by Heinrich Himmler and under the direction of August Hirt. Ultimately 87 of the inmates were shipped to Natzweiler-Struthof and killed in August Prisoners could be beaten and killed by guards and kapos for the slightest infraction of the rules.

Flogging during roll-call was common. A flogging table called "the goat" immobilized prisoners' feet in a box, while they stretched themselves across the table. Prisoners had to count out the lashes—"25 mit besten Dank habe ich erhalten" "25 received with many thanks" — and if they got the figure wrong, the flogging resumed from the beginning.

If their shoulders were too damaged afterwards to work, they might be sent to the gas chamber. Prisoners were subjected to the post for helping a prisoner who had been beaten, and for picking up a cigarette butt. Known as block 13 until , block 11 of Auschwitz I was the prison within the prison, reserved for inmates suspected of resistance activities.

Split into four sections, each section measured less than 1. The courtyard between blocks 10 and 11, known as the "death wall", served as an execution area, including for Poles in the General Government area who had been sentenced to death by a criminal court. The accused were led to the wall one at a time, stripped naked and with their hands tied behind their backs. Danuta Czech noted that a "clandestine Catholic mass " was said the following Sunday on the second floor of Block 4 in Auschwitz I, in a narrow space between bunks.

An estimated 4, Polish political prisoners were executed at the death wall, including members of the camp resistance. An additional 10, Poles were brought to the camp to be executed without being registered. About 1, Soviet prisoners of war died by execution, although this is a rough estimate. A Polish government-in-exile report stated that 11, prisoners and 6, prisoners of war had been executed.

And yet, at that last moment, many of them shouted 'Long live Poland', or 'Long live freedom'. For unknown reasons, they were not subject to selection and families were allowed to stay together. The first transport of German Roma arrived on 26 February that year. There had been a small number of Romani inmates before that; two Czech Romani prisoners, Ignatz and Frank Denhel, tried to escape in December , the latter successfully, and a Polish Romani woman, Stefania Ciuron, arrived on 12 February and escaped in April.

Shortly after this, the SS removed nearly 2, from the family camp to work, and on 2 August gassed the other 2, Ten thousand remain unaccounted for. The SS deported around 18, Jews to Auschwitz from the Theresienstadt ghetto in Terezin , Czechoslovakia , [] beginning on 8 September with a transport of 2, male and 2, female prisoners.

An infirmary was set up in barracks 30 and 32, and barracks 31 became a school and kindergarten. On 8 March , 3, of the prisoners men, women and children were sent to the gas chambers; the men were taken to crematorium III and the women later to crematorium II. Several twins were held back for medical experiments. The first gassings at Auschwitz took place in early September , when around inmates—Soviet prisoners of war and sick Polish inmates—were killed with Zyklon B in the basement of block 11 in Auschwitz I.

The building proved unsuitable, so gassings were conducted instead in crematorium I, also in Auschwitz I, which operated until December There, more than victims could be killed at once. After its decommissioning as a gas chamber, the building was converted to a storage facility and later served as an SS air raid shelter. Dwork and van Pelt write that a chimney was recreated; four openings in the roof were installed to show where the Zyklon B had entered; and two of the three furnaces were rebuilt with the original components.

In early , mass exterminations were moved to two provisional gas chambers the "red house" and "white house", known as bunkers 1 and 2 in Auschwitz II, while the larger crematoria II, III, IV, and V were under construction. Bunker 2 was temporarily reactivated from May to November , when large numbers of Hungarian Jews were gassed. From Jews were being transported to Auschwitz from all over German-occupied Europe by rail, arriving in daily convoys.

On 29 April the first 1, Jews from Hungary arrived at the camp. Crematoria II and III were given new elevators leading from the stoves to the gas chambers, new grates were fitted, and several of the dressing rooms and gas chambers were painted. Cremation pits were dug behind crematorium V. According to Polish historian Franciszek Piper , of the 1,, Jews deported to Auschwitz, around , were registered in the camp and given serial numbers; 25, were sent to other camps; and , were killed soon after arrival.

During "selection" on arrival, those deemed able to work were sent to the right and admitted into the camp registered , and the rest were sent to the left to be gassed. The group selected to die included almost all children, women with small children, the elderly, and others who appeared on brief and superficial inspection by an SS doctor not to be fit for work. The crematoria consisted of a dressing room, gas chamber, and furnace room.

The dressing room had numbered hooks on the wall to hang clothes. In crematorium II, there was also a dissection room Sezierraum. The victims undressed in the dressing room and walked into the gas chamber; signs said "Bade" bath or "Desinfektionsraum" disinfection room. A former prisoner testified that the language of the signs changed depending on who was being killed. It was found in , signed "A.

A": []. It would be difficult to even imagine that so many people would fit in such a small [room]. They would have suffocated from the lack of air within several hours. Then all the doors were sealed tight and the gas thrown in by way of a small hole in the ceiling. There was nothing more that the people inside could do. And so they only screamed in bitter, lamentable voices. Others complained in voices full of despair, and others still sobbed spasmodically and sent up a dire, heart-rending weeping.

And in the meantime, their voices grew weaker and weaker Because of the great crowding, people fell one atop another as they died, until a heap arose consisting of five or six layers atop the other, reaching a height of one meter. Mothers froze in a seated position on the ground embracing their children in their arms, and husbands and wives died hugging each other.

Some of the people made up a formless mass. Others stood in a leaning position, while the upper parts, from the stomach up, were in a lying position. Some of the people had turned completely blue under the influence of the gas, while others looks entirely fresh, as if they were asleep. Sonderkommando wearing gas masks dragged the bodies from the chamber. Just before cremation, jewelry was removed, along with dental work and teeth containing precious metals.

The corpses were burned in the nearby incinerators, and the ashes were buried, thrown in the Vistula river, or used as fertilizer. Any bits of bone that had not burned properly were ground down in wooden mortars. At least 1. The Germans tried to conceal how many they had killed.

In addition the ashes were to be disposed of in such a way that it would be impossible at some future time to calculate the number of corpses burned. Earlier estimates of the death toll were higher than Piper's. Following the camp's liberation, the Soviet government issued a statement, on 8 May , that four million people had been killed on the site, a figure based on the capacity of the crematoria.

Even Auschwitz had limits to its destructive possibilities," he wrote. Around one in six Jews killed in the Holocaust died in Auschwitz. Camp of Death pamphlet by Natalia Zarembina []. The resistance sent out the first oral message about Auschwitz with Dr. Aleksander Wielkopolski, a Polish engineer who was released in October The report said of the Jews in the camp that "scarcely any of them came out alive".

According to Fleming, the booklet was "widely circulated amongst British officials". The Polish Fortnightly Review based a story on it, writing that "three crematorium furnaces were insufficient to cope with the bodies being cremated", as did The Scotsman on 8 January , the only British news organization to do so.

On 24 December , the resistance groups representing the various prisoner factions met in block 45 and agreed to cooperate. Fleming writes that it has not been possible to track Pilecki's early intelligence from the camp. Pilecki compiled two reports after he escaped in April ; the second, Raport W , detailed his life in Auschwitz I and estimated that 1.

Reporting that inmates were being killed "through excessive work, torture and medical means", it noted the gassing of the Soviet prisoners of war and Polish inmates in Auschwitz I in September , the first gassing in the camp. It said: "It is estimated that the Oswiecim camp can accommodate fifteen thousand prisoners, but as they die on a mass scale there is always room for new arrivals. The Polish government-in-exile in London first reported the gassing of prisoners in Auschwitz on 21 July , [] and reported the gassing of Soviet POWs and Jews on 4 September According to Fleming, the British press responded, in and the first half of , either by not publishing reports about Auschwitz or by burying them on the inside pages.

The British reticence stemmed from a Foreign Office concern that the public might pressure the government to respond or provide refuge for the Jews, and that British actions on behalf of the Jews might affect its relationships in the Middle East.

There was similar reticence in the United States, and indeed within the Polish government-in-exile and the Polish resistance. According to Fleming, the scholarship suggests that the Polish resistance distributed information about the Holocaust in Auschwitz without challenging the Allies' reluctance to highlight it. After breaking into a warehouse, three of them dressed as SS officers and stole rifles and an SS staff car, which they drove out of the camp with the fourth handcuffed as a prisoner.

Both survived the war. Jerzy Tabeau no. The distribution of the Vrba-Wetzler report , and publication of parts of it in June , helped to halt the deportation of Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz. On 27 May , Arnost Rosin no. The prisoners implore the Polish Government to have the camp bombed.

The destruction of the electrified barbed wire, the ensuing panic and darkness prevailing, the chances of escape would be great. The local population will hide them and help them to leave the neighbourhood. The prisoners are confidently awaiting the day when Polish planes from Great Britain will enable their escape.

This is the prisoners unanimous demand to the Polish Government in London. Pierse replied that it was not technically feasible to bomb the camp without harming the prisoners. The Sonderkommando who worked in the crematoria were witnesses to the mass murder and were therefore regularly killed themselves. After escaping through a fence using wirecutters, they managed to reach Rajsko , where they hid in the granary of an Auschwitz satellite camp, but the SS pursued and killed them by setting the granary on fire.

By the time the rebellion at crematorium IV had been suppressed, members of the Sonderkommando were still alive and had been killed. The Sonderkommando and other prisoners began the job of dismantling the buildings and cleaning up the site. According to Polish historian Andrzej Strzelecki, the evacuation of the camp was one of its "most tragic chapters". Between 1 December and 15 January , over one million items of clothing were packed to be shipped out of Auschwitz; 95, such parcels were sent to concentration camps in Germany.

Beginning on 17 January, some 58, Auschwitz detainees about two-thirds Jews —over 20, from Auschwitz I and II and over 30, from the subcamps—were evacuated under guard, at first heading west on foot, then by open-topped freight trains, to concentration camps in Germany and Austria: Bergen-Belsen , Buchenwald , Dachau , Flossenburg , Gross-Rosen , Mauthausen , Dora-Mittelbau , Ravensbruck , and Sachsenhausen.

Crematorium IV had been partly demolished after the Sonderkommando revolt in October, and the rest of it was destroyed later. On 26 January, one day ahead of the Red Army's arrival, crematorium V was blown up.

They found 7, prisoners alive in the three main camps, in the other subcamps, and over corpses. They threw "strangely embarrassed glances at the sprawling bodies, at the battered huts and at us few still alive They did not greet us, nor did they smile; they seemed oppressed not only by compassion but by a confused restraint, which sealed their lips and bound their eyes to the funereal scene.

It was that shame we knew so well, the shame that drowned us after the selections, and every time we had to watch, or submit to, some outrage: the shame the Germans did not know, that the just man experiences at another man's crime; the feeling of guilt that such a crime should exist, that it should have been introduced irrevocably into the world of things that exist, and that his will for good should have proved too weak or null, and should not have availed in defence.

Georgii Elisavetskii, a Soviet soldier who entered one of the barracks, said in that he could hear other soldiers telling the inmates: "You are free, comrades! Then he used some Yiddish : "They think that I am provoking them. They begin to hide. We have come to liberate you' Finally, as if the barrier collapsed The Soviet military medical service and Polish Red Cross PCK set up field hospitals that looked after 4, prisoners suffering from the effects of starvation mostly diarrhea and tuberculosis.

Water was obtained from snow and from fire-fighting wells. Before more help arrived, 2, patients there were looked after by a few doctors and 12 PCK nurses. All the patients were later moved to the brick buildings in Auschwitz I, where several blocks became a hospital, with medical personnel working hour shifts. The liberation of Auschwitz received little press attention at the time; the Red Army was focusing on its advance toward Germany and liberating the camp had not been one of its key aims.

Boris Polevoi reported on the liberation in Pravda on 2 February but made no mention of Jews; [] inmates were described collectively as "victims of Fascism". Only Auschwitz staff, up to 15 percent, ever stood trial; [6] most of the cases were pursued in Poland and the Federal Republic of Germany. He writes that this may have been because there were only women overseers, and therefore they were more visible and memorable to the inmates.

He was imprisoned in Heide , then transferred to Minden for interrogation, part of the British occupation zone. The trials ended on 22 December , with 23 death sentences, seven life sentences, and nine prison sentences ranging from three to 15 years. The report became the basis of their book, Anatomy of the SS State , the first comprehensive study of the camp and the SS.

The court convicted 19 of the defendants, giving six of them life sentences and the others between three and ten years. In the decades since its liberation, Auschwitz has become a primary symbol of the Holocaust. Historian Timothy D. On 2 July , the Polish government passed a law establishing a state memorial to remember "the martyrdom of the Polish nation and other nations in Oswiecim". Dwork and van Pelt write that, in addition, Auschwitz I played a more central role in the persecution of the Polish people, in opposition to the importance of Auschwitz II to the Jews, including Polish Jews.

Visitors to the site have increased from , in , to over one million in , [] to two million in There have been protracted disputes over the perceived Christianization of the site. The Polish government and Catholic Church eventually agreed to remove all but the original. All three pilots were descendants of Holocaust survivors, including the man who led the flight, Major-General Amir Eshel. Museum curators consider visitors who pick up items from the ground to be thieves, and local police will charge them as such; the maximum penalty is a year prison sentence.

The sign was later recovered. In the Polish government passed an amendment to its Act on the Institute of National Remembrance , making it a criminal offence to make false suggestions of Polish complicity in the Holocaust, which would include referring to Auschwitz and other camps as "Polish death camps".

Earlier estimates included Raul Hilberg 's work, The Destruction of the European Jews , which estimated that up to one million Jews had died in the camp. Also see "The Budy Massacre—A grim anniversary". Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum, 10 October Astor, Maggie 12 April The New York Times.

Archived from the original on 18 April From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Auschwitz disambiguation. Top: Gate to Auschwitz I with its Arbeit macht frei sign "work sets you free". Auschwitz I, ; the prisoner reception center of Auschwitz I became the visitor reception center of the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum.

Former prisoner reception center; the building on the far left with the row of chimneys was the camp kitchen. An aerial reconnaissance photograph of the Auschwitz concentration camp showing the Auschwitz I camp, 4 April Further information: First mass transport to Auschwitz concentration camp.

Crematorium I, photographed in , reconstructed after the war [28]. For other uses, see Birkenau disambiguation. From the Auschwitz Album , taken by the camp's Erkennungsdienst. Main article: Monowitz concentration camp. Further information: List of subcamps of Auschwitz. Further information: Nazi concentration camp badge. Auschwitz II brick barracks, sector BI, ; four prisoners slept in each partition, known as a buk.

See also: Women's Orchestra of Auschwitz. Main articles: Block 10 and Nazi human experimentation. Main article: Block Main articles: Gypsy family camp Auschwitz and Romani genocide. Main article: Theresienstadt family camp. The gate on the left leads to sector BI, the oldest part of the camp. Further information: Vrba-Wetzler report and Auschwitz Protocols.

Main article: Auschwitz bombing debate. Further information: Death marches Holocaust. Main article: Liberation of Auschwitz concentration camp. Young survivors at the camp, liberated by the Red Army in January Main article: Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum. Similar legislation deprived Jewish members of other professions of the right to practise. These prisoners were given camp serial numbers 31 to The transport included many healthy young men fit for military service, who had been caught trying to cross the Polish southern border in order to make their way to the Polish Armed Forces being formed in France.

At the same time, a further SS men—officers and SS enlisted men—were sent to reinforce the camp garrison. They were unloaded at the ramp on the camp railroad siding and ordered to leave their baggage there.

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