Most of the population as of speaks German , or There are people who speak Romansh. Of the population in the municipality 58, or about There were 1, or 0. In there were live births to Swiss citizens and births to non-Swiss citizens, and in same time span there were 1, deaths of Swiss citizens and non-Swiss citizen deaths. Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by while the foreign population increased by There were Swiss men and Swiss women who emigrated from Switzerland.
At the same time, there were non-Swiss men and non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland. The total Swiss population change in from all sources, including moves across municipal borders was an increase of and the non-Swiss population increased by people.
This represents a population growth rate of 0. As of , there were 70, people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 70, married individuals, 12, widows or widowers and 13, individuals who are divorced. As of the average number of residents per living room was 0. As of , there were 86, private households in the municipality, and an average of 1.
Out of a total of 88, households that answered this question, Of the rest of the households, there are 20, married couples without children, 14, married couples with children There were 4, single parents with a child or children. There were 2, households that were made up of unrelated people and 2, households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing.
In there were 5, single family homes or There were 7, multi-family buildings Of the single family homes were built before , while 65 were built between and The greatest number of single family homes 3, were built between and In there were 96, apartments in the municipality.
The most common apartment size was 3 rooms of which there were 35, There were 11, single room apartments and 9, apartments with five or more rooms. Of these apartments, a total of 84, apartments As of the average price to rent an average apartment in Basel was The average rate for a one room apartment was The average apartment price in Basel was The historical population is given in the following chart: .
Basler Messeturm. As of , Basel had an unemployment rate of 4. As of , there were 18 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 9 businesses involved in this sector. In the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was , The number of jobs in the primary sector was 13, of which 10 were in agriculture and 4 were in forestry or lumber production.
The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 33, of which 24, or The number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 97, In the tertiary sector; 12, or In , there were , workers who commuted into the municipality and 19, workers who commuted away. The municipality is a net importer of workers, with about 6. About An annual Federal Swiss trade fair Mustermesse takes place in Kleinbasel on the right bank of the Rhine. The Swiss chemical industry operates largely from Basel, and Basel also has a large pharmaceutical industry.
Pharmaceuticals and specialty chemicals have become the modern focus of the city's industrial production. Basel is subdivided into 19 quarters Quartiere. The municipalities of Riehen and Bettingen , outside the city limits of Basel, are included in the canton of Basel-City as rural quarters Landquartiere. From the census, 41, or Of the rest of the population, there were 4, members of an Orthodox church or about 2.
There were 1, individuals or about 0. There were individuals who were Buddhist , individuals who were Hindu and individuals who belonged to another church. The City Hall from the 16th century is located on the Market Square and is decorated with fine murals on the outer walls and on the walls of the inner court. Basel is also host to an array of buildings by internationally renowned architects.
The city received the Wakker Prize in Rathaus , Basel's Town Hall. Basel features a great number of heritage sites of national significance. The law and economy faculty of the University of Basel. Inauguration ceremony of the University of Basel , Basel hosts Switzerland's oldest university, the University of Basel , dating from Basel is renowned for various scientific societies, as the Entomological Society of Basel Entomologische Gesellschaft Basel, EGB , which celebrated its th anniversary in In about 57, or Of the 27, who completed tertiary schooling, In already In 3.
The average amount of study in primary school in Basel is teaching hours per year. The Maturity quota in was on a record high at As of , there were 5, students in Basel who came from another municipality, while 1, residents attended schools outside the municipality. Basel is home to at least 65 libraries. There was a combined total as of of 8,, books or other media in the libraries, and in the same year a total of 1,, items were loaned out.
Geo-politically, the city of Basel functions as the capital of the Swiss half-canton of Basel-Stadt , though several of its suburbs are located in the half-canton of Basel-Landschaft or the canton of Aargau. A few outer suburbs are even located in France and Germany. In the federal election the most popular party was the SP which received The next three most popular parties were the SVP In the federal election, a total of 51, votes were cast, and the voter turnout was Basel is at the forefront of a national vision to more than halve energy use in Switzerland by In order to research, develop and commercialise the technologies and techniques required for the country to become a ' Watt society ', a number of projects have been set up since in the Basel metropolitan area.
These including demonstration buildings constructed to MINERGIE or Passivhaus standards, electricity generation from renewable energy sources,  and vehicles using natural gas , hydrogen and biogas. A hot dry rock geothermal energy project was cancelled in since it caused induced seismicity in Basel.
Basel has a reputation in Switzerland as a successful sporting city. The championships were jointly hosted by Switzerland and Austria. Among the most popular sports in Switzerland is Ice hockey. They play their home games at the St. Jakob Arena. Basel features a large football stadium that has been awarded four stars by UEFA , a modern ice hockey hall, and an admitted sports hall. A large indoor tennis event takes place in Basel every October.
Some of the best ATP -Professionals play every year at the Swiss Indoors , including Switzerland's biggest sporting hero and frequent participant Roger Federer , a Basel native who describes the city as "one of the most beautiful cities in the world".
Basel has a thriving cultural life. In , it contended to become the " European Capital of Culture ", though the honor went instead to Thessaloniki Basel is the home of the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis , founded in , a worldwide centre for research on and performance of music from the Medieval through the Baroque eras. Theater Basel presents a busy schedule of plays in addition to being home to the city's opera and ballet companies. Basel is home to the largest orchestra in Switzerland, the Sinfonieorchester Basel.
It is also the home of the Kammerorchester Basel , which is recording the complete symphonies of Ludwig van Beethoven for the Sony label led by its music director Giovanni Antonini. The Schola Cantorum and the Basler Kammerorchester were both founded by the conductor Paul Sacher who went on to commission works by many leading composers.
The Paul Sacher Foundation, opened in , houses a major collection of manuscripts, including the entire Igor Stravinsky archive. Host of this festival is the local Basel Boys Choir. The carnival of the city of Basel Basler Fasnacht is a major cultural event in the year. The carnival is the biggest in Switzerland and attracts large crowds every year, despite the fact that it starts at exactly four in the morning Morgestraich on a winter Monday. The Fasnacht asserts Basel's Protestant history by commencing the revelry five days after Ash Wednesday and continuing day and night for exactly 72 hours.
Almost all study and work in the old city cease. Dozens of fife and drum clubs parade in medieval guild tradition with fantastical masks and illuminated lanterns, eventually yielding to other loud and irreverent festivity. Basel is also host to the Basel Tattoo and a number of fairs. The local TV Station is called telebasel. Zoo Basel is, with over 1. Established in , Zoo Basel is the oldest zoo in Switzerland and, by number of animals, the largest.
Through its history, Zoo Basel has had several breeding successes, such as the first worldwide Indian rhinoceros birth  and Greater flamingo hatch  in a zoo. These and other achievements led Forbes Travel to rank Zoo Basel as one of the fifteen best zoos in the world in Despite its international fame, Basel's population remains attached to Zoo Basel, which is entirely surrounded by the city of Basel.
Evidence of this is the millions of donations money each year, as well as Zoo Basel's unofficial name: locals lovingly call "their" zoo " Zolli " by which is it known throughout Basel and most of Switzerland. Tinguely Museum. The Basel museums cover a broad and diverse spectrum of collections with a marked concentration in the fine arts.
They house numerous holdings of international significance. The over three dozen institutions yield an extraordinarily high density of museums compared to other cities of similar size and draw over one million visitors annually. Constituting an essential component of Basel culture and cultural policy, the museums are the result of closely interwoven private and public collecting activities and promotion of arts and culture going back to the 16th century.
The public museum collection was first created back in and represents the oldest public collection in continuous existence. Since the late s, various private collections have been made accessible to the public in new purpose-built structures that have been recognized as acclaimed examples of avant-garde museum architecture.
Template:Cities in Switzerland. Template:Cantonal capitals of Switzerland. Sign In Don't have an account? Location of Basel. Contents [ show ]. See also: Timeline of Basel history. Main article: Prince-Bishopric of Basel. Error creating thumbnail: Invalid thumbnail parameters. Swiss Federal Statistical Office. August 30, Retrieved October 8, June 7, Retrieved A short History of Switzerland Oxford, p.
The New Yorker : pp. Retrieved 22 July Urban Audit Glossary. Retrieved 12 February Retrieved on 12 January Retrieved on 2 July Bank for International Settlements. Archived from the original on 9 June Finds from the Paleolithic are extremely rare in Switzerland, as the traces were destroyed by the glaciers during the last ice age.
Only the region around Basel remained unglaciated during the last Ice Age. The oldest trace of human presence in the region is an 18 cm long and a good 1 kg heavy hand ax made of flint , which was found near Pratteln in Either way, this hand ax is the oldest surviving tool in Switzerland. The hand ax was made by a Heidelberg man or a Neanderthal , depending on the assumed age. The oldest human find on urban soil today is a hand ax that was found in Bettingen.
Its age is estimated to be between 60, and 40, years, so it was made by a Neanderthal man. Climatically in the region back then conditions like today in Alaska prevailed, the landscape was determined by grassland and groups of trees. The Neanderthals were not sedentary, but hunters who followed their prey seasonally. About 40, years ago, anatomically modern humans immigrated to Europe, while the Neanderthals disappeared for reasons that are still unclear today. The oldest artefacts found in the region that are assigned to Homo sapiens are pebbles painted with red stripes and apparently deliberately broken pebbles, which were found in a cave in the Arlesheim Ermitage in and whose age is estimated to be around 12, years.
After the last ice age around BC. A warm phase that continues to this day. The previously open landscape turned into forest. Undoubtedly, people also lived in Basel in the Mesolithic , but no traces of that time have been preserved in the region. The nomadic way of life of the hunter-gatherers was replaced by the sedentary peasant way of life with cattle breeding and agriculture.
Switzerland was one of the last retreats for the Mesolithic hunters and gatherers. The oldest Neolithic settlements found in the region were around BC. In different places in the Basel area. Its inhabitants belonged to the so-called band ceramic culture.
There are around 50 Neolithic finds in the Basel-Stadt area. In Riehen and Bettingen in particular, the settlement areas could be delimited quite precisely. To date there are no detailed archaeological investigations. The sites are always on fertile soils on a slight slope or terrace, the floodplains of the Rhine, Birs , Birsig and Wiese were avoided.
In addition to farming and livestock farming, hunting and the gathering of wild fruits were still pursued, which was particularly important in times of poor harvests. While copper was available in the Alps, tin had to be imported from far away, presumably mainly from England. This is how organized long-distance trade developed. The cultures and beliefs became alike: burial places and the shape of objects were similar in all of Central Europe.
The society remained mainly rural. They were all close to the Rhine, which reflects its importance as a traffic route. Fishing, especially during the salmon migration, is also likely to have played a role in nutrition. Today there is hardly anything left of the wood from the houses and these places can only be identified by finding broken fragments. The oldest known Bronze Age settlement in the region dates back to around BC.
Around BC The first fortified settlement in Basel was built on the northern tip of the cathedral hill, the Martinskirchsporn. The spur of the cathedral hill between the Rhine and Birsig , which slopes steeply on three sides , offered itself as a natural fortress for settlement. A barrier ditch 9 meters wide and 3 meters deep could be detected, better preserved sites in other places suggest that a wood-reinforced wall stood behind the ditch.
Fortified settlements in topographically outstanding and easily accessible locations were common in the Bronze Age. Especially in the Late Bronze Age, hill settlements that were easy to defend emerged in many places. In front of the settlement on Martinskirchsporn was a meter-wide pre-area secured by another ditch.
Finds of fire rubble with bricked clay indicate that the settlement fell victim to a fire. The previous trade connections were replaced by iron deposits, e. The control of the iron deposits as well as the salt deposits was in the hands of a small, very rich upper class.
After death, they were lavishly buried in huge burial mounds that can still be seen in the area today e. From the Greeks these people were Celts , the Romans Gauls called. They had a lively commercial relationship with both of them. In Pratteln and Muttenz, settlements are known to dominate the edge of the Rhine Valley, and traces of settlement from this period have also been found in the surrounding area.
It can be assumed that there were homesteads in Basel as well, but they have not yet been proven. Around BC There were social and cultural upheavals in the Celtic societies. The custom of the large burial mounds was abandoned and flat grave fields emerged. The people lived in homesteads and scattered hamlets. People kept leaving to settle elsewhere. The region south of the Alps was particularly attractive; for the Basel area, the Rhone Valley and the Burgundian gateway were an important route to the Mediterranean world.
There was an exchange of goods and cultures with the Greeks , Etruscans and finally the Romans. The new ideas from the Mediterranean led to social changes. Was inhabited. It was discovered in on the site of what was then the gas factory , and is accordingly referred to in archaeological literature as the "Basel gas factory".
The right-angled layout of the streets suggests a planned settlement. Over people lived in the settlement. The location on the lowest terrace of the bank of the Rhine protected the settlement from flooding, but still provided good access to the Rhine.
It is noteworthy that the settlement lies exactly on the line Alsatian Belchen - Kienberg-Burg , which is a bearing line in the Belchen system for the important Celtic festivals of Samhain and Imbolc. The archaeological finds testify to prosperity and lively trade relations. Wine amphorae from the Mediterranean region, ceramics from Bohemia and amber from the Baltic states show that the settlement was an important hub of Celtic long-distance trade.
The coins found indicate a monetary system that is based on Mediterranean models. Finds show that highly qualified craftsmen worked in the settlement, some of whom had to import the required raw materials. At the same time, the Roman Empire became more and more threatening. Increased protection seems to have been increasing on the Upper Rhine from 80 BC. BC, so even before Caesar's campaigns , to have been a great need.
Fortified settlements emerged along the Rhine, while large unfortified settlements were abandoned. The course of the Celtic street corresponded to today's Ritter- and Augustinergasse. The construction of the road suggests know-how from the Mediterranean region.
It used to be assumed that the Rauriks built the settlement in the Rhine valley in 58 BC. To emigrate to Gaul with the Helvetians , and that the settlement on the cathedral hill arose after they had been defeated by Caesar in the battle of Bibracte and sent back to their homeland. This view is now considered outdated. With the conquest of Gaul by Caesar around 52 BC. The region of Basel came under Roman control.
The fortified settlement on the cathedral hill was ideal for controlling the incidence axes. Even after the subjugation of Gaul by Caesar, the Celtic structures of the settlement continued to exist for the time being. Celtic nobles ruled the surrounding region on behalf of Rome from the cathedral hill. Thanks to the concentration of trade, crafts and domination, the well-fortified settlement the Romans called such fortified settlements Oppida functioned as a regional center. Various finds suggest that individual Roman military personnel or a small contingent of Roman troops were stationed to ensure control over the Celtic allies.
It was not until the beginning of the Augustan epoch from around 30—20 BC that the late Celtic buildings on the cathedral hill were demolished. The extensive fortifications were also laid down and a so-called vicus , a Roman village settlement, was created. The newly founded colony town of Augusta Raurica about 10 km up the Rhine , which was at the junction of several trade routes and where there was also a bridge over the Rhine, was now the administrative, cultural and economic center of the region.
In the early 1st century AD, the vicus on the cathedral hill extended over the ruins of the Celtic fortification wall to today's St. Alban's moat. The connection to the traffic routes was now more important than the military security, supra-regional traffic became an important source of income. From the 1st to the end of the 3rd century, Basel was in the shadow of Augusta Raurica with its theaters, baths, temples and the forum.
In the second half of the 1st century AD, the Romans moved the border of the empire to the north. Northwestern Switzerland was no longer a border region. The relatively peaceful period of the Pax Romana followed, with economic and cultural prosperity.
Immigrants from the Mediterranean area settled north of the Alps. The native Celtic population adopted Roman customs and eating habits. A period of domestic political crises followed from around AD. There were also external threats.
Germanic peoples, such as the Alemanni , invaded the rich Roman provinces. The border of the empire was moved back to the Rhine. The residences in the foreground were given up, the residents either moved behind the fortifications or migrated away. A new fortification wall with a moat was erected where the Murus Gallicus used to stand. Parts of demolished, partly representative buildings and even tombstones were used for the construction , which indicates an acute threat.
The name Basel is mentioned for the first time in connection with this last major Roman fortification program : According to the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus , Emperor Valentinian camped with his troops near Basilia in The end of Roman rule began here. The Romans , the descendants of the Gallo-Roman population, were now largely on their own. The security of the borders was partly done by the Alamanni and Franks as federates of Rome.
With the death of the Roman army master Aetius around , the military-backed power of the Romans north of the Alps ended. Part of the Romanesque population emigrated, but many stayed here and came to terms with their new Germanic neighbors. At the end of the 5th century, Basel fell to the Franks who settled in and around Basel. Continuous settlement of Basel is only archaeologically secured from the 7th century.
The first inscription of Basel on a gold coin minted there Basilia fit was made during this period. In the city of Basel was destroyed and looted by the Magyars ; The then bishop was also one of the fatalities. As early as the early 7th century there is evidence of a bishop who, like his successors, probably already ruled the city.
The bishop's seat had been moved from Augusta Raurica, which had been devastated by the Alemanni, to Basel. Under Bishop Haito, the first cathedral was built on the cathedral hill in the first half of the 9th century , which was then replaced by an early Romanesque building consecrated in The town's grain market , today's market square , was first mentioned in Under Bishop Heinrich von Thun , the first Basel Rhine bridge was built around and the town of Kleinbasel was subsequently created to secure the bridge.
The city had to cope with several severe strokes of fate in the 14th century. In almost half of the population died during a plague epidemic , as a result of which the Jewish population was burned on a Rhine island near Birsfelden , which went down in history as the Basel Jewish pogrom , and only eight years later the Basel earthquake occurred.
The most severe earthquake in Central Europe to date claimed only a few victims, but the major fire that followed left large parts of the city to rubble and ashes. The city chronicle, which was re-created from with the Red Book - the oldest book in the city today - was also destroyed. The bishop as lord of the city initially appointed the council and a bailiff.
The bishop decided in his favor in the middle of the 13th century for the first conflicts over control of the city. Attempts by the Habsburgs to integrate the city into their dominion failed in the 14th century, but split the citizenship into two parties: the pro-Habsburg "Sterner" and the anti-Habsburg "Psitticher". The citizens of Grossbasel acquired the town of Kleinbasel from Bishop Friedrich von Blankenheim in for 29, guilders.
During this time, the city also acquired the most important regalia coinage and customs law , mayor's court etc. Basel became effectively independent of the bishop, but could not replace his nominal sovereignty until around Although the citizens determined the holders of important offices, the solemn inauguration continued to be carried out by the bishop.
Basel was therefore not considered a free imperial city. The guilds, which were divided into two groups, the gentlemen's guilds and the craftsmen's guilds, played an important role in Basel's political and social life. In addition to four knights and eight so-called eight-burgers feudal citizens , 15 representatives of the guilds were represented in the council since The 15 guild masters joined the latter in The guilds also formed their own college in the city government under the chief guild master, which had great political weight.
Paper production began in Basel around A federal contingent was defeated by a French mercenary army in the battle of St. Jakob in Around this time, printing was also introduced in Basel. Around , the city of Basel began to build up its own territory by acquiring episcopal lordship through pledge or purchase, but initially not very successfully.
It was possible to win some lords in the Sisgau, but the attempt to expand into the Laufental and over the Hauenstein Olten failed. Basel behaved ambiguously towards the Confederation. While it fought on the side of the Confederates in the Burgundian Wars , it remained neutral in the Swabian War. At times violent conflicts arose between Solothurn and Basel over the rights of rule in Sisgau, mainly because of Dorneck.
The actual completion of the formation of the territory of the city of Basel was the acquisition of Pratteln in , which connected the ruled areas. Until the end of the city-state in , only smaller acquisitions could be made. After the Swabian and Swiss Wars in , Basel turned to the Confederation , which it joined on July 13, as the eleventh place.
A change in the council constitution, which secured the guilds supremacy, took place in At the same time, the unilateral complete emancipation from the rule of the bishop took place, in that the appointment of offices was now also formally carried out by the council. The humanist Erasmus von Rotterdam , who lives in Basel , had the Greek New Testament printed here with its Latin translation in and Both the German reformer Martin Luther and the English clergyman William Tyndale used the second edition as the basis for their Bible translations.
Johannes Oekolampad worked for Erasmus from to and then returned to Basel as pastor and professor in , where he became the city's most important reformer. In he celebrated the first evangelical communion with his congregation , in his order of worship appeared and in he married Wibrandis Rosenblatt. After an iconoclasm and guild uprising , Basel joined the Reformation in On May 12, , the canons and chaplains , who did not change to the Reformation or moved to their secondary beneficiaries , moved to Freiburg im Breisgau.
On August 28, , the cathedral chapter concluded a contract with the city of Freiburg on legal and tax matters, the acquisition of houses, the chapter house and the administrative building, as well as the use of the minster.
This meant that Basel was no longer the seat of the bishop or the cathedral chapter and was never again. In , in the Treaty of Baden, the city also formally acquired all episcopal sovereignty rights in the city and over its territory and thus became finally independent. In the persecuted Johannes Calvin came from France and found a place in Basel. Here he wrote his Institutio Christianae religionis German: teaching in the Christian religion , one of the most effective evangelical writings of the Reformation, printed in Basel in Similar to Geneva, Basel had become an important refuge and new home for Italian and French evangelical refugees from to The immigrant families were not only a burden for the city, but also a social and economic enrichment through their education and knowledge in silk production and trade and in textile dyeing, which they brought with them and settled in the city.
The plague returned in the years — around deaths , — around deaths , — around deaths and one last but devastating time in — around 3, deaths. The city of Basel administered its territory through governors appointed by the council. Conflicts between the urban rulers and the rural population escalated in the Peasant Wars of and and in the Rappen War —, but the city put down these uprisings with blood. The Amerbach Art Cabinet , the foundation of all municipal collections, especially the art museum, was purchased in On December 20, , in response to the French Revolution , the Grand Council of Basel abolished serfdom in the urban area.
After Napoleon passed through on November 24th, , there were uprisings in the countryside in January and a storm on the provincial castles of Waldenburg, Farnsburg and Homburg. Then the reformist and revolutionary-minded "patriots" around the chief guild master Peter Ochs took power and declared the equality of all canton citizens. The Basel National Assembly, one of the first parliaments in Switzerland, consisted of 20 representatives each from the city and the countryside, and introduced far-reaching reforms.
With the entry into force of the Helvetic Constitution on April 12, , this parliament dissolved and the old city-state of Basel formally ceased to exist. Basle was now theoretically a normal municipality in the canton of Basle of the Helvetic Republic , but formed its own district.
When the Congress of Vienna recognized Switzerland's eternal armed neutrality in , the former duchy of Basel was divided between Bern and Basel: The Jura and Laufental went to Bern, while Basel was given the former episcopal bailiffs of Birseck and Pfeffingen. The last execution took place on August 4, Baselland: Three members of a band of robbers were beheaded at the strawberry ditch in front of the stone gate.
The execution was attended by 20, onlookers, more than Basel's population at the time. In the city's political supremacy over the countryside was restored, when the city was given a disproportionate preponderance of seats in the Grand Council. In the rural communities Baselbiet successfully defended themselves against the dominance of the city after long resistance. The first train in Switzerland arrived in Basel from Saint-Louis in In the museums were built on Augustinergasse, and after the city walls were razed; only some of the larger gates such as the Spalentor were preserved.
For this purpose a fund and a "Jewish bank" later Bank Leumi were established. Overall, the Zionist World Congress took place ten times in Basel, more than in any other city in the world. During industrialization, Basel became one of the most important industrial cities in Switzerland.
Around , Basel was described by the cantonal statistician as an "unambiguous factory town" in international comparison. The city had an above-average number of workers until One of the most important events in Basel's history was the extraordinary International Peace Congress of the Socialists in November , which was held in anticipation of the coming events. Due to its location near the border, Basel experienced the two world wars more intensely than the other large cities in Switzerland.
The supply of basic food was always guaranteed, but more difficult than in inner Switzerland. The strike slogan of the national strike of was followed by almost the entire workforce in Basel. On the national holiday, August 1, , riots broke out after the dyers' strikes and the military shot at demonstrators. There were five deaths to mourn. The damage remained minor. The Basel-Mulhouse airport was founded in as a bi-national airport inaugurated. In it became trinational, the name is now officially Basel Mulhouse Freiburg.
Basel celebrated its two thousand year history as a city in The Regio Basiliensis for cross-border cooperation was founded in In women were given cantonal voting rights. In , the reunification of Basel-Stadt and Basel-Landschaft failed because the voters in Basel-Landschaft voted against. Squatting increased in Basel in the s. The Volta district heating plant went into operation in On November 1, , a serious chemical accident occurred in the nearby Schweizerhalle , which went off lightly for the population.
However, the Rhine was contaminated by the fire fighting water. For the first time since there is a left-wing government majority in Basel, when it became red-green in the city elections in In , Basel-Stadt received a new constitution, with which, among other things, the Grand Council was reduced from to members and the office of district president was introduced.
In , in the middle of the Ukraine conflict, the ministerial meeting of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe OSCE , presided by Switzerland this year, took place in Basel with around 1, delegates from 57 countries. Without the two rural communities, the city of Basel municipality has , inhabitants December 31, and thus ranks third in Switzerland behind Zurich and Geneva.
The canton of Basel-Stadt, on the other hand, has a total of , inhabitants. The trinational agglomeration of Basel has a total of , inhabitants in Switzerland , Germany and France. The continuous population growth typical of industrialization in the 19th century also took place in Basel.
As a result of this rapid increase, the city grew to become the second largest in Switzerland after Zurich. With industrialization, an upper class of long-established citizens Daig emerged, which retained its seclusion into the 20th century and spoke the original form of Basel German.
While the population of the trinational agglomeration is continuously increasing, the population of the core city has decreased noticeably since as a result of suburbanization. In the period from to , over 51, Swiss citizens left Basel and moved to the surrounding area. In the same period, around 12, foreigners moved to the city, but the net decrease of 39, inhabitants still meant that the city of Geneva overtook Basel in terms of population in the mids. The emigration of more tax-sensitive population groups was at times a particular problem for the city canton in connection with tax competition among the cantons.
In , with the help of Johannes Oekolampad, the Reformation prevailed in Basel and quickly won over important personalities such as the town clerk Caspar Schaller. Under pressure from revolutionary France , which controlled Switzerland from to , freedom of belief was officially granted in In , church and state were separated and the Christian Catholic Church was recognized as a public corporation alongside the Evangelical Reformed Church.
In this also took place for the Roman Catholic Church and the Israelite religious community. Today Basel has over Christian and non-Christian religions, churches, free churches and other religious communities. The non-Christian religions represented in Basel include the Jewish community , Islam , the Alevis , the Hindus , the Sikhs , the Buddhists and more recent religious movements.
Basel has thus developed from a largely Reformed city to a multi-religious city. About half of the total population of Basel is not religious. The city of Basel is traditionally reformed. It is one of ten Swiss cities that received the label "Reformation City" in from the Federation of Evangelical Churches. The Evangelical Reformed Church Basel-Stadt is loud cantonal constitution as a public law entity recognized. Although the dominant position of the Evangelical Reformed Church is also declining due to the increasing number of people leaving the church, it still takes a large part in the social and cultural life of the city.
The church maintains a social network with facilities for pastoral care , drug counseling or the street kitchens. The visible signs of the Evangelical Reformed Church in the canton of Basel-Stadt include 85 churches, parish houses, parsonages and Sigrist apartments. Numerous architectural monuments shape the face of the city, such as the Basel Minster as a symbol of Basel and the inner city churches of St.
Leonhard , St. Martin , St. Peter and the Theodorskirche. The Basel Preacher School existed from to Nowadays in Basel the group of Catholics is the largest denomination with Pio X di Basilea. The parishes together with the cantonal services form the deanery , which is part of the diocese of Basel. Despite its name, the diocese of Basel is not based in Basel, but in the canton capital Solothurn.
The religious instruction is organized jointly with the Evangelical Reformed Church and financed. Both Catholic canton churches have been recognized as public bodies by the cantonal constitution since The first people of the Jewish faith settled in Basel in the 12th century. The first synagogue was on the Rindermarkt. According to excavations in Augusta Raurica, the settlement of Jews could even be dated back to the 2nd century. The foundation of today's Israelitische Gemeinde Basel IGB goes back to the year , after no Jews settled in Basel for over four hundred years as a result of the Basel Jewish pogrom , with around 70 members at that time.
In her then community rabbi Arthur Cohn founded the Schomre Torah , a school for imparting Jewish knowledge. Today the IGB has around members in the city and the surrounding area, making it the second largest in Switzerland. In , through a cantonal referendum, it was the first non-Christian religious community in a canton in Switzerland to be recognized as a public body and is now on an equal footing with the three regional churches.
Today it runs next to the synagogue , also known as the Great Synagogue, various schools and the public Karger library. In addition to the Israelite Community of Basel, there has been a so-called exit community since , the strictly orthodox Israelitische Religionsgesellschaft Basel IRG with its own synagogue on Ahornstrasse.
In the new synagogue at Herrengrabenweg 50 in Basel was inaugurated. In addition, there is the Jewish Museum of Switzerland in Basel , which shows a valuable collection of Jewish cultural assets. The museum celebrated its 50th anniversary in and was the first Jewish museum in the German-speaking area to be established after the Second World War.
For some years now, there has also been a section of the Chabad Lubavitch Organization in Basel. There are currently 13 mosques and prayer rooms in Basel, each of which is organized according to language. In , the association publicly advocated that Helal slaughtering in Switzerland could take place in accordance with the law. Sohail Mirza has held the presidency since May In addition to those Muslim citizens who come from Islamic countries, there are also Swiss people with a non-Muslim background who convert to Islam and are an important part of the city's Islamic communities.
As an example, the conversion of Johann Ludwig Burckhardt alias Sheikh Ibrahim , who lived from to and is considered to be the first Muslim in Basel, should be mentioned historically. As the first citizen of Central Europe, he also did the Hajj to Mecca. Table showing the denomination of the canton population in percent source: population censuses, Statistical Office Basel-Stadt. The reason for the apparent inconsistency of the figures reported by quarter with those for the entire canton is a different survey method.
In the course of the separation of church and state , the four religious communities recognized under public law were given the power to independently collect church taxes from their members. After the software solution last used for this purpose was no longer supported by the manufacturer and a new solution would have incurred very high costs, the community of Bettingen and the four religious communities asked the canton of Basel-Stadt that in future, as in most of the other cantons in Switzerland and in Germany the state tax administration for the religious communities collects the taxes against payment.
The Grand Council of the Canton of Basel-Stadt responded to the request and decided to amend the tax law accordingly in November , although a referendum was held against this. In the cantonal vote on May 19, , however, a majority of those who voted approved the change in the law. The canton of Basel-Stadt is responsible for the government and administration of the municipality of Basel. The municipality of Basel therefore has neither its own executive nor its own legislature.
Instead, these functions are carried out by the government council executive or the grand council legislative of the canton. This solution, established for Basel, of amalgamating the municipal authorities with the cantonal authorities, is unique in Switzerland.
Naturalizations, which are the responsibility of the municipality in Switzerland, are carried out by the civil parish. The coat of arms of the city of Basel and the canton of Basel-Stadt is a black crook pointing to the left heraldic right on a white field, called the Baselstab. Three crossbars for the episcopal priest , pastoral and teaching office interrupt this staff, which becomes wider at the bottom and ends in three points.
The symbol of the Basel staff is the curved pastoral staff of the bishops. Due to its central location in western resp. Central Europe has a particularly important and preferred commercial geographical importance. The living and economic area at the border triangle comprises around 1. Basel is the second largest business location in Switzerland after the city of Zurich and has the highest GDP per capita in the country, ahead of the cantons of Zug and Geneva.
In addition to chemistry, the branches of mechanical engineering , metal processing , textile processing and food and luxury food production are located. The centuries-old tradition in paper manufacture and letterpress printing has resulted in several publishing houses being based in Basel.
Since , the Swiss sample fair , a national exhibition, has developed into an important trade fair location throughout Europe. The importance of Basel as a banking center is also traditionally based. In addition to numerous banking and insurance companies, the Bank for International Settlements BIS has its headquarters here. This list leaves out banks, financial service providers and insurance companies, but Basel is the second largest financial center in German-speaking Switzerland after Zurich.
Safra Sarasin , E. The locations of these companies are concentrated around Aeschenplatz, where the Basel Stock Exchange was located until Chemical and pharmaceutical companies are also based in Basel, including Novartis , a merger that emerged in from Sandoz and Ciba-Geigy, Roche , Basilea Pharmaceutica , Acino Holding and Syngenta , a spin-out of the agricultural divisions of Novartis in The largest Swiss airline, Swiss, and Jet Aviation are also based in Basel formerly Crossair , which was dissolved in , and Hello, which went bankrupt in Major wholesalers and retailers such as the department store chain Manor , the manufacturer of smoking accessories Oettinger Davidoff AG , the largest meat producer in Switzerland Bell and the retail company Coop are based in Basel.
Basel has a large number of historic inns and hotels. The luxury hotel is one of the leading hotels in Europe. The classicist building from architect: Amadeus Merian was extensively renovated, reconstructed and expanded between and As a trade fair location, Basel has numerous other hotels, an above-average number of them in the 4 and 5 star category.
The oldest inn in Basel is the Gasthof zum Goldenen Sternen , which was first mentioned in documents in and since , as one of the 13 manor houses, has offered guests food and drink. In , the ambassadors of the ten places of the then Swiss Confederation were received for a welcome drink. Alban Valley. The establishment of the University of Basel in brought the city and also the printing and publishing industry a great boom. Over 50 printers joined the papermakers, among them famous ones like Petri , Amerbach and Froben.
In a Latin Bible was published, which was set with movable type by Bertold Ruppel. In Johannes Petri founded his publishing house, which is the oldest existing printing and publishing house today today: Schwabe AG. With the most famous of all Basel printers, Johann Froben , Basel became one of the leading publishing and printing locations in Europe after There is also the bz Basel , which is aimed at the entire Basel region, and the Riehener Zeitung as an independent weekly newspaper for the two Basel municipalities of Riehen and Bettingen.
Regional news also appear in the free newspaper 20 Minuten. The web newspaper OnlineReports also offers a wide range of information. Even radio stations are represented in Basel: In addition to the broadcast Regionaljournal Basel of the public radio station SRF is available in the Basel region, the two private radio station Radio Basilisk and Energy Basel as well as the non-commerce-oriented Radio X.
In addition, the television broadcaster Telebasel serves the city and north-western Switzerland with its own programs. Basel has been an important trading and transshipment center for goods traffic between the Mediterranean and the North Sea since the Middle Ages. The journey on the Rhine between Basel and Rotterdam is km and takes between three and four days downstream for today's motor ships and about a week upstream.
The journey between Basel and Strasbourg is made easier by the Rhine canal. The ships use this canal to avoid the dangerous rapids of Istein. The Mannheim Act from guarantees Switzerland full traffic rights. The three parts of the port are organized as the Swiss Rhine ports, both cantons - Basel-Stadt and Basel-Landschaft - are involved in this public law institution. The oldest Swiss Rhine port St. Johann has not been in operation since January 1st, The competition of the faster railroad leads to the suspension of passenger traffic on the Rhine to Mainz in Basel is the registry and home port of all ocean-going ships and yachts registered in Switzerland.
There are three long-distance train stations in the city. The Basel SBB Centralbahnhof train station is the largest train station in Basel and the sixth largest in Switzerland with around , as of travelers per day. It is located south of the city center. There are also the S-Bahn stations Basel-St. Louis and Basel-St. Jakob on the Basel SBB line towards Muttenz , although this station is normally only served by special trains during events in the St.
In addition, since , the headquarters of Eurofima , the largest organization of European railways, have been in Basel. The aim is to connect the SBB train station with the Badischer Bahnhof in order to create a S-Bahn network that is more attractive for the entire region. Several underground stations are planned in the city center, as well as another branch in the direction of Basel-St.
Johann and the airport see local public transport. Basel's first airport was built in on the Sternenfeld area in the Birsfelden municipality Basel-Sternenfeld airfield. In the s it became clear that the airfield at this location could not grow to the extent necessary to meet the future requirements of aviation. After the war, the idea was quickly taken up again, and on May 8, , after only two months of construction and before a state treaty was drawn up, the Basel-Mulhouse airport was opened on the territory of the French municipality of Blotzheim.
In the number of passengers was 7. The route network comprised 62 scheduled destinations in 30 different countries, which were served by 25 airlines. The city of Basel is the hub of important road connections to Germany and France. Identified European roads of category A usually run at a greater distance from one another. There are also the city motorways A18 and A22, which connect the suburbs in the canton of Basel-Landschaft with Basel.
The A98 and the A, which run entirely on German territory, serve as a bypass for the massively congested Osttangente. Five road bridges and one railway bridge connect the two parts of Basel across the Rhine. In Grossbasel in particular, three streets run through the city in a concentric ring shape.
Many streets in the quarters are arranged at right angles. The city center is largely free of car traffic as a pedestrian zone. In the referendum on February 9, , the majority of voters spoke out in favor of more climate-friendly transport by As of March , a speed limit of 30 had already been set up on 56 percent of the inner-city road network.
There is a bicycle road in Basel , which was built as a pilot project by the Federal Roads Office. Between and , the Basel trolleybus also ran in the city, which was replaced by buses. The Basel tram lines run every six to thirty minutes, depending on the time of day and the route. Between and there was a controversy about the future of trolley buses ; BVB's intention to abolish these and replace them with natural gas buses was approved relatively narrowly in a referendum on June 17, The Basel S-Bahn connects the agglomeration with the core city and thus also the three countries with one another.
The construction of an underground railway line is currently being discussed, which will connect the Badischer Bahnhof with the SBB railway station via several underground stations. Due to poor connections and many so-called dead ends in the S-Bahn network, it is currently not able to cope with the number of passengers.
The so-called heart of Basel is intended to remedy this problem. Another branch in the direction of Basel-St. Johann train station is also planned, as well as a rail link to the airport. The Rhine can also be crossed with four pedestrian ferries. Basel is a university city with a humanistic character. There are some significant offers for higher education. On the one hand, there is the University of Basel, founded in , with 12, students and doctoral students in various faculties theology , law , medicine , humanities , economics , natural sciences , psychology.
On the other hand, in addition to the university in general, the Biozentrum of the University of Basel and the ETH Department for Biosystems D-BSSE, which has been researching systems biology and synthetic biology and is associated with the university, enjoy an international reputation. In addition to humanism, Basel is also known for its mathematical research.
In addition to Leonhard Euler , the family of scholars Bernoulli deserves special mention, who taught mathematics and carried out research in Basel for centuries. The Swiss Mathematical Society was founded here in One of the world's most important art fairs, Art Basel and Baselworld, one of the most important watch and jewelry fairs, takes place in Basel every year.
Some other well-known sights are the Basel Zoo , the Basel Minster, as well as the old town and the numerous museums in Basel and the suburbs. Paul Sacher founded the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis as early as the s , which became the center for research into and care for early music. The Stadtcasino Basel is the most important concert venue for classical music.
It is currently being expanded and rebuilt, and the reopening is scheduled for autumn In the meantime, many concerts have been held at alternative venues, for example in the Musical Theater Basel or in the Martinskirche , which has been used as a concert church since the 19th century. In addition to the Basel Symphony Orchestra chief conductor Ivor Bolton , there are also several specialized orchestras active in the city, such as the basel sinfonietta , the baroque formations La Cetra Barockorchester Basel and Capriccio Basel, as well as the Ensemble Phoenix and the Basel Chamber Orchestra.
The wind orchestra of the Basel region and the Basel Boys' Music perform wind music in In addition to the large oratorio choirs such as the Basler Gesangverein and the Basler Bach Choir, there are also numerous smaller chamber choirs , mostly specializing in a cappella music. Basel has a music academy with subdivisions such as the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis , from which the La Cetra baroque orchestra emerged, and the music academy.
The Paul Sacher Foundation is also based in Basel. The traditional Basel whistles and tambours of the Basel Carnival are known far beyond Switzerland. When it comes to military and marching music, the Basel Tattoo, the second largest tattoo event in the world, takes place annually in Basel.
The jazz club The bird's eye in Lohnhof am Kohlenberg is counted among the best in Europe. The blues is also cultivated at the knee of the Rhine, examples of which are the Basel Blues Festival, founded in , and the summer blues in Kleinbasel. The Sonic in the St. Jakobshalle is considered the largest techno dance event in Switzerland. Basel is also a city with an important organ culture , which has several churches with historical organs, such as the Predigerkirche Johann Andreas Silbermann , , the Elisabethenkirche Joseph Merklin , , the Church of St.
Joseph Orgelbau Kuhn , , the Church of St. Anton Willisau organ building, or the former First Church of Christ, Scientist at Picassoplatz, which was converted into a rehearsal house primarily for the Basel Symphony Orchestra Kuhn organ building, The Basel music scene has already produced several nationally and internationally known bands, for example the Lovebugs , Myron and Dankner. In addition, the singer and actor Martin Schenkel and the singer Nubya come from Basel.
Black Tiger was the first in Switzerland to rap in dialect. As the largest multi- branch theater in Switzerland, the Basel Theater has a permanent opera, drama and dance ensemble as well as an opera choir. The Theater Basel has two stages in the main building, which opened in , at the intersection of Theaterstrasse and Klosterberg, as well as another stage in the theater at Steinentorstrasse 7, which opened in The Kaserne Basel is the most important venue for groups of outdoor dance and theater scene in the area of Basel-Stadt and regularly shows guest performances by groups from Germany and abroad.
The range of private and small theaters on offer is unusually diverse. The Musical Theater Basel also regularly offers theater and dance guest performances. In addition, there are the multidisciplinary festivals wildwuchs and Culturescapes , which have a significant share of theater and dance productions in the overall program.
The Basel Youth Culture Festival also has an increasing share of contributions from the performative arts. The Kunstmuseum Basel largest art museum in Switzerland stands out as the oldest urban art collection in the world. The main focus of the museum is on artists of the Renaissance and the 19th and 20th centuries. Works from around are exhibited in the Museum of Contemporary Art. In the community in Basel bought a picture of two important works by Pablo Picasso from the Staechelin Foundation.
The townspeople, who had to decide on the purchase, accepted the request in an infamous vote and thus financed the plan. Picasso then decided to bequeath four more works from his collection to the city.
What ideas about art and a collection strategy are involved, and what is the best architectural and urban development concept for it? We were not aware of any comparable building type that could address and express all the problems posed, so of course we felt fascinated and challenged, and had an equally rigorous dialogue with the clients.
The brief was for a warehouse for contemporary art, where works take up considerably less space than in a museum because they are hung side by side on the walls and placed closer together on the floor. The works stored here are unpacked and arranged in accessible spaces, installed according to the artists' intentions. The conditions under which the works are kept visible correspond to international conservation standards; they are maintained at levels of light, temperature and humidity determined as ideal for storing artworks.
The works are thus in an 'optimal condition' for viewing. Offices and workshops, an auditorium and the necessary loading and unloading facilities round off the spatial program. In our initial designs we tried to condense the idea of storage into a single vertical and a horizontal area. A gigantic wall would have accommodated all the wall-mounted art somewhat like a junk-shop; the rest of the work would have been distributed over a floor area without dividing walls.
A complete overview of the collection would have been possible at one glance in this vertical and horizontal storage area. But technical and curatorial considerations regarding conserving and transporting the works of art soon pointed the project in another direction. It turned out that a proper warehouse with robust floors and walls and large spans would offer the most advantages and paradoxically the greatest flexibility as well.
A heavy building So we tried to develop a kind of architecture that would express the floor-by-floor storage and stacking pictorially as well: as something durable and solid, in contrast with today's aesthetic of computer-controlled storage facilities and the inevitable light-weight design. The heavy outer walls would rise in layers and their surface would be scratched. This means that the walls reveal the pebbles from the building work excavations.
These layers of material express load and support simply and vividly, and their great inertia is also a key factor in the climatic control of the interior of the store. The external shape of the warehouse is pragmatically derived from the geometry of the internal storage arrangements and the setback requirements of the building code. This led to a polygonal building made out of materials extracted on site and looking as if it had been extruded from the ground.
This entrance seems to be guarded by a little building with a gable roof, constructed from the same earthy material as the warehouse. Together the little gatehouse and the indentation form a courtyard-like space with a metropolitan ambiance. So the Schaulager is not simply an anonymous warehouse somewhere on the urban periphery. The public, urban character of this new site is reinforced by two large LED panels, on which works of art commissioned by the Schaulager are communicated to the outside world.
Walls, windows, surfaces as digital landscapes The gravel material excavated on site was used to construct the walls, but it also determined the forms and surface structures of other parts of the building, inside and outside.
The window sections seem like natural forms but are actually calculated forms, produced with digitally controlled tools and modeled after the natural shape of the pebbles on a larger scale. Thus a kind of artificial yet natural landscape is created within the window apertures, so the window does not serve primarily to provide a view of the at best trivial landscape of the urban periphery, but is a landscape in its own right.
We used the same digital landscape profile for the cladding of the walls and the ceiling in the foyer. The metal grilles used in the auditorium and for the gates are much more directly related to the natural model of the gravel surface, having been generated by a rudimentary frottage technique and transferred to a stamper at a scale of two to one. An entrance hall with an overview In the interior the floor panels for each level are cut out in such a way that an atrium-like space rising through the full height of the building is created.
The surprising perspective effect made by this entrance hall is built on the two simple elements of a warehouse: the floor panels, which look as though they have been stacked here, and the lighting, which we arranged on a strictly linear pattern. The entrance hall gives a complete view of all the building's spatial levels, and makes it possible to look right down into the various floors.
The two lower floors in particular open up for visitors as soon as they come in. Here we have the exhibition halls that can be freely partitioned for temporary shows, and the permanent installations by Gober and Fritsch. The upper levels, divided into cells, are used as tailor-made storage areas for the Emanuel Hoffman Foundation's collection.
Spatial program The art storage space in the 3 upper stories occupies 7,sqm, the largest proportion of the total available area of 16,sqm. The permanent installations by Robert Gober and Katharina Fritsch take up sqm and sqm respectively. Administration uses an area of sqm. As a result, Basel developed into a international centre of the silk ribbon industry. This dominated the City until into the 19th century, complemented by a variety of wholesale commerce with cloth, cotton, iron and colonial produce.
Extensive commission and bank transactions secured Basel an increasing important position in international trade. Thanks to the city's success, some religious refugees has already risen into the upper class by the 17th century. Basel merchants opened trading offices in Lyon, Nantes or Bordeaux. The leading families built themselves palaces on the French model see the "White" and "Blue House" and dressed according to French fashion. Thought and science in Europe began to change fundamentally in the late 17th century.
Knowledge began to gradually gain ascendancy over religious dogma. In addition, another genius from Basel, Leonhard Euler, was teaching mathematics in St. Petersburg and Berlin. On the publishing side, the activities of Isaak Iselin stand out in particular in the Basel of the 18th century. Also initiated by Iselin, die Basler Lesegesellschaft Basel Readers Association opened up the debate with the ideas of the time to a narrow circle of people in The 18th century strengthened the dominant position of the merchants, bankers and ribbon manufacturers in politics and society.
A group of rich merchants led the City with success until the overthrow of the political situation in the Helvetic Republic. When the Helvetic Revolution spread out from Basel and Vaud in , the Old Confederation with its urban authorities and subject territories perished in the fight against the French revolutionary troops the French Invasion. While the Basel statesman Peter Ochs drew up a constitution for the Confederation in Paris, the French started to plunder and to politically reorganise the occupied areas.
As a result, the population of the Landschaft Basel became the legal equals of the city population. Founded in , the Basel Mission is another influential institution which is still active today, working together with churches in Africa, Asia, Latin America and Europe. The splitting of the canton produced political and financial difficulties: after some violent clashes, the canton of Basel was split into the two half-cantons Basel-Stadt and Basel-Landschaft in Traffic and industrialisation changed Basel in the 19th century: a steamboat moored here for the first time in Eight years later, the first railway in Switzerland ran on the route between Saint-Louis and Basel, for which a station was opened within the city walls in Trains were soon travelling to Paris and Frankfurt every day.
In economic life, guild barriers continued to apply for most trades until Only industry was able to produce without them. Decisive steps towards industrial production in factories were the connection of weaving looms to a waterwheel, and the first steam engine in the Schappe spinning mill.
Basel finally became the largest industrial city in Switzerland in the second half of the 19th century. As a modern financial centre, the City gained international importance with the founding of the Schweizerischen Bankvereins SBV Swiss Bank Corporation and the Stock Exchange, which remained active until World history was written with the First Zionist World Congress in Basel in , which started the process for the founding of the State of Israel.
Between the separation of the cantons and the outbreak of the First World War, Basel developed from a small fortified town to a medium-sized industrial city. Modern goods transport started at the Upper Rhine up to Schweizerhalle in , and culminated in the building of the St. Over decades, commerce has provided the most jobs, above all in the retail trade Coop.
In order to promote the sales of Swiss products, the Mustermesse Sample Fair took place in Basel for the first time , from which the Messe Basel has evolved with its many trade fairs. The most important industry in the meantime, the chemical-pharmaceutical industry, began with the J. A concentration process has since been underway, which has created the global groups Ciba-Geigy and Sandoz — which merged together to form Novartis in — and Roche founded in Due to the geographically limited reach of its policy decisions, cooperation in the Regio Basiliensis has become increasingly important for the Canton of Basel-Stadt in the 20th century.
Biotechnology Life Sciences became established in the region towards the end of the century. The bi-national airport Basel-Mulhouse known today as the EuroAirport Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg guaranteed connections all over the world from In addition to aviation and the Rhine navigation, road haulage with Danzas now DHL and Panalpina achieved economic importance in as the largest private group in the transport sector. Basel-Stadt voted in favour, however, together with French-speaking Switzerland.
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